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    • Proceedings of ICCTA2009 AN IT SERVICE MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENT STRATEGY FOR CUSTOMER SERVICE SYSTEM Zhang Lei, Huang Yi,Tan Jianbin Beijing Key Laboratory of Intelligent Telecommunications Software and Multimedia, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing zlei@bupt.edu.cn, huangyi@tseg.org, tanjianbin@tseg.org Abstract international standard of IT service management has acquired almost all global IT corporations’ full Flows recombining and information construction support. Many companies such as IBM, HP, and are the most important tasks of enterprise. ITIL is a Microsoft, have already developed their own framework that describes the best practices of IT approaches. From the 2002 year to now, many large management in enterprise. By introducing the domestic enterprises have also successfully concept of IT service management, we analyze the implemented IT service management and thus got limitation and deficiency of customer service flows great improvement on IT systems management and in a telecommunication operator in this paper. IT service quality. However, ITIL is just a standard, Meanwhile, an IT service management implement it does not tell us how to do it in practice. In fact strategy which introduces into core standard flows many enterprises which implemented IT service of ITIL is put forward to meet the special management did not supply IT service to its requirement of customer service system. The customers, therefore the problems of IT systems in availability of strategy is testified through its these enterprises limited in the inner systems like application to a telecommunication operator. This ERP, CRM and database. While the enterprise such paper also describes the strategy in detail on as telecommunicate operator which supplies IT implementation processes, key points, relationships service to its customers did not affiliate the of each participants and etc. customer service flow when implementing the ITSM. As we know, customer service directly Keywords: IT Infrastructure Library; ITSM ; influence the customers’ satisfaction and it is the customer service; knowledge database very important point that enterprise should concern. After a deep analysis of the practical customer 1 Introduction service flows in some telecommunication operators, this paper proposes a strategy of ITSM which suits Nowadays Information Technology Service to all customer service systems Management (ITSM) , the international popular service management theory , has been widely The ITSM implement strategy proposed in this accepted by foreign enterprise managers and paper is formed by analyzing the typical flaws and regarded as the standard of service management. It defects of customer service flows of can effective resolve a series of hot problems in telecommunication operators and combining enterprise such as how to deal with the complexity standard flows of ITIL and the special of IT systems’ architecture and the management , characteristics in enterprise. The strategy included a how to ease the resistance on improving the quality knowledge database and a series of core flows in of the customer service , how to increase the ITIL like incident management, problem utilization of resources, reduce costs and improve management, service level management, the flexibility to adapt to changes, how to manage configuration management, change management, risks scientifically , short the gap between deploy management and etc. It also considered the restructuring strategy of enterprise and IT character in most telecommunication operators that architecture , promote the company's financial any serious problems of IT systems were charged situation, and ultimately achieve the priority goal of by factories and equipment providers, they were IT services architecture supporting enterprises’ responsible for their product’s quality. The main reconstruction. advantage of this strategy is it increased the application of knowledge database, regulated and Since British Commerce Department proposed the uniformed the customer service management and Information Technology Infrastructure Library thus formed an enclosed work flow which was (ITIL) on mid-1980s of 20 century, ITIL as an detectable, advanced and measurable. It not only 1
    • improved the quality of the IT service in concern that cross-cuts many of the processes in the enterprise , but also promote the amalgamation of other modules of the framework, and the security IT and business. processes in the framework are displayed as such. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Service support is the most common starting point section 2 introduces framework and core flows of for organizations adapting best practices based on ITIL. Section 3 takes the customer service flows of the ITIL framework. Service support has five a telecommunication operator as an example, process areas (configuration management, change analyzes main problems particularly in this management, release management, incident enterprise by considering ITIL standards and finally management, and problem management) and one gives a feasible solution. Section 4 proposes an function (service desk)[2]: ITSM implementation strategy aiming especially at 1. Configuration management—This process is customer service systems and applies it in a the foundation of service support and an telecommunication operator to certify its integration point for other ITIL processes. The availability . Section 5 gives the final conclusion of configuration management process ensures that this paper and the future work. no configuration record (and hence, no corresponding CI (configuration item)) is 2 Instruction of ITIL added, modified, replaced, or removed without appropriate controlling documentation. ITIL(IT Infrastructure Library) is currently the 2. Change management—This is the set of most widely-adopted approach to IT service processes that manage and control changes to management available and provides a set of best- the actual CIs and relationships among them.’ practice guidelines for IT service management. The ITIL guide breaks down the key principles of the IT 3. Release management—This process is often service management discipline into the following used to implement approved changes, sub-categories, which are collectively known as the particularly if the implementation is complex. ITIL framework, shown in Figure 1[2]. Several factors influence the determination of the complexity of a change, such as the number of affected components and the level of coordination required among executors. 