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  • 1. 从管理和运营的角度看 IT 4. MOF 过程模型 喻 勇 , PMP/MCSE 微软特约讲师 [email_address] 讲义下载: www.yuyong.net
  • 2. 从管理和运营的角度看 IT 系列讲座介绍
    • 1. MOF 简介
    • 2. MOF 理论基础 - 上
    • 3. MOF 理论基础 - 下
    • 4. MOF 过程模型
    • 5. MOF 团队模型
    • 6. MOF 风险管理原则
  • 3. 今日议程
    • MOF 过程模型概述
    • 变更象限
    • 操作象限
    • 支持象限
    • 优化象限
  • 4. MOF 过程模型概述
  • 5. 过程模型的作用
    • The MOF process model
      • Facilitates consistent IT service management across service solutions
      • Establishes a structure for IT functions, processes, and procedures
      • Represents a life cycle approach
  • 6. Basic Model Concepts
    • Release life cycle
    • Quadrants( 象限 )
    • Operations management reviews (OMRs)
    • Service management functions (SMFs)
    • 过程模型的准则
      • 结构化体协结构
      • 快速生命周期
      • 评估驱动管理
      • 嵌入式风险管理
  • 7. Release Life Cycle
    • The circle and arrows represent the concept of the iterative life cycle of a service solution
    • MOF focuses on the service solution as the central “unit of work”
  • 8. MOF Process Model Quadrants
    • Process model has four quadrants
      • Changing quadrant – assesses impact of and implements changes
      • Operating quadrant – operates, maintains, and manages service solutions
      • Supporting quadrant – identifies and corrects incidents and problems
      • Optimizing quadrant – evaluates, models, and improves service solutions
    • Each quadrant has a unique mission of service
  • 9. MOF Operations Management Reviews
    • Key management checkpoints that structure quality and measurement into the service solution release life cycle
    • Event-based and interval-based management reviews( 两种类型 )
      • Event-based
        • Release approved review
        • Release readiness review
      • Interval-based
        • Operations review
        • Service level agreement review
  • 10. MOF Service Management Functions
    • Underlying processes and procedures within each MOF quadrant that support the mission of service for that quadrant
    • 20 SMFs that are arranged in one of four MOF quadrants
    • Each SMF’s primary mission supports home quadrant, but cross-quadrant in nature
  • 11. SMF, Processes, Procedures, and Tasks Service Management Function Process 1 Process 2 Process 3 Procedure 1 Procedure 2 Task 1 Task 2
  • 12. MOF SMFs and ITIL Overlay Service Level Management Financial Management Service Continuity Mgt Availability Management Capacity Management Workforce Management Change Management Configuration Management Release Management System Administration Security Administration Service Monitoring & Control Job Scheduling Network Administration Directory Services Admin Print/Output Management Storage Management Service Desk Incident Management Problem Management These SMFs were either created as new or significantly expanded upon by MOF
  • 13. 变更象限
  • 14. Changing Quadrant – Mission of Service
    • Mission of service : the effective introduction of approved changes into the IT environment quickly and with minimal disruption of service
      • Changes in technologies, systems, applications, hardware, tools, etc.
      • Changes in processes and in roles and responsibilities
    • Constituent objectives
      • Effectively respond to genuine business need and demand
      • Maintain managed environments in a known state
      • Manage change(s) as a quantifiable and qualitative package
      • Smoothly deploy reliable new services
  • 15. Change Management SMF
    • Objectives
      • Respond to business requirements
      • Introduce new and updated products, services, and components
      • Improve reliability of IT services
    • Key concepts
      • Request for change (RFC)
      • Change advisory board (CAB)
      • Standard and urgent (fast track) change processes
  • 16. Configuration Management SMF
    • Objectives
      • Track components of the IT infrastructure
      • Maintain configuration information for IT-related components
    • Key concepts
      • CMDB – the repository for all components (services, hardware, software, people, documentation, incidents and problems, service level agreements, etc.)
