Group work process
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  • During intake, the presenting concerns and needs of prospective members are identified.Judgments that some or all of these people could benefit from a group approach are made. An agreement is often formulated between the members of the group and the group leader about tentative group goals.This stage may also be referred to as the contract stage, as the leader and the members make a commitment to pursue the situation to the next step.
  • Individuals most likely to benefit from a group should be selected as members.Selecting a group requires attention to both descriptive and behavioral factors. A decision needs to be made whether to seek homogeneity or diversity in these factors.There are few guidelines as to when diversity and when homogeneity of these factors will be most effective and efficient. Age, sex, and level of education are descriptive factors that may create homogeneity or foster diversity within the group. In groups of children and adolescents, the age span among members must be kept relatively small because levels of maturity and interests can vary greatly. Similarly, same-sex groupings may facilitate achieving group goals for pre-adolescents, but for middleadolescent groups there may be specific advantages to having representation from both sexes.The behavioral attributes expected of a group member will also have a major effect on the attainment of group objectives. For example, placing several hyperactive oraggressive youngsters in a group may be a prelude to failure. Members may be selected for their value as models for appropriate behavior or because they possess other personal characteristics expected to enhance the group. As a general rule, the best judgment regarding a member’s potential contribution to the group is obtained by looking at past behavioral attributes.
  • A more in-depth assessment and statement of goals and plans for action occurs during this phase. In reality, this step is completed only when the group ends because the dynamic nature of most groups requires an ongoing adjustment of goals and intervention plans. Goals should be time-limited with a reasonable chance for attainment, and the leader should ensure that all goals are clearly stated to aid in later evaluations. Clarification of goals also eliminates hidden agendas.
  • Principles, Skills and Models of Group Work PracticeRemedial ModelRemedial model focuses on the individuals dysfunction and utilizes the group as a context and means for altering deviant behaviour. This approach to group work practice emphasizes its utility in removing the adverse conditions of individuals whose behaviour is disapproved by the society. Clients of such social group work practice are physically and mentally handicapped, legal offenders, emotionally disturbed, isolated and alienated persons.The Michigan School contributed to this model. Credit goes to Vinter and his colleagues for developing remedial model. In this model attempts are being made by social worker to bring change in the individual. He/she is the target point.According to the Remedial Model, the group can be used to treat problems of adjustments in personal and social relations. According to Vinter “attention to such problems reaffirms the profession’s historic mission of service to those most in need”. The remedial model is considered more as a clinical model that seeks to help the socially maladapted to improve social functioning through guided group experience.Reciprocal Model or Mediating ModelSchwartz has introduced this model in 1961. This model is based on open systems theory, humanistic psychology and an existential perspective. The following are the chief characteristics of this model .1) People and society are interdependent because they have mutual needs. When there is interference with these mutual strivings, it results into conflict.2) The resolution of this conflict is possible only when interested parties try to understand their dilemmas with all of these inner resources and they utilize that at that moment.3) In this model attention is directed towards the relationship of members in the group with each other, with the worker and the group as a whole.4) It is the relationship among the members that shows the characteristics of the group.5) In this model emphasis is placed on the continuing and reciprocal transactions of sets of members with each other, the worker and the group.6) It gives importance to the emergent goal and actions, which are based on feelings of the group. It believes that intensive involvement by the parties in the current realities will generate their on purposes and goals.7) Client and worker together as well as separately challenge the current problems with their total capacity.8) Basic educative processes are utilized which incorporate particularizing, synthesizing and generalizing the feeling and action components of the problem.9) In this model distinctions are not made with respect to types and various of group since it is presumed that this model is widely applicable.In this model the individual and the group are significant components. The workers role appears to be facilitative, relying on the power and potency of mutual aid system to take care of itself.Developmental ModelThis model has been developed by the faculty members of Boston University under the leadership of Berustein in 1965. Lowy is the main architect of the developmental model.In this approach, groups are seen as having “a degree of independence and autonomy, but the to and fro flow between them and their members, between them and their social settings, is crucial to their existence, viability and achievements. The chief characteristics of this model are:1) It is primarily based on the dynamics of intimacy and closeness between the members over a span of time.2) The degree of intimacy is taken into account for appropriate worker interventions.3) Conceptualization of study, diagnosis and treatment is made at all three levels of individuals, group and the setting.4) This model derives knowledge from