Romanesque Architecture Lecture – 2 Dr. Binumol Tom Professor Dept. of Architecture
Romanesque is inspired by What is Romanesque Roman architecture. Architecture? Similarities between Roman and Romanesque include round arches, stone materials, and the basilica-style plan (used for secular purposes by the Romans). influences that led to the Romanesque style are far more complex - Romanesque architecture also shows influences from Visi gothic, Carolingian, Byzantine and Islamic architecture. The Romanesque period cannot be precisely defined – but Romanesque architecture generally dates from 1000 to 1150 Romanesque was at its height between about 1075 and 1125.
In some conservative What is Romanesque regions, Romanesque-style churches continued to be built well into the Architecture? 1200s, and there was considerable overlap between the styles. Features that lie somewhere between Romanesque and Gothic are called "Transitional”. The term "Romanesque" was coined in 1818 by Charles-Alexis-Adrien de Gerville to describe the form of art and architecture that preceded Gothic.The term is Roman in French; Romanish in German; Romaanse in Dutch, Románico in Spanish and Romanico in Italian.
Introduction to Romanesque Art This art appeared during the Middle Age It is the first style that can be found all over Europe, even when regional differences The expansion of the style was linked to the pilgrimages, mainly to Santiago.
Development Romanesque art developed due to a series of causes: The end of Barbarian invasions The decomposition of Cordoba The establishment of peace in the Christian world, with the development of the cities, commerce and industry.
Expansion The factors of the expansion of Romanesque art were: Development of feudal system, that demanded works (castles) The expansion of religious orders (Benedictines), expanded the monasteries The pilgrimage routes The crusades
Romanesque style Combining features of contemporary Western Roman and Byzantine buildings, Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, its thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading. Each building has clearly defined forms and they are frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan so that the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials.
Characteristics of Romanesque Architecture harmonious proportions stone barrel vault or groin vault thick and heavy walls thick and heavy pillars small windows round arches supporting the roof round "blind arches" used extensively for decoration inside and out (especially exteriors) nave with side aisles (though some modest churches are aisleless) galleries above the side aisles, separated from the nave by a triforium
Characteristics of Romanesque Architecture a transept (section crossing the nave at a right angle, giving the church a cross shape) an apse (semicircular niche, usually in the east end) an ambulatory (often with radiating chapels) around the apse multiple towers, usually at the west end and over the transept crossing sculptured decoration on portals, capitals and other surfaces (except in Cistercian monasteries) painted decoration throughout the interior (little of which survives today)
Romanesque – to sum up Use of the Roman round arch, adoption of the major forms of antique Roman vaulting (contained, strong, weighty and sober style) Most Romanesque churches retained the basic plan of the Early Christian basilica: a long, three-aisled nave intercepted by a transept and terminating in a semicircular apse crowned by a conch, or half-dome European movement in architecture (10-12th centuries), especially in Italy, France, England and Germany
Typologies There are three main architectonical typologies: Churches Monasteries Castles
Monastery It was designed as a microcosm, as the city of God They had several dependencies: Church Cloister Chapter room Abbot’s house Monks/ nuns rooms Refectory Hospital
Church It was the main building It symbolized God’s kingdom The holiest part was the apse It had cross shape Symbolism was important: Circular parts reflect perfection so they were linked to God Squared parts are related to the human.
Church Characteristics: Monumental, trying to imitate the Roman models in the Pilgrimage churches Small in country churches They were designed for advertising Catholic church They were lasting, made of stone Plans could be: Latin cross Polygonal Basilical Latin cross Polygonal Basilical
Church Parts of the plan
Church Parts from the outside
Church Elevation: The church is covered by stoned vaults Wall are thick They need strong buttresses Foundations are strong Few windows
Church Clerestory Interior elevation: it consists of three levels: First floor with columns or cross-shaped pillars Second floor with the Tribune tribune (corridor over looking the nave, over the aisles) Clerestory: area of windows opening to the outside. Pillar Column
Church Type of covers: Barrel vault: it was used mainly to cover the central nave Groin vault was common in aisles and ambulatory Dome: spherical were used in apses. The central could stand on pendentives or squinches
Castle Castles were defensive constructions They were fortified for providing shelter The wall was one of the essential elements They tend to be build in stepped areas, easier to defend.
