Tipping Point

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  • The moment of critical massThe dramatic moment in an epidemic when everything changes at onceThings tip because of the dramatic efforts of a select fewIn order to create one contagious movement you might have to create several small ones
  • Law of the FewIn a given process or system some people matter more than others. (p. 19)Stickiness FactorThere are specific ways of making a contagious message memorable; there are relatively simple changes in the presentation and structuring of the information that can make a big difference in how much of an impact it makes. (p. 25)Power of ContextHuman Beings are a lot more sensitive to their environment than they may seem. (p. 29)
  • ConnectorsPeople with a special gift for bringing the world together. (p. 38)Know lots of people (p. 38)Instinctive and natural gift for making social connections (p.43)“Weak ties” are always more important than strong ties (p.54)The closer an idea or product comes to a connector, the more power and opportunity it has as well (p. 59)Word of mouth epidemics are the work of connectors (p. 59)
  • ConnectorsPeople with a special gift for bringing the world together. (p. 38)Know lots of people (p. 38)Instinctive and natural gift for making social connections (p.43)“Weak ties” are always more important than strong ties (p.54)The closer an idea or product comes to a connector, the more power and opportunity it has as well (p. 59)Word of mouth epidemics are the work of connectors (p. 59)
  • Mavens They accumulate knowledge and have the social skills to start word-of-mouth epidemics – DATA BANKS – PROVIDE THE MESSAGE. For example Mark Zuckeman who started the social network Facebook or ______________who created Google.MavensOne who accumulates knowledge(p. 60)Are not passive collectors of information (p. 62)Data banksThey want to share their information with as many people as possible (p. 62)Not persuaders (p. 69)Information specialistsThey tell you about all their great dealsHave an emotional need to solve problemsBe a teacher or a student
  • Salesmen: Picture of Lee Iacocca (Once known as the Automotive Tzar)One with the skills to persuade us when we are unconvinced of what we are hearing. (p. 70)Little things make as much of a difference as big things (p. 78)Non-verbal cues are as important or more important than verbal cues (p. 79)Persuasion often works in ways that we do not appreciate (p. 79)You draw others into your rhythms by your interactions
  • Word of mouth is still the most important form of human communication (p. 32).Deal finders, best restaurant, best schools, best sales on shoes, food items clothes and more
  • Another aspect of mechanisms that cause trends to “tip” into mass productivity is the next term Gladwell points out, the Power of Context. When environmental conditions are introduced and are not right, it is not likely that the tipping point will occur. Gladwell speaks of the rapid decline in violent crime rates that occurred in 1990’s in New York City. He acknowledged a variety of factors that played a role in the decline. One instance was the removal of graffiti from the subway areas. With a clean environment, crime rate began to decline. Criminologists James Q. Wilson and George Kelling developed the “Broken Window theory”. This theory basically proposed that crime was the natural result of a disorder. If unchecked signs of deterioration in a neighborhood or community were seen by all, this could result in a declining quality of living. If a window is broken or left un-repaired, people walking by will conclude that no one cares or no one is in charge. In the cities, graffiti was equivalent of broken windows which initiated more serious crimes. This is an epidemic theory of crime. Crime is contagious and can start with a broken window or graffiti and spread through an entire community. Cities began the clean up which allowed other factors like the decline in crack cocaine use and the again of the population to gradually tip into a major decline in the crime rate.
  • Criminologists James Q. Wilson and George Kelling developed the “Broken Window theory”. This theory basically proposed that crime was the natural result of a disorder. If unchecked signs of deterioration in a neighborhood or community were seen by all, this could result in a declining quality of living. If a window is broken or left un-repaired, people walking by will conclude that no one cares or no one is in charge. In the cities, graffiti was equivalent of broken windows which initiated more serious crimes. This is an epidemic theory of crime. Crime is contagious and can start with a broken window or graffiti and spread through an entire community. Cities began the clean up which allowed other factors like the decline in crack cocaine use and the again of the population to gradually tip into a major decline in the crime rate.