Erikson’s ego psychology, group dynamics and conflict theory.5) The group worker is engaged in study, diagnosis and treatment.6) The worker is connected with community, agency, group and individual member.7) The group is envisioned as a microcosm of society.8) Thoughts, feelings, sentiments and behaviour are continuously assessed and attempts are made to improve them.9) The social group worker tries to improve the situations among individual member, group agency and the social environment.10) In short, it can be said that the developmental model is a compromise between the reciprocal, remedial and traditional approaches.The Social Goals ModelThe basic concepts of this model are social consciousness, social responsibility, and social change. It is suggested that by participation with others in a group situation, individuals can affect social change. Social action is the desired outcome, and the group worker is regarded as an influence person and enabler, who personifies the values of social responsibility and acts as stimulator and role model without purveying any political viewpoint. Implicit in this model is the emerging leader within the group. The model is concerned with democracy and the enhancement of personal functioning within the social context, heightened self-esteem and an increase in social power for the members of the group collectively and as individuals. The skill of the leader lies mainly in‘programming’ (Weince 1964) (Konopka 1958).Gestalt TherapyIn gestalt therapy the worker aids the clients in learning how they prevent themselvesfrom maturing. It is the aim of worker to help the client to become aware of and acceptresponsibility for how they make themselves feel better.Transactional AnalysisIt is a process of analyzing and explaining intra-personal and interpersonal processes.This therapeutic model was developed by Berne. He proposes that personal changecan be maximized through group psychotherapy where the social processes are muchmore varied than just one to one relationships. According to Berne, individuals areproducts of social processes and they use social processes. Within the group settingsindividuals can be made aware about their self-defeating behaviour. Once they areaware of their behaviour they can do something for changing it. The group provides asafe environment for practicing new behaviours.Behavioural ModelAccording to this model, specific group programmes are implemented to alterdysfunctional patterns and learn new styles. The expertise of Behavioural group therapistis essential in assessing and devising a treatment plan for each individual member withinthe context of the group. The group worker calculates the specific elements of thedisturbing behaviour to be decreased or desired behaviour to be developed. Othergroup members provide assistance and feedback concerning progress throughout thestages of the treatment process.
  • To think of evaluation as a specific point in the life of a group is perhaps not realistic since evaluation must be an ongoing process. The decision to terminate a group may be based on the accomplishment of group or individual goals, the expiration of a pre-determined period of time, the failure of the group to achieve desired ends, the relocation of the leader of the group, or a shortage of funds to keep the group going.The termination of a group often produces the same reactions that characterize the termination of other significant relationships, including the feeling of being rejected. The group leader must be aware of these potential feelings and help group members terminate with a minimum of difficulty.
  • Study can be also termed as “fact finding” or “gathering of facts or information”. Intake and study are going together. It includes collecting facts about each individual in the group or group as a whole. Here the principle of individualisation is important. That is each individual is unique to the group worker and each group is also unique to the group worker.Fact finding in social group work is done by means of (1) observation and listening in the group, (2) occasional individual contacts with a group member or with members of his/her family, and (3) home visits and a sound knowledge of the economic and social influences of the neighbourhood and work place from which the individual or his parents come.Fact finding in social group work, therefore, relates to the understanding of the individual, to his role and his relationships in the group, to the kind of impact the group has on individual, to the individuals impact on the group, to the whole group atmosphere, to the interpersonal relationships outside of the group, and to the social and economic environment. Without this knowledge group work cannot be effective. Tools for Fact finding Basic knowledge of Individual & group dynamic behaviour Active listening to the group members Observation, consultation and help from outside Home visit Occasional individual contact Empathy
  • Aims are your general goals in your life. You may have never actually said them out loud. They are usually so broad that it’s sometimes hard to realise when you reach them. Aims can be closely related to your values, and sum up your general purposes in life. Objectives are tasks you set out to achieve in manageable stages, working towards your aims. Choose objectives that you know you can achieve. Objectives can change - so it’s good to have an aim that keeps you going in the same direction. The more precise and defined your objectives are, the easier it is to follow a plan to reach your aim. Once you have set your objectives, you can record your progress. It’s possible to evaluate a process which has defined objectives. If you are involved in a project with others, it helps if you have stated your objectives or have them written down. Then you know which objectives you share and which ones cannot be fulfilled in this group. It’s not usually possible to reach all your objectives at once. You will also recognise which objectives you want to reach in your study group and also which ones you will try to reach in other areas of your life.
