TeamQuest and ITIL - Part 3
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    TeamQuest and ITIL - Part 3 TeamQuest and ITIL - Part 3 Document Transcript

    • WHITE PAPER IT Knowledge Exchange Series TEAMQUEST AND ITIL A SERIES OF WHITE PAPERS ON ENTERPRISE IT BEST PRACTICES Part 3 – Implementing Capacity Management
    • Contents Summary .................................................................................................. 2 Why Capacity Management First ................................................................. 3 The Work of Capacity Management ............................................................. 3 Which Other ITIL Processes Interface with Capacity Management ................. 5 Steps to Implement Capacity Management ................................................. 5 Gather the Data ............................................................................. 6 Build the Plan ................................................................................ 6 Execute the Plan ............................................................................ 7 Open for Business .......................................................................... 9 Post Implementation Review .......................................................... 10 Success Factors ....................................................................... 10 Potential Pitfalls ...................................................................... 10 The Bottom Line ........................................................................................ 11 Bibliography .............................................................................................. 11 1 | TeamQuest IT Knowledge Exchange Series TeamQuest and ITIL — Part 3
    • Summary Once a decision has been made to improve service by adopting ITIL frameworks and best practices, a plan must be developed to implement the changes to the organizations. Implementation options vary from comprehensive all-or-nothing implementations to a variety of staged implementations. Some ITIL proponents propose a full implementation, thinking that it is easier because the organization goes through the pain only once. All new processes are implemented at once so all interfaces are operational on day one. The company enjoys the full benefit of ITIL immediately even with the normal break-in period. The risk of a full implementation is that some processes may not operate immediately as expected and therefore impact business processes. As a result, patience may wear thin and the entire implementation project may be abandoned. Other ITIL proponents feel that IT and business leaders should choose a staged approach when implementing the ITIL framework and best practices because the impact of change on the organization is overwhelming. When shortcomings or omissions are found a staged approach permits the IT organization to refine and exercise its implementation processes before more comprehensive, and difficult, larger scale implementations proceed. Early successes reveal the true value of ITIL and build confidence and determination to complete the remaining implementation steps. Since a single process is being implemented, there is generally more patience while the bugs are being worked out, so there is less risk of abandoning the implementation project. Published reports of ITIL implementations show both methods have been successful. This paper will more closely examine the conservative staged approach. 2 | TeamQuest IT Knowledge Exchange Series TeamQuest and ITIL — Part 3
    • Why Capacity Management First? Planning to implement service Capacity management (CM) is one of management several services that is a good candidate for a pilot implementation. Many companies already perform CM in some The Technology Service Infrastructure The Business form or another and may just need to The Business Management Perspective consolidate organizations and refine Support processes to migrate to the new paradigm. Existing senior technicians probably IT have a good idea of where performance improvement and resource reduction opportunities exist. These improvement Service opportunities may not have been pursued Delivery due to lack of understanding of benefits or organizational dynamics. With the Security new organization and its best practices, performance and/or financial benefits Management will be more clearly communicated and processes will drive the remediation Application Management work, resulting in relatively quick returns. For example, CM staff working with an application team could tune a database capacity management 1. Gather the Data application, resulting in lower per 2. Build the Plan transaction resource utilization which 3. Execute the Plan could delay an expensive infrastructure 4. Open for Business upgrade. The resulting budget savings 5. Post Implementation Review will reinforce the value of implementing CM and the remaining ITIL processes. Some of the immediate benefits are: Lower costs Improved quality The Work of Capacity • Higher precision tools and more effective best practices permit • Predictive modeling disciplines Management existing technology assets to be more efficiently provision capacity driven closer to the edge, getting and provide more timely capacity and Capacity management is responsible for more out of existing resources and related cost information to the ensuring that IT infrastructure resources improving IT cost per service unit business for more informed are in place to satisfy planned business positions. decisions. needs and that those infrastructure assets are effectively used. The desired • Continuous runtime improvement • More comprehensive input to Total