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OAA12 - The rapidly changing policy environment: Implications for publishers and universities

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Eve Gray, Honorary Research Associate, University of Cape Town

Eve Gray, Honorary Research Associate, University of Cape Town


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  • Michael Mabeabd Francis Gurry – OA on the move
  • Access to publicly funded research – read in the UN Declaration rights to scientific knoweldge,
  • Open innovation needs to provide a batter balance – a counter to maximalist, industry-driven approach. Legislative confusion - IPR Act in SA Use of ‘outputs’ as measures of research effectiveness – patents and journal articles, with a presumption that the ISI is the standard
  • 2011 – November Endorsed by member nationsThere will probably be regional workshops The IDS online dialogue
  • Policy guidelines largely focused on mandates for gold OA and repositories
  • The state of African universities – post-colonial history, Structural adjustment programmesGovt control and intervention This means that any intervention needs to take into account the whole picture of all the components that go into the management of digital communication resources
  • It has been all to easy to see this as a matter of providing repository or publishing platforms. This is doomed to failure if this is not accompanied by a thorough analysis of capacity requirements. Policy change might need underpinning by the articulation of the complex network of changes and investments needed to run a digital communication initiative
  • The geopolitics of the impact factor and the marginalisation of developing country research Increasingly, I see this as the real problem, the single factor that most needs dealing with, largely because it creates an impenetrable barrier between strategy and reward systems The Lancet and the difficulty of including African authors – yet 650,000 people in Africa die of malaria every year
  • The EC links this to regional research infrastructure development that in turn supports communication – a lesson for SADC? The problem in the South – research funds are limited, there is a very high level of dependency on donor funding, which is short term, Where does the money come from? Will a more open system that allows government to get a comprehensive view of what is being achieved lead to more investment?
  • This has been the default position and has been heavily promoted for the developing world in the form of: Institutional repositories (the most popular solution offered to African universities). Promoted as a way of making articles in ISI journals sharable and increasing their impact. Also as a way of providing exposure for articles in developing country journals in the rest of the world – Bioline international – gets 5 million full text downloads across the system – research exposed South-South and South-North – increases exposure for issues that do not get into the major Northern journals Subject repositoriesRegional or world archivesThis does increase reach and impact, Problems – capacity for institutional repositories – too many have very little in them, or have effectively collapsed as a result of insitutionalcapcity to maintain them.
  • The fact that the Finch report opted for publication in open access journals has created a furore particularly among the supporters of the green route as a way of changing the subscription journal system. Do the journals actually see green route article archives as a threat to their business. In many cases, perhaps not, as what the journal publishes is the article of record. CfArXiv, where journal articles are published as a matter of record and to earn prestige – not necessarily for reading
  • Is the final version, with edited text, complete diagrams, etc. If it is to be cited or referred to, this is the version that needs to be used. For developing countries offers participation rather than only accessI would argue that the commercial journals are not really concerned about green route deposits, as it is the version of record that needs to be subscribed to and referenced.
  • The EC links this to regional research infrastructure development that in turn supports communication – a lesson for SADC? The problem in the South – research funds are limited, there is a very high level of dependency on donor funding, which is short term, Where does the money come from? Will a more open system that allows government to get a comprehensive view of what is being achieved lead to more investment?
  • OA for development impact, ‘transformational research
  • Important to developing countries to gain respect in the global scholarly community – stamp of qualityA strong adherence to the ISI IF as the standardLeads to odd results like Thomson Reuters country research reports that base their entire evaluation of research systems on the ISI performance of the regions concerned – so ‘India produces only 30% of world research’ and the fact that there are W African countries that produce no research at all
  • The geopolitics of the impact factor and the marginalisation of developing country research Increasingly, I see this as the real problem, the single factor that most needs dealing with, largely because it creates an impenetrable barrier between strategy and reward systems
  • Transcript

