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  • Economic devt needs a strong and independent science base; widely accepted view that economic growth is dependent on a strong and independent research base (Yamey)

Transcript

  • 1. Economic Development needs Science Science needs Access to Research A1982 UNESCO report states that " assimilation of scientific and technological information is an essential precondition for progress in developing countries ". Information traditionally shared via publication in peer reviewed journals . . . BUT THERE ARE PROBLEMS
  • 2. The scale of the problem
    • ACCESS STUDY
    • WHO study in 2003 showed:
    • Of 75 countries with GNP/per capita/yr < $1000, 56% of medical institutions had NO subscriptions to journals over the previous 5 years
    • Of countries with GNP/capita/yr of $1-3000, 34% had NO subscriptions and a further 34% had an average of 2 subscriptions/yr
    • Subscription levels still rising
  • 3.  
  • 4. And another problem . . .
    • The development of appropriate health or environmental programmes for low economy countries needs knowledge of research generated in the regions ,
    • BUT
    • publishing problems . . .
  • 5. Information Gaps
    • N►S
    • S►N
    • S►S
  • 6. Budapest Open Access Initiative February 2002
    • Recommends two routes to overcoming the problems. Researchers can:
    • Deposit already refereed and published articles in OA institutional (or central) repositories
    • (OA IRs) or
    • Publish in OA journals (OAJs)
  • 7. What are Institutional Repositories?
    • They are interoperable digital archives providing free-of-cost access to already published research findings
    • They are located in research organisations (institutes, universities . . .)
    • They form a subsidiary access strategy, working in parallel with open access and toll access journals
  • 8. OA IR features
    • Cheap? (How much? Not a lot . . Software free)
    • Quick? (Yes, just a few days . . .)
    • Easy? (Yes, lots of online support . . .)
    • Interoperable? (Yes, thanks to international standards – Open Archives International-MPH)
    • Indexed and searchable by Google, Yahoo, specialised search tools? (Yes)
    • Statistics showing they are used? (Yes, see later . . .)
  • 9. OA IRs
    • Total number of OA IRs 1134
    • (increasing approximately 1/day)
    • Worldwide – 1134
    • Developing countries – 173 (15.5%)
    • Statistics from Registry of OA Repositories http:// roar.eprints.org /
  • 10. Where are they?
  • 11. World map of IRs EPrints site, University Southampton
  • 12. Number of IRs, number of records held (2007)
  • 13. Are IRs being used? Are they making a difference? 16197 183012 15941 17954 Total Usage in 2007 331 120598 175 1029 Usage from Sth Africa 3581 25392 12664 8926 Usage from UK 9354 27609 1032 5022 Usage from India 2931 10413 2070 2977 Usage from Canada 7635 808 5052 666 No. of records in IR Full text downloads during 2007 2004-5* Indian Inst of Science Rhodes e-Research Repository (Sth Africa) University of Strathclyde (UK) University of Otago (NZ) Institutional Repository
  • 14. Usage map of IR of Universidad do Los Andes, Venezuela
  • 15. Mandates/Requirements
    • August 28th 2008:
    • 53 operating mandates
    • 11 others under development
    • Harvard Faculty of Arts and Science, NIH, 6 of 7 UK Research Councils, National Research Council Canada, Australian Research Council, European Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Stanford Faculty of Education, Southampton University, Howard Hughes . . . . .
    • See:
    • ROARmap site for details of Material Archiving Policies
    • http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/
  • 16. Total number of OA Journals
      • 3617 Journals listed in Directory of Open Access Journals www.doaj.org
      • 208785 articles
      • 1249 journals searchable at article level
  • 17. OA Journals published in developing countries
    • Bioline International – distributes 60 journals from 17 developing countries (Brazil/Canada initiative)
    • SciELO – >550 journals from Brazil and other LAC countries and non-LAC lusaphone countries; 180,000 articles
    • MedKnow (India) biomedical and scholarly journals (62 journals)
    • Others - Society journals, China (4), Africa (10), Sth Korea (13) …….
    • ~19% published in developing countries
  • 18. Usage of publications from developing country research distributed by Bioline International
  • 19.  
  • 20. SciELO Chile downloads
  • 21. Downloads and visitors June-Nov 2005 to Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, published by MedKnow, Mumbai, India
  • 22. Geographic distribution of visitors (n = 500)
  • 23. Increase in submissions since becoming OA, Journal of Post Graduate Medicine, MedKnow, India
  • 24. Projected Impact Factor
  • 25. Increase in subscriptions to Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, MedKnow, India since becoming OA
  • 26. WHO IS BENEFITTING FROM OA?
    • Authors: visibility, impact, international partnerships, career development
    • Institutes/Universities: IRs display, promote research strengths; administrative tool. Visible publication record for quality assessment. Library savings
    • Funding organisations : was the funding a good investment? Could our funds be better spent?
    • Economies : OA helps to build a strong and independent research base essential for sustainable development
  • 27. The light at the end of the tunnel
  • 28. Thank you for listening
    • And thanks to Sir Tim for the WWW
    • And thanks to the open source software developers (Eprints, Dspace, OJS . . . .)
    • And thanks to the standards developers (OAI-MPH)
    • And thanks to the many experts, informing, instructing and advocating OA, working around the clock to close the gaps