goal for capacity management is to processes fine tune applications Cost of Ownership analyses improve provide a service that is proactive rather and infrastructure components, accuracy so more informed decisions than reactive in nature. thus improving performance, can be made regarding proposed reducing consumption and delaying new and/or major IT-related upgrade expensive capacity upgrades. initiatives. If you like what you have • Central performance and capacity • Proactive analyses with modeling read, get a data stores eliminate redundant work tools project consumption at future across IT units and ensures consistent growth levels and discover FREE SUBSCRIPTION reporting. Redundant tools can be bottlenecks with sufficient warning to correct before business services to learn more visit decommissioned, resulting in improved staff productivity, lower are adversely affected. software expenses and lower online data storage requirements. 3 | TeamQuest IT Knowledge Exchange Series TeamQuest and ITIL — Part 3
    • The major work components of capacity management are: Sample Capacity Plan 1,000 Performance management is a 900 continuous improvement process that examines application and system 800 program performance, analyzes them 700 for possible improvements, identifies 600 candidates for improvement, specs 500 out the costs and requirements, commissions the corrective work, then 400 Tune SQL measures and reports the results. An 300 effective performance management 200 Plan team can reclaim infrastructure capacity by finding ways to improve the way 100 Actual applications consume resources. 0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC For example, changing the way an application reads a large database can improve response times to the end user increments of usage on a particular business can afford. The most important and reclaim capacity by using fewer infrastructure component. The goal is inputs to the estimation process are resources to do the same work. to address capacity needs on a business the business plans and metrics, and process basis. Since some business the service level agreements. Without The performance management team processes have downstream effects on these two important pieces, the works closely with quality assurance other processes, this is a more efficient infrastructure components cannot be testing and performance volume stress and more effective method of performing accurately and efficiently designed. For testing teams to monitor changes to capacity planning. For example, selling a most organizations this is a large effort applications and catch performance certain quantity of merchandise will have which should not be underestimated. problems before they are introduced an immediate affect on infrastructure Sufficient time and people resources into production. resources at the time of the sale, but will should be allocated to perform the task also have a future affect on resources as correctly. A well done capacity plan can Workload management uses data the sales will generate a certain number have a substantial positive impact on IT from performance monitoring tools to of customer inquiry calls after the sale. expenditures by right-sizing components separate resource usage by business Knowing these business relationships, a and employing just-in-time provisioning process rather than individual capacity planner can make a much more techniques. accurate prediction of future needs. The capacity database is a repository of There are three major aspects Building the capacity plan is probably all IT and business related information to capacity management the most important, and most complex, needed to perform the work of capacity piece of work the capacity management management. The data store can also be Strategic: Business capacity team produces. In most cases the used by other organizations, eliminating management looks at understanding capacity plan is produced on an annual redundancy. For example, utilization future business requirements and the basis and mid-course corrections are data can be extracted for the financial impact of them and business growth made at predetermined intervals, usually management team in order to produce on Service Level Agreements (SLA) quarterly or semiannually. The plan takes chargeback billing reports and the and infrastructure resources. into account current business volumes, enterprise command center can utilize projected business growth by business the real-time data collection facility to Tactical: Service capacity management unit or process, budgetary considerations monitor system performance. A single looks at applications and the business from the financial organization, planned data store is preferred but multiple processes they support from an projects from the applications teams stores can be used if data collection enterprise perspective, understanding and the technical support organizations, tools require, however doing so usually resource consumption patterns and service restoration requirements from requires a significant work effort to cycles to ensure services can meet availability management teams, business integrate the data sources and pull the SLAs. contingency requirements from the information together into a common disaster recovery teams, and service level format for reporting and modeling Operational: Resource capacity agreements in place and planned. purposes. Examples of data captured and management looks at resources from stored are business volumes, budgetary an individual infrastructure component The capacity planning team works with information and consumption data. perspective and then builds and service level management and finance maintains the infrastructure capacity teams to devise the best plan that meets plan. the business requirements at a cost the 4 | TeamQuest IT Knowledge Exchange Series TeamQuest and ITIL — Part 3