4. Incident management—This is the set of processes that deal with service disruptions. In practice, the environment is too complex, things sometimes go wrong, or at least appear to go wrong, from the perspective of a client. The entry point into incident management is the service desk function. IT staff use the service desk to record and monitor the progress Figure 1. The ITIL framework of incidents and manage incident priority. 5. Problem management—This process is As you can see from the diagram above, the responsible for identifying the root cause of Business Perspective module is closely aligned to incidents and tracking the problem until it is the Business, and the ICT Infrastructure fixed or a permanent alternative is identified. Management module is closely aligned to the Problem resolution can take many forms, such Technology. The Planning to implement Service as requiring a software redesign by Management module handles all the issues and development, installing a software patch, or tasks involved in planning, implementing, and replacing or reconfiguring a component to improving the IT service management processes enhance its performance. that will be deployed. Service delivery focuses on planning for and The Service Management module is really the crux improving IT services, whereas service support of the framework and contains the Service Support focuses on day-to-day operations. Service delivery and Service Delivery sub-modules within it. The is composed of five process areas: Service Delivery module covers the processes involved in planning and delivering IT Services, 1. Service level management—This process is a and the Service Support module describes the common starting point. The IT organization processes required for those IT Services' daily negotiates SLAs with its customers (internal or support and maintenance. The Application external). These agreements specify service Management module details the processes required levels such as end-user response time, to manage an application through all phases of its allowable planned and unplanned downtime, application lifecycle. Security Management is a and cost. The SLA provides the direct link 2
    • between the business units that contract for Customer services and IT. Knowledge Knowledge database 2. Availability management—This process is database asministrator responsible for planning, monitoring, and Operator improving the availability of business services. It seeks to strike the best balance between First level experts availability metrics, such as mean time to Order failure and recovery time and the cost to Dispatch manager deliver a service level. Second level experts 3. Capacity management— This process is responsible for planning, monitoring, and improving the capacity to deliver business Factory services. 4. Financial management for IT services—This Figure 3. Customer service flow of an enterprise process is responsible for managing an IT service provider’s budgeting, accounting, and When operator in customer service center of charging requirements (capital costs and enterprise receives a telephone from customer, the depreciation are part of another process called first step is to judge the incident situation. He or she asset management that is not detailed in this only needs to query knowledge database system if paper). the service is general business consultation. When customers ask to change their business service (like 5. IT service continuity—This process shares changing Multimedia Message Service, altering characteristics with availability management, cell-phone charge package, suspending cell-phone, but it has a different emphasis. and etc), the operator could logon relative systems directly and modify. If operators can not solve the In sum, the framework and relationship between problem of customer, they must build a work order processes of ITIL is as shown in figure 2 immediately and send it to order dispatch manager through order system. The work order usually contains a flow instance number, problem type, exigency degree, customer information, contact way, question description, disposal method, customer feedback and so on. Not only the operator can send work orders to order dispatch manager, but also do underling business halls. When dispatch managers check an order, they must judge whether the problems described in order can be disposed by first level experts, if it is ok, sending directly to the first level experts. If it is not , sending the order following the problem’s type to second level technique experts of each Figure2. Core processes of ITIL and their department. The respond time of a fault is 24 hours. relationship When the first level experts solve the problem before deadline, they must fill in the disposal 3 A specific analysis of customer service method in order system and send order back to the system in an enterprise original order dispatch manager. The dispatch manager would contact the customer, fill in the Taking the customer service flows in a customer feedback and at that time the flows of a telecommunication operator as an example, the work order are over. The order would be transferred main problems exist in its customer service are to second level technique supporters on the illustrated in follows and a feasible solution is condition that the first level experts did not solve given. problem until deadline. 3.1 Customer service flow The second level experts can receive orders from order system, they must try their best to solve it After researching on customer service flows in an within 24 hours and fill in the disposal method, enterprise, we summarize the work flows of its then send back to order dispatch manager. The customer service system are as follows: following work flows of dispatch manager are the same as above flows described. What’s the difference between the first level experts and the 3