  • In continuing discussion on group size, Gladwell introduces his theory of the magic of the number of 150. Group sizes play a large part in tipping scales. He refers to 150 as the magic number of a group size. This group size displays levels of intimacy and efficiency. Groups larger than this size tend to be more toxic. With a smaller group, you can become comfortable and rely on the other members to exhibit qualities of accuracy. Many corporations today use this factor as a foundation for their organization structure.In the case study sections in this book, Gladwell discusses the rise and decline of the Airwalk shoe. It was originally geared toward skateboards in Southern California. It obtained national recognition through advertising techniques that portrayed“coolness” about them. By using fad styling in their shoes, Airwalks were able to create a product that was always right on target and exactly what the public wanted. The advertising agency came up with a series of dramatic images, single photographs showing the Airwalk user relating to his shoes in some weird way. In one, a young man is wearing an Airwalk shoe on his head, with laces hanging down like braids, as his laces are being cut by a barber. The ads were put on billboards and in “wild postings” on construction-site walls and in alternative magazines. As Airwalks grew, the advertising company went into television. The strength of the Airwalks advertising campaign was in more than the look of their work. Airwalk tipped because its advertising was founded very explicitly on the principles of epidemic transmission
  • Gladwell touches on the Translation Factor. Translator takes ideas and information from a highly specialized world and translates them into a language the rest of us can understand. The most sophisticated analysis of the process of translation comes from the study of rumors
  • Gladwell used the spread of teenage smoking as another example of the tipping point. Once again he reiterates the idea of “coolness” of smoking which causes a teenager to start smoking. He also noted that making smoking sound dangerous and rebellious appeals to teenagers. Larger advertising companies continuously pump money into campaigns enticing teenagers. Many teenagers end up continuing their cigarette experiment until they get hooked. The smoking experience is so memorable and powerful that they cannot stop smoking. The habit “sticks”. Telling teenagers about the health risks of smoking; “It makes you wrinkle”, “It can give you lung cancer and you can die”, doesn’t matter to them in the least. It is exciting, mysterious, dangerous and cool and especially frowned upon by their parents; all the elements to make teenagers want to smoke more.
  • In conclusion, the first lesson of the Tipping Point is starting epidemics requires concentrating resources on a few key areas. The Law of the Few says that connectors, mavens, and salesman are responsible for starting work of mouth epidemics. There are times when we need a convenient shortcut; a way to make a lot out of a little, and that is what Tipping Points in the end are all about. There is difficulty in the world of the Tipping Point as hopefulness as well. By controlling a group size, we can improve its interest to new ideas. By repetitive presentation of information, we can improve its stickiness. Tipping points are a reaffirmation of the potential for charge and the power of intelligent action. The world around us seems like an immovable place, but with the slightest push – it can be tipped.
  • Tipping Point

    1. 1. The TippingPoint by Malcolm GladwellA book review presented byR. CostenI. MageeA. OdunjoF. Williams
    2. 2. What is the tipping point?• Seemingly insignificant events can have big effects• The effects of these events can be contagiousness• The resulting change can happen in a single dramatic moment
    3. 3. How to start an Epidemic?1. The Law of the Few2. The Stickiness Factor3. The Power of Context
    4. 4. The Few ConnectorsSalesmen Epidemic Mavens Word of Mouth
    5. 5. The Law of the Few Connectors Epidemic
    6. 6. The Law of the Few Epidemic Mavens
    7. 7. The Law of the FewSalesmen Epidemic
    8. 8. The Law of the Few Epidemic Word of Mouth
    9. 9. The Stickiness of a Message• The ability to make a message memorable and become a natural point of reference well beyond its occurrence.• E.g. Sesame Street vs. Blues Clues
    10. 10. The Power of Context Epidemics are sensitive to the conditions and circumstances of the times and places in which they occur-the context (p. 139)
    11. 11. The Power of Context Continued: “Broken Window Theory”Crime is the natural result of a disorder
    12. 12. Power of Context Continued:• The essence of the Power of Context is that our inner states are the result of our outer circumstances. But then, how does this work with or against the idea that our inner states ultimately create our outer world -- that perception is reality or that if we change the way we look at things, the things we look at change?