The building material used in Romanesque Architecture brick -- Italy, Poland, much of Germany and parts of the Netherland limestone, granite -- other areas the building stone --small and irregular pieces, bedded in thick mortar
Building materials and methods Romanesque buildings were made of stone, but often had wooden roofs because people were still not very good at building stone roofs yet. If they did have stone roofs, the walls had to be very thick in order to hold up the roofs, and there couldnt be very many windows either, so Romanesque buildings were often very heavy and dark inside.
Piers support arches ; at the intersection of two large arches ; cruciform in shape masonry and square or rectangular in section horizontal moulding vertical shafts, horizontal mouldings at the level of base highly complex form --half-segments of large hollow-core column --a clustered group of smaller shafts
In Italy, during this period, a great number of antique Roman columns were salvaged and reused in the interiors and on the porticos of churches. The most durable of these columns are of marble and have the stone horizontally bedded. The majority are vertically bedded and are sometimes of a variety of colours. They may have retained their original Roman capitals, generally of the Corinthian or Roman Composite style Salvaged columns were also used to a lesser extent in France.
Drum columns In most parts of Europe, Romanesque columns were massive, as they supported thick upper walls with small windows, and sometimes heavy vaults. The most common method of construction was to build them out of stone cylinders called drums.
Santiago de Compostela haslarge columns constructed ofdrums, with attached shafts.
Hollow core columns they were constructed of ashlar masonry the hollow core was filled with rubble These huge untapered columns are sometimes ornamented with incised decorations.
Durham Cathedral, England, has decoratedmasonry columns and the earlist pointed high ribs.
Capitals round at the bottom it sits on a circular column and square at the top it supports the wall or arch cutting a rectangular cube taking the four lower corners off at an angle so that the block was square at the top Octagonal at the bottom manuscripts illustrations of Biblical scenes and depictions of beasts and monsters, others are lively scenes of the legends of local saints.
Paired columns like those at Duratón, near Sepúlveda, Spain, are a feature of Romanesque cloisters in Spain, Italy and southern France. The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model forFestive Corinthian capitals on the richly- Renaissance and later architects,appointed General Post Office, New York through the medium of engravings.(McKim, Mead, and White, 1913)
Alternation the alternation of piers and columns. The most simple form that this takes is to have a column between each adjoining pier Sometimes the columns are in multiples of two or three St. Michaels, Hildesheim has alternating piers and columns.
Barrel vault a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, The simplest type of vaulted roof is the barrel vault in which a single arched surface extends from wall to wall, the length of the space to be vaulted, the barrel vault generally required the support of solid walls, or walls in which the windows were very small.
Nave of Lisbon Cathedral with a barrelvaulted soffit. Note the absence ofclerestory windows, all of the lightbeing provided by the Rose window at The Cloisters,one end of the vault. New York City
Groin Vaults A groin vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault or cross vault) is produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. The word groin refers to the edge between the intersecting vaults; cf. ribbed vault. Sometimes the arches of groin vaults are pointed instead of round. In comparison with a barrel vault, a groin vault provides good economies of material and labour. The thrust is concentrated along the groins or arrises (the four diagonal edges formed along the points where the barrel vaults intersect), so the vault need only be abutted at its four corners.
for the less visible and smaller vaults square in plan and is constructed of two barrel vaults intersecting at right angles Groin vaults are frequently separated by transverse arched ribs of low profileBayeux Cathedral, the crypt has groin vaultsand simplified Corinthian capitals.
Rib vault In ribbed vaults, not only are there ribs spanning the vaulted area transversely, but each vaulted bay has diagonal ribs. In a ribbed vault, the ribs are the structural members, and the spaces between them can be filled with lighter, non-structural material.
Because Romanesque arches are nearly always semi-circular, the structural and design problem inherent in the ribbed vault is that the diagonal span is larger and therefore higher than the transverse span
One was to have the centre point where the diagonal ribs met as the highest point, with the infil of all the surfaces sloping upwards towards it, in a domical manner.San Michele Maggiore, Pavia, Italy. View of the interior.
Another solution was to stilt the transverse ribs, or depress the diagonal ribs so that Cathedral of Reims, France the centreline of the vault was horizontal, At Saint-Etienne, Caen, both the nave and the tower are covered by ribbed vaults. c.1080.
Pointed arched vault Late in the Romanesque period another solution came into use for regulating the height of diagonal and transverse ribs use arches of the same diameter for both horizontal and transverse ribs, causing the transverse ribs to meet at a point
Interior of Durham CathedralPointed barrelvault showingdirection of lateralforces.