    • Modeling is the process of using software platforms among applications, resource appropriately sized and configured. SLM that employs mathematical formulas to management requires substantial passes the detailed SLA information back simulate infrastructure performance and knowledge of individual application to CM so that the appropriate capacity permit business growth to be applied to usage patterns. For example, a resource positions can be put in place to satisfy the model in order to closely approximate capacity planner may plan for a nightly the need. Reporting processes are then future resource needs. Modeling can batch reporting process to run on the set up to measure and report service find bottlenecks in application systems same server and a day-time online results and forward to SLM for input into before they adversely impact business transaction system that runs from 8 their processes. processes and provide sufficient warning a.m. to 5 p.m. In doing so, the capacity so corrective actions can be completed planner takes advantage of idle capacity Another important interface is that before service interruptions occur. Even on the processor, satisfying the night- with Cost management. This interface with the modeling tools available to the time capacity need with little or no generally applies to chargeback efforts team, this is a labor intensive effort, additional cost. and the building of TCO documents. The usually reserved for large scale projects timely and comprehensive exchange and mission critical applications. That Capacity management also provides of data ensures the costs of IT services being said, accurate modeling can a sizing service for new business are well understood and communicated prevent productivity losses due to applications and major application and appropriately to the business. The outages or slowdowns and can reduce or infrastructure upgrade projects. The level of detail will depend on how the eliminate the risk of needing to purchase capacity team takes initial business business and corporate finance account interim resources to maintain business metrics, application function and for IT expenditures and chargebacks. as usual until corrective actions can be workflow information, proposed data accomplished. storage structure and volume information and produces an estimate of the Steps to Implement Demand management relates to managing IT resources consumed by resources needed to provision the new functionality or changes. Capacity then Capacity Management users. The capacity manager is in the works closely with financial management unique position of seeing both the to develop a 5-year TCO (Total Cost of business need and the technology Ownership) document to assist IT and available to satisfy it. Where conflicts business leaders in understanding the between business requirements and initial and ongoing support costs before budgetary constraints arise, the capacity work has started. The costs can then be manager should know the options and compared with the business value of the trade-offs available and start dialogues new work or workflows and an informed between the affected parties to determine decision can be made whether to proceed the best solution from a business point with the project. of view. The capacity manager also manages resources during extreme periods such as IT cutbacks resulting from Which Other ITIL business downturns, unexpected high business volumes, or disasters. During Processes Interface these extraordinary events the capacity manager is responsible for optimizing with Capacity All successful projects start with a existing resources and satisfying as Management? project plan. Implementing capacity management is no different. A project many business needs as possible based upon business priorities. manager with a record of success in Capacity is probably the most wide implementing large, complex projects ranging of all the ITIL processes, should be assigned. Additional staff Resource management deals with the having links to virtually every area individual resource components of as required by the company’s project in the IT and business communities. management process should be assigned workloads and business processes by: Capacity management processes at the same time. Support staff will are tightly integrated with the other be needed to document the progress. • Accumulating them by specific service delivery processes and with platforms Since this implementation is the pilot, configuration management, business the support staff should be sufficient to strategic planning, incident and quickly handle any anomalies during the • Applying recovery requirements problem management, and change execution of the project plan and should management. be the ones to make adjustments to the • Devising a capacity plan for each component at an acceptable cost general implementation procedures One of the most important interfaces to smooth the way for future process is to Service Level Management (SLM). implementations. To get the best possible utilization from Capacity management passes historical IT assets and the best fit when sharing service metrics to SLM so SLAs can be 5 | TeamQuest IT Knowledge Exchange Series TeamQuest and ITIL — Part 3
