The TippingPoint by Malcolm GladwellA book review presented byR. CostenI. MageeA. OdunjoF. Williams
What is the tipping point?• Seemingly insignificant events can have big effects• The effects of these events can be contagiousness• The resulting change can happen in a single dramatic moment
How to start an Epidemic?1. The Law of the Few2. The Stickiness Factor3. The Power of Context
The Few ConnectorsSalesmen Epidemic Mavens Word of Mouth
The Law of the Few Connectors Epidemic
The Law of the Few Epidemic Mavens
The Law of the FewSalesmen Epidemic
The Law of the Few Epidemic Word of Mouth
The Stickiness of a Message• The ability to make a message memorable and become a natural point of reference well beyond its occurrence.• E.g. Sesame Street vs. Blues Clues
The Power of Context Epidemics are sensitive to the conditions and circumstances of the times and places in which they occur-the context (p. 139)
The Power of Context Continued: “Broken Window Theory”Crime is the natural result of a disorder
Power of Context Continued:• The essence of the Power of Context is that our inner states are the result of our outer circumstances. But then, how does this work with or against the idea that our inner states ultimately create our outer world -- that perception is reality or that if we change the way we look at things, the things we look at change?
The Power of Context
Airwalk• Airwalk tipped because its advertising was founded on the principles of epidemic transmission
The Power of Translation
Translation• This is what is meant by translation. What Mavens and Connectors and Salesman do to an idea in order to make it contagious is to alter it in such a way that extraneous details are dropped and others are exaggerated so that the message itself comes to acquire a deeper meaning.• HIV in Baltimore
Translation• If anyone wants to start an epidemic, then - whether it is of shoes or behavior or a piece of software – he or she has to somehow employ Connectors, Mavens, and Salesman in this very way;
Translation• He or she has to find some person or some means to translate the message of the Innovators into something the rest of us can understand.
The Case Study• Trend Setters and Innovators – DeeDee Gordan ( Maven) • She learned what innovators, the first group that adopts something new, tend to be. • Tennis Ball Shoe • Kung Fu Ads
Trendsetter Community• When something fails to make it out of the trendsetters community into the mainstream, its usually because the idea doesn’t root itself proudly enough in the culture.
The Epidemic is Over• Failure of Airwalk – Segmented Strategy • Small Independent stores • Retail stores • Keeping the Buzz going • Lost the Jewel
Apple• Would Apple computers and the IPod phenomenon, for example, be as popular if it didn’t have it’s signature marketing campaign?
Question• Can you think of other more current products that have exploded onto the market with an impressive advertising assault?
Case Study• Rise in suicide among adolescent males in Micronesia – Depression – Relationships – Alcohol
Relationship• There is a relationship between the publicity of suicide cases and the increases in the number of suicides – Marilyn Monroe Traffic Deaths
Death of “R” charismatic scion• The power of his personality and the circumstances of his death combined to make the force of his example endured years beyond his death.
More Epidemics• Language of Smoking• Informing teenagers of Health Risks of Cigarettes• Anti-Sticky Strategy (Habits Stick)
Question• Should parents spend more time trying to monitor and shape their children’s peer group than correcting and disciplining them in the home?
The Search for the Unsticky Cigarette Young people will experiment. But you can’t experiment with suicide – once is all it takes. Paying attention to the tipping points of the addiction process can lead to a less sticky form of smoking (nicotine threshold, depression, lure of who smokes).
Answers• Judith Harris argues that the environmental influence that helps children become who they are – that shapes their character and personality – is their peer group.
ConclusionThe Tipping Point told us stories where a lot was accomplished with little by starting word of mouth epidemics.
Starting An Epidemic Reframing the Change byConcentrating way we think KISS – keep it starting a wordon a few key about the simple of mouth people world to make epidemic an impact.
Not a Band Aid Word of mouth epidemics Band Aids are life apply corrective savers and simple action directly structures. to the problem.Word of MouthEpidemics focus ontriumphs guided byindividual efforts.
Focus, Test, BelieveThose who are successful at creating epidemics have a bedrock belief that change is possible. They: Focus/Reframe the problem Believe in the Test the cause solution
Focus and Reframe The Problem
Test Your IntuitionSee a solution and test It.
Believe There is a Solution
How Do We Find the Mavens?
How Do We Find the Mavens? Key Traits • They seek out new information • Serious about information • Want to help • Information Seekers and Spreaders
How Do We Find the MavensHow do you find your school’s mavens?
Additional Warnings Immunity Isolation
RememberWith the slightest push - in just the right place - it can be tipped. Galdwell, 2002