Romanesque in Italy Italian provinces developed a great diversity of architectural styles Lombardy with groined vaults of heavy proportions Central Italy classical Saint Ambroggio, Milan decorative elements: Corinthian capitals, coloured marble, open arches, colonnades and galleries and façades with sculptures Saint Miniato, Florence
Romanesque in Italy South with Byzantine and Arabic influences, using mosaics, interlaced pointed-arches.Cefalu, Sicily Three separate buildings: church, baptistery and bell tower. Pisa Cathedral, in Tuscany, presents three separate buildings.
Leaning Tower of PisaThe Tower of Pisa is the bell tower of the Cathedral.Its construction began in the august of 1173 and continued(with two long interruptions) for about two hundred years, infull fidelity to the original project, whose architect isbelieved to be Giovanni di Simone.In the past it was widely believed that the inclination of theTower was part of the project ever since its beginning, butnow we know that it is not so.The Tower was designed to be "vertical“, and started toincline during its construction.
During its construction effortswere made to halt the incipientinclination through the use ofspecial construction devices;later columns and otherdamaged parts weresubstituted in more than oneoccasion;today, interventions are beingcarried out within the sub-soilin order to significantly reducethe inclination and to makesure that Tower will have along life.
EThe siteThe Tower occupies a siteto one side of theCathedral, between theapsidal area and thesouth-eastern portion ofthe transept of the latter.Though not an isolatedcase ,this is an unusualcollocation: normally, belltowers were built near tothe façade or along oneside of churches.
The buildingThe building is formed bya cylindrical body ofmasonryencircled by arcadeswith archesand columns restingupon the base,surmounted by a belfry.
The central body of thestructure is composed of ahollow cylinder, formed byan external wall facing ofshaped ashlars in white andgrey San Giuliano limestone,an inner wall facing also ofworked limestone and,between these two wallfacings, an annular masonryarea.Within this masonry area is aspiral stair, which, with 293steps, climbs up to the sixtharcade.
The basic architectural elementsof the Tower :the wall facing in marble orlimestone in two colored bands,the inscribed portals in thearcades,the adoption of certain decorativedetails ,the wall facing above the arcadeswhich, with its strong play of lightand shadow, disguises the loadbearing effect of the internalcylinder.
A sort of visual continuum between the decorations of the Cathedral, theBaptistery and the Tower is formed, commencing with the decorativeprototype of the Cathedral façade which plays upon constantly varyingrhythms and solutions.
The measurements of the TowerThe Tower is 58.36 meters high fromthe foundation and 55 from theground.Its weight has been calculated at14,453 tones.The tower has an exterior dimensionof 19.58 meters, with a centralaperture of 4.5 meters.The area of the annular foundation is thus285m2, and the average pressure on theground is 497k Pa.The present inclination is about 55j - i.e. about10%; the value corresponding to theeccentricity on the loads on the foundation is2.3 meters.
Pisa Cathedral o Resembles early basilican church in plan o Nave, double aisles o Long rows of columns connected by arches o Usual timber roof o Exterior – bands of red and white marble o Ground storey faced with wall arcading o Transepts end in aspses o Elliptical dome over the crossing is a later addition o Good proportions o Delicacy of its ornamentation
West front, Cathedral · Cathedral of Pisa · Pisa, Italy
West façade detail
West façade arcade - detail
Campo Santo The Camposanto ("Holy Field") or Monumental Cemetery in Pisa was constructed in 1278 around sacred dirt brought back from Golgotha during the Crusades. Later decorated with extensive frescoes, it was the burial place of the Pisan upper class for centuries. The history of the Monumental Cemetery began in the 12th century, when Archbishop Ubaldo Lanfranchi (1108-78) brought back shiploads of holy dirt from Golgotha (where Christ was crucified) during the Crusades. In 1278, Giovanni di Simone (architect of the Leaning Tower) designed a marble cloister to enclose the holy ground, which became the primary cemetery for Pisas upper class until 1779. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the walls of the Camposanto were decorated with frescoes by Taddeo Gaddi, Spinello Aretino, Benozzo Gozzoli, Andrea Bonaiuti, Antonio Veneziano, and Piero di Puccio.