    • 1. Open Access - The rapidly changing policy environment: Implications for publishers and universities Open Access Africa 2012 Cape Town
    • 2. A perfect storm? Attribution Some rights reserved by Brian R. Birke
    • 3. Open Access policy in the mainstream Attribution Some rights reserved by James Cridland
    • 4. ..a surge inglobal,regional andgovernmentpolicies …
    • 5. … a human rights approach …AttributionNoncommercialNo Derivative Works Some rights reserved by riac
    • 6. At the heart of the storm – a battle over IP rights and the freedom of the internet
    • 7. UNESCO – Open Access to scientific information…
    • 8. The goal is policy change, with the strategic focus on developing countries, especially Africa…
    • 9. UNESCO OA brochure
    • 10. Capacity is a major and systemic issue ….
    • 11. Technology infrastructure is not just about platformsAttribution Some rights reserved by eirikref
    • 12. The Impact Factor excludes developing country research…AttributionNoncommercial Some rights reserved by emily_mas
    • 13. SARUA: Baseline Study of Science and Technology Framework and Higher Education in theSADC Region
    • 14. SARUA: Baseline Study of Science and Technology Framework and Higher Education in theSADC Region
    • 15. African universities are essentially consumers of knowledge produced indeveloped countries. In essence what is being defined as ‘knowledge society means two different things to the developed world and the Africancontinent. The former are the producers and the latter are the consumers….Blade Nzimande, SA Minster of Higher Education and Training, UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education 2010
    • 16. The Finch Report in the UK – gold open access takes front of stage…
    • 17. http://www.researchinfonet.org/publish/finch/
    • 18. The central message ….
    • 19. …investment in research communication and its infrastructure is essential…AttributionShare Alike Some rights reserved by 401(K) 2012
    • 20. Protest! Share Alike Some rights reserved by leunix
    • 21. The green route…
    • 22. … or the goldAttributionNoncommercialNo Derivative Works Some rights reserved by ENOUGH Project
    • 23. …the discussion is still largely about journals…http://www.flickr.com/photos/adactio/ CC attribution licence
    • 24. …and theimportance of thepublished article as the version of record…
    • 25. … the cost of APCs remains a problem – are waivers really the answer?AttributionShare Alike Some rights reserved by 401(K) 2012
    • 26. Are international open accessjournals helping overcome themarginal status of developingcountry research?
    • 27. … moving beyond the impact factor with new journal models and altmetrics?
    • 28. For developing country publishing, are answers likely to be in regional collaboration?
    • 29. SciELO and SciELO South Africa have been incorporated into the Web of ScienceAlperin et al., 2008, Open access and scholarlypublishing in Latin America: ten flavours and afew reflectionsrevista.ibict.br/liinc/index.php/liinc/article/vie
    • 30. Funder mandates are beginning to change publishing behaviour….
    • 31. But is this still a matter of access, or will it widen participation?
    • 32. I think funding agencies need to rethinkhow they fund research. Rather than just requiring publication of the researchoutput, data gathering and sharing should be integral to the entire process.Leslie Chan – Interview with Hassan Masum: Center for Global Health R&D Assessment
    • 33. New global policies beyond the journal article…
    • 34. The Finch Report…the infrastructure of subject and institutionalrepositories should be developed so that theyplay a valuable role complementary to formal publishing, particularly in providing access to research data and to grey literature, and in digital preservation
    • 35. Research for development
    • 36. A lot of OA development-focused researchoutputs are in fact produced…
    • 37. African universities seek two major goals – global prestige and competitiveness…AttributionNoncommercialNo Derivative Works Some rights reserved by Mennonite Church USA Archives
    • 38. …and research contribution to national development. The biggest challenge is achieving excellence and relevance.Some rights reserved by mimaba
    • 39. Will WB and FAO style initiatives, taken together with the Finchrecommendations on repositories, add traction to national policy development for development- focused research?
    • 40. The Impact factorAttributionNoncommercial Some rights reserved by emily_mas
    • 41. The implications in the developing world…
    • 42. Our universities, in particular, should be directing their research focus to address the development and social needs of our communities. The impact of their researchshould be measured by how much difference itmakes to the needs of our communities, rather than by just how many international citations researchers receive in their publications.Blade Nzimande, SA Minster of Higher Education and Training, Women in Science Awards. 2010
    • 43. Do we want to advise our colleagues in the developing world to replicate a journalsystem that we think is on the way out? Or do we want to encourage them to adoptsomething that is far more current–that iscutting edge and is going to lead the way?Leslie Chan – Interview with Hassan Masum: Center for Global Health R&D Assessment
    • 44. The $64,000 question–sustainability in thedeveloping world AttributionNo Derivative Works Some righ