    • second level is that when the first level expert is not 4 ITSM implement strategy aiming at able to solve the problem, he just need to send the customer service system order to second level experts, but if the second level expert also can not solve the problem, he need to 4.1 Description of implement strategy call for the technologists of relative factories or equipment providers for help. All the remain work Comparing key flows of service support in ITIL, are left to factories. we can find the service desk in service flows of enterprise actually has two entry points. One point 3.2 Analysis of existing problem is via telephone to reach operator, another is via emails of the underling business halls to reach the As we can see from the description above, it is sure order dispatch manager. Though it is disaccord with that the customer service process of this enterprise the demand of ITSM ---the entry point must be only is feasible to some extent, but we can not deny that one, it is reasonable because of meeting the currently the customer service still locates in practical needs. The following incident conventional stage of IT management. It is guided management flow also conforms to event principle by technology and engineers serve as “fire fighter”. of transferring from easy to difficult. The only The IT service is so passive that each department in place needs to be ameliorated is searching function enterprise is isolated and disperse, what’s more, the of knowledge database. It just includes the easy faq disposal of incidents is “one-off”. In sum, for and key search function and thus can not get the lacking of the regular flows and measures, the satisfying searching result. Meanwhile, Enterprise customer service has problems as follows: could break away the reliance of talents and 1. Although special maintenances including decrease the operate costs only by improving the inserting, updating and deleting were done to broadness of participants in knowledge database, in the knowledge database system , its only other words, let more and more technique experts support to key search and the oversize participating in the edit and share of knowledge searching granularity result in lower efficiency database. The problem management flow is of query . basically carried by second level experts. They 2. The staff in IT department of enterprise were describe the incidents, analyze possible causes and busy with “fire fighting”, what experts record solve methods in their individual documents, impersonates are still the role of file fighters but all the records were not contained in knowledge and they bog down the passive service state, system and can not be shared and enjoyed by every wherever there is problems, they jump on member. What’s more, the change requirement there. The service quality and staff proposed by second level experts resolved directly performance can not be measured by standards. by factories, due to the fact that almost all the 3. The IT management of enterprise still relies on systems in telecommunication operator are some “talents”. The contexts of knowledge provided and maintained by factories, so do the database are limited in business information, flows like change management, configure knowledge accumulation of technologists are management and deplore management. We just not included into database in practice. IT supposed that the work flows of factories conform management over relied on person because of to ITIL criterion for the sake of research needs. lacking the accumulation of relative flows and Consequently, from the analysis of customer knowledge. Thus IT systems might even be service management system in this enterprise, it is enmeshed in paralysis by fluxion of key certain that the ameliorate keystone consists employees. following aspects: 4. Operator(service desk) is not the only entry 1. Reconstructing of knowledge database, using point to customers. Orders need to be highly efficiency search method and asking dispatched by special dispatch manager and more technologists to participate in this system thus make them be in core status. in order to form a sharing knowledge database of company. Therefore the IT management at president can be 2. Designing a module in order system to considered to be the first level of passive service, dispatch order automatically instead of higher level could change the service state from manpower, according to the service level and passive to initiative, so much as predict the difficult degree established in service level problems in future and solve them initiatively. The management. In this way operator turns to be key to achieve this object rest not only with the the only entry point to customer. support of IT management tools, but also the 3. Forming integrated logs of the whole customer regular flows and employees’ techniques, that are service flows, including the specific the very kernel of ITSM. description of incident by technologists in each level, disposal time, disposal method, customer 4