    • 1. Gather the Data distribution lists should be inventoried. Existing policies and procedures should be responsible for establishing the three major components of capacity be documented. management - people, processes and The first step is to identify a capacity tools. The plan will also determine manager. In all shops with more than The project team should inventory the the costs necessary to sustain the 100 IT employees, this should be a IT staff both from the perspective of organization, build a preliminary full time position. The leader must be those performing CM work today, but budget, and compare it to the current a true IT generalist. He needs to be a also from the perspective of finding expenditures for similar function people person, able to communicate those who have the skills necessary to and possible spread across the well and build relationships with perform the future CM work. organization. business as well as technical staff. He needs to understand business A tools and software inventory The components of the implementation processes and he needs a good grip should also be performed. In most plan are: on all facets of IT technology. Over organizations, different tools are time he will probably interface with used by different departments to Determine where capacity management every leader in the organization. He perform monitoring, capacity planning, is placed in the IT organization. The will need strong negotiation skills to performance management, and ideal placement is as a direct report to initiate the work identified by him and chargeback work. the CIO, IT Director or within the Service his staff to streamline applications. He Management group. However a number will be responsible and accountable The project team should work with of organizations opt to place it in the for the entire IT infrastructure capacity the finance organization to collect the Operations area. This may not be a good budget which includes servers and details from the various IT and business choice as applications and user areas associated software, networks, network budgets that pertain to capacity may feel capacity management will connectivity equipment such as routers management work. This is necessary immediately take the Operations point and modems, and telephony equipment to understand the differences between of view rather than a neutral position. such as PBX and VRU. existing run rates and the start-up and ongoing support costs for the new At this point in time a decision must The next task is to define the vision for organization. be made as to having a formal, capacity management. Although the centralized capacity management decision has been made to implement Once the assessment and inventories team or have a matrixed organization. the ITIL framework and best practices, have been completed, the next step Many organizations separate network in most cases the vision behind the is to perform a gap analysis. The gap functions under entirely different decision is at a much higher level than analysis will show the areas that need management teams. Generally it is better needed to scope and develop a CM team process improvements or new work to to have a single organization. Today’s process that meets the business needs. be performed and where efforts are applications are complex and span a The team tasked to develop the vision duplicated. Staffing needs and/or number of technologies so it is necessary should include senior IT management skills and training requirements will be to examine an application with an end- and the capacity manager. The vision identified. The project team will identify to-end perspective to determine where will include a mission statement and any tools needs and any duplication. The capacity upgrades or tuning efforts are desired end-state goals, processes and results of the gap analysis is essential to required. For example, when adding responsibilities. build the project plan, define the work online data storage for a new database that needs to be accomplished, identify or data store, there is more to it than In concert with developing the vision, tools that need to be acquired, unveil just buying the physical storage. A work can commence on creating a staffing requirements and the costs centralized capacity management team current state assessment. This is will look at the operating environment frequently prepared with the assistance Now that the gap analysis has revealed as a whole. If the storage is to be of a consultant or facilitator however the changes required to migrate to kept remotely, the capacity team will the Office of Government Commerce the new organization, the project know if there is sufficient bandwidth (OGC) does provide a self-assessment plan can be developed and a cost to transmit the data for backup and checklist that can be used to narrow analysis completed. Staffing, tools and recovery purposes. The capacity team the focus of the assessment work. The equipment needs will be translated into will also know if sufficient backup media project team should survey the entire IT costs and included in the cost analysis. and equipment, such as tape drives, are organization and discover where and to available to perform the additional work what extent capacity management work within the timeframes specified in the is being performed today. For example in many large companies network, server, 2. Build the Plan SLA. Environmental capacity (power, air conditioning, surge protection, backup and mainframe capacity planning are Once the gap analysis has been generator, etc.) will also be reviewed being done in different organizations completed, sufficient information will to ensure sufficient resources exist to under different leaders. Capacity be available to tailor an implementation support the new equipment. In a split and Performance Reports and their plan to attain the vision. The plan will team, miscommunications can lead to 6 | TeamQuest IT Knowledge Exchange Series TeamQuest and ITIL — Part 3
