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  • 1.
    • Unit 7 - Managing Testing (Chpt 4-5)
        • Describe test plans
        • Explain basic testing concepts
        • Describe testing methods
        • Preparing test plans
    • Planning
    • Analysis/Design
    • Building
    • Testing
    • Organization, Stakeholders, Charter
    • Project Mgmt, Tools, methodology, services
    • Committees, Tools, Project, Development, Dbase, processing, & security controls
    • Testing phases & methods
    • Implementation
    • Post-Implementation
    • Roll-out controls
    • Backup-recovery, ITIL Service & support controls, turnover, review, report, document
  • 4.
    • Basic Test Plan Components:
    • Test cases: Actions to be performed & expected results
    • Test data: Valid data, invalid data, boundary data and environment data
  • 5. Test Case Form: Test Case Name: ________________ ___ New Feature ___ Fix ___Regression Test Strategy: Test Server: OS: Database: Machines: Action to be Performed:_________________ ____________________________________ Expected Result: ______________________ ____________________________________
  • 6. Test Case Form (continued): Test Data: Field1 Field2 Field3 Field4 Valid Invalid: Boundary: Environment: Actual Result: ______________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________
  • 7.
    • Summary Test Components:
    • Test log: List of test cases to be executed
    • Test results: List of test cases executed and results 
  • 8.
    • Test Phases:
    • Unit test: Developer tests one function/component separately from all other functions/components.
    • Integration test: Lead developer integrates functions/components and tests the processes end to end to verify communication and state transitions between functions & components.
    • System test: tests the entire system loaded into the environment & platforms where it will be used.
  • 9.
    • Test Types (need to plan test cases for each):
    • Regression test: Comprehensive test cases to verify changes made to specific functions do not affect previously tested functionality
    • Alpha test: First full test of system by developers, and perhaps one or two users
    • Beta test: Test cases performed by users to determine usability and functionality. 
  • 10.
    • Basic Testing Concepts (continued):
    • Test Types:
    • Load test: Test cases performed to verify product’s behaviour as the number of users and transactions increase.
    • User acceptance test: Test cases performed by users to determine if the system is ready for release.
  • 11.
    • Beta Testing
    • After alpha test by IT, given to end users to find problems
    • Comprehensive: verify end to end data flow for all routine processes
    • Basic: verify data flow for the most important processes
    • Checklist: list of functions to be verified
  • 12.
    • Beta Test Plan:
    • Typical configuration and operations procedures
    • Backed up baseline database
    • End to end data flow
    • Every step in the process
    • Data to be converted from legacy systems
    • Enough time for users to become familiar and create more cases
  • 13.
    • Preparation for Beta Testing:
    • Provide orientation training to users
    • Demo the product
    • Provide forms to:
        • record results of tests
        • request changes
        • document new test cases
    • On completion of Beta test:
    • Estimate time & effort to implement requested changes
    • Provide feedback on beta testing to users
    • Implement requested changes
  • 14.
    • Your Turn (Small Groups):
    • You are a project manager working on the Urgent Care Health Clinic project in the consulting division at IBM that specializes in developing a new patient care and billing system for the Health Industry. Two doctors, three nurses, receptionist.
    • For a beta test, given example test cases using valid data, invalid data, boundary data, and environment data for:
      • A basic test
      • A comprehensive test
  • 15.
    • User Testing:
    • Confirms that the user requirements are met
    • Quality Assurance documents test cases and test data
  • 16.
    • Data Verification Tests:
    • Use test cases that include normal and extreme unusual circumstances (largest number allowed, most complex data)
    • Document why test case was selected, every decision point, every action and the expected result. 
  • 17.
    • Use Cases:
    • Describes the goals and behaviour of people interacting directly or indirectly with your product
    • Used for coding, test cases, and training
    • Identify and prioritize essential tasks to your system
    • Write the text narrative of performing the task with user: what the task does, inputs and outputs
    • Example: in a Human Resource system, an essential task is: Hire an Employee
  • 18.
    • Types of Use Cases:
    • Game Show : Series of cases documenting available choices and consequences (menus, sub-menus, and choices)
    • Example: Menu for system access provides:
    • email setup choice
    • access to internet choice
    • access to job related functions.
  • 19. Types of Use Cases: Historical Novel : Actors and actions to move data through the workflow Example: Think through the workflow: When a new employee is hired, what is the logical progression in the system: e.g., Enter Employee personal information Assign employee to job description Assign employee to salary scale for job
  • 20. Types of Use Cases: Soap Opera : Extreme unusual actions permitted for a single actor. ALWAYS think through extreme examples that happen in practice: ask users for bizarre situations – these will provide test cases to validate functions, check the error handling code, etc Example: what if the employee’s salary is outside of the salary scale for this job?
  • 21.
    • Usability Reviews:
    • A show-and-tell meeting to gather feedback on a deliverable from users
    • Workflow Analysis: Users re-engineer their business processes
      • Your role is to ONLY to provide advice/costing 
  • 22.
    • User Acceptance Test:
    • Obtain user approval that system is ready to be implemented
    • Consists of: Test plan document and signatures of people who approve the release
    • Participation:
        • Usability consultants
        • Data verification experts
        • Beta testers
  • 23.
    • Test Methods: Use Example: HR System
    • Positive/constructive: Tester does what user is supposed to.
    • OR
    • Negative/destructive: Tester tries to break the rules and cause the product to fail. Amount (25%-75%) depends on fault tolerance requirement.
  • 24.
    • Test Methods: Use Example: HR System
    • Structured: Tester follows test plan and performs actions according to test cases.
    • OR
    • Exploratory: Tester improvises. 
  • 25.
    • Test Methods (continued):Use Example: HR System
    • Manual: Tester interacts with product directly.
    • OR
    • Automated:
      • Type: Record and playback systems
      • Tester develops scripts to execute the test cases.
      • Test scripts must be designed, coded, tested, and maintained.
      • Automate only test cases used over and over
  • 26.
    • Test Methods (continued):
    • Functional: Verifies the product works correctly
    • OR
    • Performance: Verifies the product works reliably under stress: query size too large to return data; volume of users, server sharing – any conflicts with other apps?, replication over multiple databases, load balancing across multiple servers, network traffic;
  • 27.
    • Test Methods (continued):
    • Black box: Tester verifies product from a user perspective, using use cases and training materials.
    •   OR
    • White box/glass box: Tester refers to system documentation and verifies product behaviour based on architecture, design, and code.
  • 28.
    • Preparing the Test Plan: PP 109-101
    • The extent of testing will depend on:
    • Scope of project 
    • Deadlines: Fixed deadlines dictate early testing
    • System Documentation Available
    • Test documentation required
  • 29.
    • Test Plan Priorities:
    • How do you decide what is most important to test?
    • Perform a risk analysis: determine the worst that could happen
    • Consult lawyers: ask how the organization could be fined, sued, or prosecuted
    • Ask for user nightmares of what could happen
  • 30.
    • Ways to Success in testing:
    • QA manager expertise: will lobby for “best practices”
    • Management support: Need to sell the value of testing, and risks of not testing
    • Frequency of new versions: Limit number of regression tests and builds
    • Developer support: Need to sell the value of testing and not to take it personally