  • Firstly understand synergy. Synergy in simple terms means that as a group you will come up with a better response than you all would as individuals. If you align yourself with people who have similar goals, in most cases, you will achieve better outcomes and stay more motivated. There are some exceptions to the rule, but around 90 percent of the time you will end up with a more positive outcome.Secondly, you should look at obtaining a mentor or a coach. Working in a team doesn't mean you have to tell everyone about your goals and have them help you achieve them. If you took this approach most people would ask whats in it for me? A way to still involve people, and have something in it for them, is to look at obtaining a mentor or a coach in your particular field. A mentor could be an expert who you take out for lunch once every month. A coach could be a life coach or something along those lines, who you pay to meet with and who helps make you accountable for your goals.The key is really to find like-minded individuals who have similar goals and to try and motivate each other and work together to achieve a better outcome for everyone. Unless the person is a mentor or a coach, then the relationship really has to be win win for everyone. There will be little benefit if only one person has success and the rest don't. It is also best to have a close group of people who you trust. Group work, is better if everyone knows each others strengths and weaknesses. This way you can all help each other and focus on the areas where you have strengths.Finally, while working as a group, or been accountable to a mentor or a coach can help improve your goal setting, it doesn't take away from the need to be accountable for yourself. At the end of the day, how you work, and how motivated you stay is all dependent upon you. It is up to you to make it happen!
  • Gestalt TherapyIn gestalt therapy the worker aids the clients in learning how they prevent themselvesfrom maturing. It is the aim of worker to help the client to become aware of and acceptresponsibility for how they make themselves feel better.Transactional AnalysisIt is a process of analyzing and explaining intra-personal and interpersonal processes.This therapeutic model was developed by Berne. He proposes that personal changecan be maximized through group psychotherapy where the social processes are muchmore varied than just one to one relationships. According to Berne, individuals areproducts of social processes and they use social processes. Within the group settingsindividuals can be made aware about their self-defeating behaviour. Once they areaware of their behaviour they can do something for changing it. The group provides asafe environment for practicing new behaviours.Behavioural ModelAccording to this model, specific group programmes are implemented to alterdysfunctional patterns and learn new styles. The expertise of Behavioural group therapistis essential in assessing and devising a treatment plan for each individual member withinthe context of the group. The group worker calculates the specific elements of thedisturbing behaviour to be decreased or desired behaviour to be developed. Othergroup members provide assistance and feedback concerning progress throughout thestages of the treatment process.Facilitative Intervention StrategiesGentle InterventionsDoing nothing –leaving the group to sort things out for themselvesUsing silence –essential for reflection; helpful to restore calm; allows space for thinking and problem solving (we often don’t appreciate how much we actually know and silent thinking often releases information from our unconscious mind); can provide an opportunity to explore with individuals or small groups the basis of their fear of silenceSupport –verbal and non-verbal contributions, which support what is happening or what is being said. This empowers individuals and the group and helps integrate you into the groupClarifying –checking what is happening, checking your understanding of contributions, checking acceptability of processPersuasive InterventionsQuestions to move the group –can be very gentle e.g. “are you ready to go on now?” or more firm “are you ready to go on yet?”Questions on where next –the move on is assumed and emphasis is on where next e.g. “Ok so where do you want to go now?”Suggesting choices –this will have a direct impact on what happens next so try not to limit choices unnecessarilySuggesting paths –offering various ways the group could proceed if they have lost their way and ask for suggestionsSharing your ideas –giving your view is probably more directive than you intend depending on how much power the group has invested in you as the facilitatorSuggesting action –the most persuasive intervention useful if the group is completely at a loss or if the energy is very low but still offer several optionsDirective InterventionsGuiding the group –by suggesting what you would do in their situation, or do something yourself such as write on the flip chartChoosing for the group –you deciding what the group should do next e.g. “I think it would be useful for us to stop at this point and …”Directing the group –telling the group what they will do next
  • Behavioural ModelAccording to this model, specific group programmes are implemented to alterdysfunctional patterns and learn new styles. The expertise of Behavioural group therapistis essential in assessing and devising a treatment plan for each individual member withinthe context of the group. The group worker calculates the specific elements of thedisturbing behaviour to be decreased or desired behaviour to be developed. Othergroup members provide assistance and feedback concerning progress throughout thestages of the treatment process.Facilitative Intervention StrategiesGentle InterventionsDoing nothing –leaving the group to sort things out for themselvesUsing silence –essential for reflection; helpful to restore calm; allows space for thinking and problem solving (we often don’t appreciate how much we actually know and silent thinking often releases information from our unconscious mind); can provide an opportunity to explore with individuals or small groups the basis of their fear of silenceSupport –verbal and non-verbal contributions, which support what is happening or what is being said. This empowers individuals and the group and helps integrate you into the groupClarifying –checking what is happening, checking your understanding of contributions, checking acceptability of processPersuasive InterventionsQuestions to move the group –can be very gentle e.g. “are you ready to go on now?” or more firm “are you ready to go on yet?”Questions on where next –the move on is assumed and emphasis is on where next e.g. “Ok so where do you want to go now?”Suggesting choices –this will have a direct impact on what happens next so try not to limit choices unnecessarilySuggesting paths –offering various ways the group could proceed if they have lost their way and ask for suggestionsSharing your ideas –giving your view is probably more directive than you intend depending on how much power the group has invested in you as the facilitatorSuggesting action –the most persuasive intervention useful if the group is completely at a loss or if the energy is very low but still offer several optionsDirective InterventionsGuiding the group –by suggesting what you would do in their situation, or do something yourself such as write on the flip chartChoosing for the group –you deciding what the group should do next e.g. “I think it would be useful for us to stop at this point and …”Directing the group –telling the group what they will do next

Group work process Presentation Transcript

  • 1. GROUP WORK PROCESSPresented By:Bimal Antony1st MSW.