    • feedback and so on. It facilities managers to transferred to the second level technologists if evaluate the work efficiency and customer problems were not solved until deadline. quality entirely and to control the current problems of IT system in time so as to solve The second technologist can check orders from them conveniently. order system, their work flows are similar as the first level experts. However, if the second level 4.2 Test of Implementation Strategy expert also can not solve the problem, he need to call for the technologists of relative factories or Basing on above analysis, the ITSM is equipment providers to rectify. All the problems of implemented on the customer service system of a system are disposed by factories. In this situation, telecommunication operator. The flows of customer factory would carry out the change management, service system implemented under guidance of this configuration management and release management strategy are shown as figure 4: flows. Customer When experts write experience of solving problems into knowledge database, another work must be done is analyzing the incidents of their working Knowledge Operator Incident M Knowledge database field which occurred in highly frequency and database asministrator summarizing the root causes of these incidents. The Service Problem M factories must solve problems radically while the Level M Judge Second level problem is serious or come down to system’s service level experts architecture. This stage realized problem Configuration M Change M management flow in ITIL. Release M Factory Some knowledge independent of techniques in First level Problem M knowledge database(like business information) are experts managed by special administrators ,they take Figture4. Flows of ITSM implementation strategy charge the management of these information. aiming at customer service Technique knowledge could just be administrated by experts themselves. When operator in customer service center of enterprise receives a telephone from customer , the A great advantages have taken place in enterprise first step is to judge the incident situation. Querying since the ITSM has been implemented to customer the knowledge database system if the service service system under this strategy’s guidance: belongs to general business consultation. When 1. Knowledge database becomes a very important customer asks to change his or her business service system in customer service system, it not only (like changing Multimedia Message service, record simple business information, but also altering cell-phone charge package, suspending the experts’ experiences of whole IT systems. cell-phone, and etc), operator could logon relative As the result, managers could break away the system directly to modify. However, operator must reliance of talents and the recruits could adapt build a work order immediately if he or she can not their new work easily. solve the problem. The dispatch module would 2. Employees’ work performances are recorded dispatch orders automatically to first level or entirely by order system and the statistic second level technologists, according to the reports could also be produced exactly problem description, problem type, priority level, according to different requirements. This difficulty degree and so on. In this stage service function facilities managers measuring the desk, incident management flow and service level work quantity and efficiency of staff and management flow have been carried out. evaluating their performance. The incident response time timed at the moment when the first level experts received order. They 3. Incident disposal pace increased fast due to the must fill in the disposal method and send the order standardization of incident disposal deadline , back to the original operator if the problem was complaints from clients decreased and a great resolved successfully in certain time(this time could improvement of client’s satisfaction were be determined by manager), then operator would obtained since ITSM has been implemented. contact customer and record the feedback, after that 4. The customer service management under the an order is over. Meanwhile, the incident guidance of this strategy improves employees’ description and resolve method need to the be work efficiency, secures the business systems’ recorded into knowledge database by the first level steady and health operation and boosts IT experts ( the repeated context could be imported service quality in actuality. directly from order system ). Orders will be 5
    • 5 Conclusion management. IBM SYSTEMS JOURNAL, VOL 46, NO 3, 2007 A method based on concept of ITSM is proposed in [2] Wang Zhen, Zhang Xin-yu. An ITIL-based IT this paper to resolve the problem faced by the big Service Management Model for Chinese companies on the customer service, while the Universities. Fifth International Conference methods nowadays lack in valid integrating and on Software Engineering Research, canonical controlling of the flow. The basic three Management and Applications targets, including providing IT service concentrated [3] Foundations of IT Service Management Based on the customer, affording of high quality of on ITIL, J.Van Bon, M. Pieper, and A. van der service with low costs and offering an evaluated Verrn, Editors, van Haren Publishing (2006). service, are achieved by using the strategy [4] IBM IT services. mentioned in this paper. The manager of the http://www-935.ibm.com/services/us/index.ws company could manage better on the quality of s/gen_it?nav=left service, the malfunction of network and the performance of employees through using the [5] White paper: IT service management customer manage system based on ITSM, as well as http://www-900.ibm.com/cn/support/guide/wh more exact and directly on listening and itebooks/Service_Management/Service_Mana controlling. The pulse of the operation and gement.shtml dispatching of resource are hold more quickly [6] Microsoft Inc. MOF Process Model for which produces high efficiency and safety. Seen Operations. from the aspect of customer service, it make the http://www.microsoft.com/technet/solutionacc dealing to the complaints and malfunction elerators/cits/mo/mof/default.mspx, proceeding in a swift and effective states when 2004-02-17. make the flow, containing proposing, accepting, [7] HP.The HP IT Service Management dealing and feedback, of them canonical. By this do Reference the company gain the confidence from the Model.http://www.hp.com/hps/itsm, customers as well as assess suitably to the 2003-02-18. employees. This method brought to the company a [8] Enhance IT Infrastructure Library service remarkable worthiness in the feasibility, advanced management capabilities.http://www.ibm.com/ and scalability. developerworks/autonomic/library/wsitil/inde x.html References [9] Bon J V. IT Service Management And Introduction. Canada:Van Haren Publishing, [1] M. W. Johnson,A. Hately,B. A. Miller,R. Orr . 2002. Evolving standards for IT service 6