    • omissions in researching one or more The project should include members of already familiar with. One of the goals for of the additional elements, resulting in the financial team so a comprehensive a capacity planner is to be trained to work unplanned service issues. implementation and ongoing operations across all infrastructure components budget can be developed. In addition, rather than a single technology. Good Sufficient time must be allowed to these project team members will assist communication skills, both verbal and develop the process documents. The in identifying current expenditures written are desired for these positions. documents should have a description of across the organization that performs all the data inputs, information outputs capacity management functions. All the Performance – and work processes. A flow chart of financial information is then fed into Good candidates for performance the work flow should also be included. the TCO document and submitted to management roles are staff with Much thought needs to occur to ensure management with the proposed project experience in System Programming, all interfaces and work are identified. plan. Applications Performance Management, In addition, the project plan needs to Operations Analysis, Database Support, develop a process and identify a team Project reports should be determined Problem Determination and Performance to handle any process gaps during or and agreed upon. Many organizations Monitoring. Medium and large immediately following implementation. employ the use of a dashboard report, organizations will have a well diversified using traffic lights (Green, Yellow, Red) group of people to permit specialization The plan must include tasks to identify to signify project status. in key areas such as database tuning and and train the people performing the application coding techniques. work. The plan will vary depending Once the project plan and the budget upon management’s decision to staff have been completed, the Project Modeling – from within or look externally for the Manager and the Project Sponsor Engineers make good candidates but appropriate talent. Job descriptions need present the plan for approval. must be able to transition from a detailed to be drafted and sufficient time allocated to business focus. Mathematicians to work with the Human Resources understand the modeling process but organization to review and adopt them. 3. Execute the Plan need an IT operational background to be able to ensure the models truly reflect Sufficient time must be built into the plan Build the Organization the real life environment. to train not only the capacity management team but any other team that interfaces The first step is to write the job Data gathering, storage with capacity management. Many descriptions. The size of the and reporting – organizations have chosen to train organization will dictate the number Good candidates for these positions everyone on capacity management, just and function of the positions. Job have experience in one or more of the as they do with service level management descriptions should be developed following areas: technical support, or financial management. Many post even if the work is matrixed to another monitoring, chargeback, and IT reporting. implementation reviews reveal that organization. Job descriptions should A candidate with multiple infrastructure insufficient time was made for training specify the position name, salary grade, platform experience is a plus. and the implementation would have had skills required to perform the work, and many fewer incidents had more time any previous experience required. Process champion – been allocated. This person audits the process on an Some of the desired skill sets for annual basis and is responsible for Any work regarding acquisition, capacity management positions are: making appropriate process changes as consolidation and/or implementation dictated by changes in the workflow. This of capacity and performance tools will Capacity Planner – is usually not a full time position and can be included in the plan. If tools are to For business and service capacity be filled by any capacity management be acquired, the project manager needs management, applications and/or team member with good writing skills. to allow sufficient time in the plan business analyst experience is desired for corporate acquisition policies and as the work is usually at a higher level Document and Publish the Processes procedures to be followed. than a single infrastructure component. Since this is a pilot example, it is The project manager needs to develop Engineers or long time technical support more work as interim interfaces and a plan item to communicate the staff can perform the functions very goals have to be identified so work processes to the organization. Many effectively but must be able to rise above can be accomplished with a minimum organizations use their internal corporate a detail level to be successful. Resource of interruption while the rest of the communications team to accomplish this capacity management can be performed organization rolls out. task. Due to demands on their talents, by staff with previous engineering, the project manager should schedule technical support or operation Writing the processes is a lot of work. It the work with corporate communications monitoring/command center background is necessary to document the workflow: well in advance so project goals can be as they are working at individual inputs, outputs, work accomplished, achieved. infrastructure components that they are steps to accomplish, who does the work, 7 | TeamQuest IT Knowledge Exchange Series TeamQuest and ITIL — Part 3