Campo Santo Tragically, the extensive frescoes of the Camposanto were almost completely destroyed by a bombing raid during World War II. On July 27, 1944, American warplanes launched a major air attack against Pisa, which was still held by the Nazis. The wooden roof caught fire, its lead panels melted and the hot metal ran all over the frescoes. Many were completely destroyed and the few that remained were badly damaged. The Camposanto has since been fully restored and most of the surviving frescoes, along with preparatory sketches (sinopie) found underneath, have been moved to the Museo delle Sinopie in Pisa.
Baptistry Designed by Dioti Salvi – circular plan with central space/ nave 18.3 m in diameter separated by four piers and eight columns from the surrounding two storied aisle, which makes the building nearly 39.3 m in diameter
Romanesque in France It was the original region of Romanesque art From there it expanded thanks to the pilgrimage routes, specially to Santiago in Spain.
Romanesque in France It is characterized by various vaulted styles Provence: pointed domes Saint and façades decorated with Trophime arches , Arles long choir, side aisles around the semicircular sanctuary forming the ambulatory in which radiating chapels open Saint Sernin Toulouse
Romanesque in France Burgundy: barrel- vaulted, three-aisledCluny basilica Normandy: Lombard influences with groined vaults supported by flying buttresses and façades with two flanking towers. Sainte Magdalene, Vezelay
Also known as S. Etienne (finest church in Normandy) Western façade, flanked by two square towers crowned by octagonal spires which with angle pinnacles were added in the 13th century Prototype of later Gothic facades
Fully developed triforium gallery with half-barrel vaults
Romanesque in Germany Churches were planned on a large scale They used to be very high They had an apse or sanctuary at each end. Numerous round or octagonal towers that conferred them a picturesque silhouette. Laach Worms
Romanesque in Spain First Romanesque: Catalonia In the 11th century the region was almost assimilated to France Due to this they receive the art early The rest of the Spain would receive it with the pilgrimage
Romanesque in Spain Catalan churches present, in the outside, ordered volumes Wall are decorated with Lombard bands, and blind arches and galleries The plan has three naves, with a small narthex The head has triple apse
Romanesque in Spain Pilgrims route to Santiago was an important route for Romanesque Art expansion.
Romanesque in Spain Characteristics of pilgrimage churches: Plan with three to five aisles and a transept In the transept there are radial chapels Inside there is a tribune The head has ambulatory and radial chapels
Romanesque in Spain There are polygonal buildings too They are related to the Temple They are inspired in Jerusalem’s Holy Sepulchre Examples are Eunate, Torres del Rio (both in Navarre) and Veracruz (Segovia).
Romanesque in Spain Castile and Leon: It is deeply influenced by the pilgrimage routes The churches are identified with the spirit of the Reconquist
Romanesque in Spain Buildings are simple and small It created a contrast in relation to the refined Hispano Muslin architecture. They frequently have a covered area in the outside for the meetings of the councils.
Romanesque in Spain The best examples are: Santiago’s cathedral Fromista Sant Climent de Tahull San Pere de Roda San Juan de la Peña There are other buildings such as castles (Loarre, in Huesca) or bridges, essential for pilgrims (Puentelarreina, Navarre)
Romanesque in England Before the 10th century were made of wood Stone buildings were small and roughly constructed The Norman Romanesque style replace the Saxon in 11th century
Romanesque in England Long, narrow buildings were constructed with heavy walls and piers, rectangular apses, double transepts and deeply recessed portals Naves were covered with flat roofs, later replaces by vaults, and side aisles were covered with groined vaults.
Durham Cathedral wasbuilt in the late 11th andearly 12th centuries tohouse the relics of StCuthbert (evangelizer ofNorthumbria) and theVenerable Bede. It atteststo the importance of theearly Benedictine monasticcommunity and is thelargest and finest exampleof Norman architecture inEngland.
DurhamCathedralaerial view The innovativeaudacity of its vaultingforeshadowed Gothicarchitecture. Behind thecathedral stands thecastle, an ancientNorman fortress whichwas the residence of theprince-bishops ofDurham.
Durham Cathedral Cloister
Tower of LondonInterior of the innermost ward. To the right is the 11th-century White Tower; thestructure at the end of the walkway to the left is Wakefield Tower. Beyond thatcan be seen Traitors Gate.
For over 900 years, The Tower of London has been standing guard over the capital. As a Royal Palace, fortress, prison, place of execution, arsenal, Royal Mint, Royal Zoo and jewel house, it has witnessed many great events in British history.
Revision - Examples to study Pisa group,Italy Abbay Aux Hommes Tower of London