    13. 13. The Power of Context
    14. 14. Airwalk• Airwalk tipped because its advertising was founded on the principles of epidemic transmission
    15. 15. The Power of Translation
    16. 16. Translation• This is what is meant by translation. What Mavens and Connectors and Salesman do to an idea in order to make it contagious is to alter it in such a way that extraneous details are dropped and others are exaggerated so that the message itself comes to acquire a deeper meaning.• HIV in Baltimore
    17. 17. Translation• If anyone wants to start an epidemic, then - whether it is of shoes or behavior or a piece of software – he or she has to somehow employ Connectors, Mavens, and Salesman in this very way;
    18. 18. Translation• He or she has to find some person or some means to translate the message of the Innovators into something the rest of us can understand.
    19. 19. The Case Study• Trend Setters and Innovators – DeeDee Gordan ( Maven) • She learned what innovators, the first group that adopts something new, tend to be. • Tennis Ball Shoe • Kung Fu Ads
    20. 20. Trendsetter Community• When something fails to make it out of the trendsetters community into the mainstream, its usually because the idea doesn’t root itself proudly enough in the culture.
    21. 21. The Epidemic is Over• Failure of Airwalk – Segmented Strategy • Small Independent stores • Retail stores • Keeping the Buzz going • Lost the Jewel
    22. 22. Apple• Would Apple computers and the IPod phenomenon, for example, be as popular if it didn’t have it’s signature marketing campaign?
    23. 23. Question• Can you think of other more current products that have exploded onto the market with an impressive advertising assault?
    24. 24. Case Study• Rise in suicide among adolescent males in Micronesia – Depression – Relationships – Alcohol
    25. 25. Relationship• There is a relationship between the publicity of suicide cases and the increases in the number of suicides – Marilyn Monroe Traffic Deaths
    26. 26. Death of “R” charismatic scion• The power of his personality and the circumstances of his death combined to make the force of his example endured years beyond his death.
    27. 27. More Epidemics• Language of Smoking• Informing teenagers of Health Risks of Cigarettes• Anti-Sticky Strategy (Habits Stick)
    28. 28. Question• Should parents spend more time trying to monitor and shape their children’s peer group than correcting and disciplining them in the home?
    29. 29. The Search for the Unsticky Cigarette Young people will experiment. But you can’t experiment with suicide – once is all it takes. Paying attention to the tipping points of the addiction process can lead to a less sticky form of smoking (nicotine threshold, depression, lure of who smokes).
    30. 30. Answers• Judith Harris argues that the environmental influence that helps children become who they are – that shapes their character and personality – is their peer group.
    31. 31. ConclusionThe Tipping Point told us stories where a lot was accomplished with little by starting word of mouth epidemics.
    32. 32. Starting An Epidemic Reframing the Change byConcentrating way we think KISS – keep it starting a wordon a few key about the simple of mouth people world to make epidemic an impact.
    33. 33. Not a Band Aid Word of mouth epidemics Band Aids are life apply corrective savers and simple action directly structures. to the problem.Word of MouthEpidemics focus ontriumphs guided byindividual efforts.
    34. 34. Focus, Test, BelieveThose who are successful at creating epidemics have a bedrock belief that change is possible. They: Focus/Reframe the problem Believe in the Test the cause solution
    35. 35. Focus and Reframe The Problem
    36. 36. Test Your IntuitionSee a solution and test It.
    37. 37. Believe There is a Solution
    38. 38. How Do We Find the Mavens?
    39. 39. How Do We Find the Mavens? Key Traits • They seek out new information • Serious about information • Want to help • Information Seekers and Spreaders
    40. 40. How Do We Find the MavensHow do you find your school’s mavens?
    41. 41. Additional Warnings Immunity Isolation
    42. 42. WarningImmunity
    43. 43. WarningIsolation
    44. 44. RememberWith the slightest push - in just the right place - it can be tipped. Galdwell, 2002

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