    • who receives the work, outside assistance from all tools is based upon the same scheduled reports can be produced with needed to execute the processes. It may collection interval and that data can be minimum staff intervention. In today’s be advantageous to employ the services easily moved between tools. Manual environment, reporting tools that of a professional writer to do the bulk of input of data from one tool into another provide web-based displays of reports the work with management and technical can be a productivity drain in most are a plus as they eliminate the need for staff creating just an outline to minimize shops. Manual input is tedious, subject costly printing and distribution. disruption to day-to-day activities. to change, and very time consuming for Doing so ensures the processes are servers that have numerous peripheral Analysis functions – documented consistently, in the same devices attached such as hundreds on The tools need to be able to assist format and in the same language (tone online data storage volumes. Therefore performance management and capacity and wording). it is necessary to have automated planning staff in analyzing infrastructure methods of integrating the tools if utilization data. They need to be able Although an organization can structure capacity management productivity is to to perform trend analysis to determine the work in many different ways, the be maintained at expected levels. when resources will be needed or to most common components of capacity spot performance anomalies before they management where processes need to Tools required to successfully and impact service. They should be able be documented are: efficiently execute capacity management to process large amounts of data and processes have the following functions present them in abbreviated form based • Performance management – and capabilities: upon the users needs. The tools should continuous performance have the ability for a wide view, from improvement Monitor and infrastructure an individual application on a server to of applications, performance trend utilization data collection tools – an end-to-end application or business analysis and analysis of chronic These tools are required for real-time process. application performance problems. monitoring of infrastructure components and to harvest the associated utilization Artificial intelligence is available • Capacity Planning/capacity plan – data, storing it for future analysis. The with some tool sets, especially in the building of the capacity plan, collection tools should have the ability to mainframe and network areas. This can resource management, demand segregate data based upon user-defined reduce analysis time when researching management, capacity management. categories, associating usage by user, a performance problem and can permit application and/or business process. less knowledgeable staff to identify • Modeling – forecast future needs The tools should have automation built problems quickly. However one needs through use of simulation tools and in so staff support is necessary for the to be careful with automation in complex proactive bottleneck discovery. day-to-day functions of the tool. environments. For example, artificial intelligence could mistakenly diagnose • Performance data collection, storage The tools should be able to collect a problem because different problems and reporting – without the detailed application performance data or interacting problems could exhibit data, little of the work of capacity such as CICS, DB2, Oracle, Java, SAP, similar characteristics. management can be accomplished Email, Network packets and other major and communicated. applications. The user interface to the Modeling tools – tools should be intuitive and easy to This tool or set of tools should permit • New Application and major upgrade use with minimal training requirements. simulation of utilization changes to the sizing. In Wintel and Midrange systems, the IT infrastructure components. Again, tools should not be kernel intrusive the tools should have a wide span of Acquire and Implement the Tools so operating system integrity can be operation, permitting simulation of a maintained and maintenance processes single device to an end-to-end view Capacity and performance tools are simplified. From a database management of a particular business application as important as people to capacity perspective, the tools should have or business process. The tool should management. The gathering and data management processes built in be easy to use. It should have some processing of infrastructure utilization or employ common database systems automation built in such as automatic and performance data is critical to such as DB2, Sybase, and Oracle where calibration of baseline models (those the team’s success. Without the right existing data center tools can be used. models developed to simulate the current detailed data it is difficult for the staff infrastructure components at current to efficiently or effectively execute Reporting – business volumes). The model should processes and procedures. Ideally a The reporting functions within the have the ability to import data from single tool will provide all of the functions tools should be easy to use. They the data collection tools with minimum mentioned below. However economics should provide greater flexibility, effort. The tool should also have the may dictate that a number of existing permitting detailed reporting for a single ability to easily generate reports of the products must be used and integrated. device or higher level reporting for a simulation results. The capacity manager must review the business process. Reporting should portfolio carefully to ensure that data have automation built in so regularly 8 | TeamQuest IT Knowledge Exchange Series TeamQuest and ITIL — Part 3