  • 2. Intake Selection of members Assessment and planning Group development and intervention Evaluation and terminationDIFFERENT STAGES
  • 3. Intake♪ Identification of concerns and needs♪ Benefit of group approach♪ Formulation of agreement
  • 4. Study⃰ Fact finding⃰ Each individual and Group as a whole⃰ Principle of individualisation⃰ Tools for Fact finding⃰ Basic knowledge of Individual & group dynamic behaviour⃰ Active listening to the group members⃰ Observation, consultation and help from outside⃰ Home visit⃰ Occasional individual contact⃰ Empathy
  • 5. Objectives≡ Determination of the kind of service or program≡ Deciding upon constituency or clientele with whom we work≡ Determining the kind of leadership≡ Useful for financing the agency≡ Helps in evaluation
  • 6. Goal Setting› Process begins with the discussion of objectives/purpose› Emerge from the interaction of individual members & the worker› An end towards the individual/group of people is working› Measuring the effectiveness of a group› Determination of task necessary to accomplish the goal› Responsibilities must be agreed upon or assigned› Deadlines are set for completing the tasks› Periodical evaluation of achievements› Finally, evaluating whether the group has achieved the goal
  • 7. ₡ Gestalt therapy₡ Generating awareness to accept the responsibility₡ Transactional analysis₡ Developed by Berne₡ Analysing intra-personal & interpersonal process₡ Individuals are made aware about their behaviour₡ Group provides a safe environment for practicing newbehavioursIntervention Strategies
  • 8. ₡The behavioural model₡ Specific group programs are implemented to learn new styles₡ The group worker calculates the specific elements of thebehaviour to be decreased/developed₡ Facilitative intervention₡ Gentle interventions₡ Persuasive interventions₡ Directive interventionsIntervention Strategies Contd..
  • 9.  Clarifying and Summarizing „ Synthesizing and Generalizing „ Probing and Questioning „ Listening „ Reflecting feelings „ Providing Support, Coaching, and Counseling„ Modeling „ Setting the Agenda „ Feedback Observation „ Structural SuggestionsTypes of Interventions
  • 10. ◊ Ongoing process◊ Measuring the quality of groups experience in relationto the objectives and functions of the agency◊ Performance of members, their growth◊ Level of achievementEvaluation
  • 11. I. Formulation ofobjectives for group andindividual in terms ofagency purposeII. Identification ofcriteria for growth &development ofindividual and groupIII. Provision ofprogram experiencesfor growthIV. Keeping full recordsof individual and groupbehaviourV. Analysis of recordsby applying criteria ofgrowth anddevelopmentVI. Interpretation ofanalytical data todetermine whetherobjectives are beingachievedVII. Review of programcontent and methodVIII. Modification ofobjectives, continuation& evaluationEvaluationA continuous process
  • 12. References1. Zastrow, Charles H., Zastrow, Charles (2008):Social Work withGroups: A Comprehensive Workbook, 7nth Edition,California: Brooks/Cole2. Brown, D.R. & Harvey, D. (2006):An experiential approach toOrganizational development, (7th ed.),Upper Saddle River,NJ: Prentice Hall.3. Sondra Brandler, Camille P. Roman (1999): Group work: skillsand strategies for effective interventions, New York: TheHaworth Press Inc.
  • 13. Thank You