    • Analytic and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) are two types of simulation tools • Application sizing – probably the most difficult to measure. The work is 4. Open for Business available on the market today. Analytic usually accomplished with a The initial focus should be directed modeling uses mathematical formulas minimum of technical or business toward performance management. With based upon Queuing Theory to simulate data so accuracy measurements the capacity database just filling with computing environments. DES is much generally are not well-suited. data, time is needed before sufficient more detailed and simulates the actual Productivity measures such as historical data is available before more running of the individual processes completing a sizing within a standard complex work can be performed in the on processors and the transmission period of time is the most common capacity planning areas. of individual packets on network lines metric employed. and devices. Each method has its own Begin by choosing a highly visible but strengths and weaknesses and its own Build the Training Materials and less complex piece of work. Since this is place in the capacity Manager’s toolbox. Execute the Training Plan the ITIL pilot for the entire organization, If we look at the most effective tools on it is better to have a small victory than the market today, there are probably As stated previously, sufficient time a large defeat. When choosing work, ask more analytic tools than DES. must be built into the plan to train not yourself, “If the customer doesn’t see the only the capacity management team problem, is it really a problem and should Define Metrics to Measure Success but any other team that interfaces with we address it now?” For example, if a web capacity management. To accomplish application is operating in a cluster and As with all ITIL processes, there needs this, it will be necessary to develop servers need to be rebooted during the to be a way to measure the success and training materials based upon the day due to memory leaks or other similar ongoing performance of the different IT processes previously drafted. Generally causes, the customer probably doesn’t units. Metrics need to be meaningful the use of a presentation tool such as know it happened as they just refreshed and measurable. They should be tied Microsoft PowerPoint or Adobe Acrobat the browser and the page came back, to business value rather than technical is desirable since it permits self study or albeit from a different server. This is a measures. Metrics should be fewer in group presentations. problem that only impacts operations number yet succinct and to the point, with no customer impact; thus not a still providing management with good From previous experience, self good candidate to demonstrate the representation of the effectiveness study seems to work well in a busy benefits of capacity management. To of the unit. Remember that each ITIL IT environment, however managers start, attack problems that are low risk, process will have at least one metric, must ensure that each member of their have wide visibility and where correction which will be rolled up into an overall staff has sufficient time to read and efforts provide significant benefit to the IT report. It is necessary to keep the comprehend the information. Some company. metrics at a manageable level as organizations have opted to develop executives and managers do not have online training facilities, permitting staff During this time, you will have everyone’s the time or the desire to read through to go through the material in a computer- attention. It is easier to get things many pages of metrics reports. based interactive environment. done during this period as everyone is flush with ITIL training and eager for Examples of metrics are: To ensure retention, testing should be success. Initial roadblocks associated performed. Passing the test should be with process implementation are easier • Performance management – Due made mandatory. Some organizations to break now than at a later date. If to the nature of the work, results offer financial incentives while others needed business data is not available are not known until corrective actions tie success to future compensation or resistance is encountered, now is the have been completed. Generally a and include them in staff Major Job time to escalate. productivity or SLA conformance Objectives. metric is used. At least 30 days of historical performance Once again, it cannot be stressed data should be gathered before • Capacity Planning – generally metrics enough that organizations increase developing any kind of trend or model. showing adherence to the plan, cost their chances for success when more related or SLA conformance are used. time is spent testing. In most cases, the workflows will be substantially • Modeling – accuracy is the major different than the work performed If you like what you have metric used and productivity is not today; therefore it is necessary for each read, get a a good measure due to the varying staff member to understand the work for complexity of work. which he or she is accountable and the FREE SUBSCRIPTION value of the work to the organization. • Data Collection and Reporting – to learn more visit metrics that show completeness and timeliness of data collection and reporting are the most commonly used. 9 | TeamQuest IT Knowledge Exchange Series TeamQuest and ITIL — Part 3
    • Start simple (platform specific) then work • Are the processes accepted and all ITIL processes, especially financial up to end-to-end application transactions observed by staff, both internal and and quality. and then business processes. This will external to capacity management? take time. Some organizations have Potential Pitfalls taken several years to reach end-state Success Factors yet ITIL benefits were enjoyed from the a Unrealistic expectations by start. a Management needs to be very management can erode confidence supportive of training, in the processes. One must Keep a good customer focus. Your implementation and execution remember that a large number business partners in most cases will efforts. Managers at all levels need of companies have successfully welcome you when you say you want to to be ITIL cheerleaders. implemented ITIL framework and best understand their processes. They are as practices, many considering the new proud of what they do as you are of your a Business units must be willing to organization a competitive work. work within the new processes. advantage. To succeed, they ensured management expectations were set a The right people must be in the right realistically. 5. Post Implementation positions to do the work. Review a Behavior of staff used to working a Substantial misses on predictions can cause loss of confidence in the around processes may need capacity management organization. At the end of the implementation project, modifying. Working outside the Attention to detail and additional the project manager should quickly put processes slows work, disrupts work reviews in the initial together a “lessons learned” document day-to-day and generally has implementation will reduce the risk of that identifies any changes that should negative impact on service delivery. missing on predictions. If a be made to the process to facilitate future If people cannot adjust to the new prediction is missed, it is important process migrations. Any implementation workflows and continue to disrupt to quickly determine the reasons process changes should be made at this workflows, their ongoing value to and make appropriate changes to the time. the organization needs to be processes to avoid shortcomings in seriously assessed and the the future. 6-12 months after completion, a post appropriate Human Resources actions implementation audit should be taken. a Lack of patience resulting in partial performed to determine if the new or cancelled implementation. It takes processes are being adhered to and if a Centralized organization is essential staff, and those who interface with the new organization is delivering the to the effectiveness of capacity the organization, time to become expected business benefit. Some of the management. When the organization familiar with new workflows. It is questions that should be asked are: is spread out across IT, it is subject essential to allow sufficient time for to missed handoffs, politics and gaps and issues to be addressed and • Did we accomplish what we set out to conflicting goals. processes to mature. do? a Patience is needed to allow teams a Not enforcing adherence to • Are the metrics measuring the teams’ sufficient time to become proficient processes and falling back to old performance valid? in the new processes and for old behaviors. Two processes are behaviors to die. more confusing and potentially more • Is the team communicating detrimental than a single bad successfully with the organization a Processes and pre-defined teams process. It is difficult as a surprising in accordance with the capacity to execute them need to be in amount of work is accomplished management processes? place and ready for dealing with gaps through the influence of informal once implementation is completed. networks, but managers must resist • Are the interfaces working smoothly? These teams will be used until all ITIL the temptation and let the processes implementations have been work. It may not seem like it at the • Did we meet expectations on benefit completed. The business work must time but when all implementations delivered to the business? continue in spite of the changes so are completed and the staff is familiar when gaps occur it is essential that with the new processes, work will • Has capacity/performance improved the gaps can be addressed before flow through the system much faster. overall? service problems occur. For example, one company saw the time needed to install a software • Have the cost goals been attained? a Compensation policies should be change reduce from 45 days to 2 days adjusted to reinforce ITIL practices due to ITIL process improvements. • Are we capturing the right data? and drive the appropriate behaviors. Common goals should be in place for 10 | TeamQuest IT Knowledge Exchange Series TeamQuest and ITIL — Part 3
    • The Bottom Line Implementing the capacity management framework and best practices takes work and determination but the benefits make it worth the efforts. Once processes mature, your customers will be delighted with the improved quality of IT services as a result of the improved performance and capacity management processes. Management will applaud the lower costs achieved by efficiencies produced through the execution of ITIL capacity management best practices. Bibliography 1. Office of Government Commerce, Capacity Management, The Stationery Office, 1991, ISBN 0113305443. 2. Office of Government Commerce, Service Delivery, The Stationery Office, 2001, ISBN 0113300174. If you like what you have read, get a FREE SUBSCRIPTION To learn more visit 11 | TeamQuest IT Knowledge Exchange Series TeamQuest and ITIL — Part 3