      • Configuration items (CIs), attributes, and relationships
      • Configuration management activities – identifying, controlling, tracking, and auditing
      • The definitive software library (DSL) – software storage and protection
  • 17. Release Management SMF
    • Objectives
      • Deploy reliable services smoothly
      • Ensure that the environment is secure and in a known state
    • Key concepts
      • Release plan
      • Building, testing, evaluating
      • Coordination and communication
      • Pilot staging
  • 18. 变更象限中 SMF 的内在关系
  • 19. Release Readiness Review
    • Objective
      • Go/no-go decision on:
        • “ Operational-ability” of the service solution
        • Operations and support staffs’ preparedness
        • Completeness of the release-to-production plan
        • Tested back-out plan
    • Timing
      • Event-based
      • Checkpoint on per-release basis
  • 20. Release Readiness Review: 输入和成果
    • Inputs
      • Previous lessons-learned documents
      • Stakeholder(s)’ pre-work reports and metrics
      • Service solution specification and operations guides
    • Deliverables
      • Sign-off on test summary reports
      • Sign-off on deployment and installation plan
      • Sign-off on contingency (roll back) plan
      • Sign-off on deployment communication plan
      • Target-environment readiness checklist:
        • Assessment of impacts on other systems
        • Operations support staff preparedness
        • Hardware and software completeness
  • 21. 操作象限
  • 22. Operating Quadrant – Mission of Service
    • Mission of service: the efficient execution and monitoring of the daily operational tasks and activities required to effectively run an IT service
    • Constituent objectives
      • Achieve and maintain service levels within stated requirements (SLAs and OLAs)
      • Ensure that IT operating standards, processes, and procedures are applied to newly introduced service solutions
      • Proactively respond to changing conditions before support incidents occur
      • Automate, automate, automate
  • 23. System Administration SMF
    • Objectives
      • Function as driving SMF for operating quadrant and operating SMFs
      • Perform day-to-day administrative functions
        • User and group account management
        • Administration of computing and network resources
    • Key concepts
      • Centralized administration
      • Remote administration
      • Delegated administration
      • Distributed administration
      • Follow-the-sun administration
  • 24. Security Administration SMF
    • Objectives
      • Ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of enterprise data
      • Safeguard physical and intellectual property
      • Detect and prevent unauthorized access to information and facilities
    • Key concepts
      • Identification
      • Authentication
      • Access control
      • Confidentiality
      • Integrity
      • Non-repudiation
      • Auditing
  • 25. Service Monitoring and Control SMF
    • Objectives
      • Allow operations to observe the “health” of a service in “real time”
      • Provide operations with reactive and proactive monitoring
      • Allow operations to ensure that service levels are met
    • Key concepts
      • Service level agreements (SLAs)
      • Operating level agreements (OLAs)
      • Events
      • Components:
        • Hardware layer
        • OS layer
        • Application layer
  • 26. Job Scheduling SMF
    • Objectives
      • Equalize the load on the IT infrastructure by scheduling certain operations to occur throughout the day, week, or year
      • Ensure the successful execution of batch operations while minimizing the impact to online users of system resources
    • Key concepts
      • Batch processing
      • Scheduling
  • 27. Network Administration SMF
    • Objectives
      • Ensure connectivity
      • Ensure performance
    • Key concepts
      • Network hardware configuration (hubs, switches, routers, network interface cards)
      • Protocol management (OSI layers 1-4)
      • Security
  • 28. Directory Services Administration SMF
    • Objectives
      • Provide access to enterprise information
      • Maintain consistency among disparate directory types
      • Receive real value from enterprise data by making it easier to access and use
    • Key concepts
      • Directory-enabled applications
      • Daily support activities such as monitoring, maintaining, and troubleshooting the enterprise directory
      • User, group, and resource creation and management
      • Metadirectories
  • 29. Print and Output Management SMF
    • Objectives
      • Render business information in a non-electronic form
      • Store printed information in a safe place
      • Secure confidential business information
    • Key concepts
      • Printing
      • Document distribution
      • Document archiving and storage
      • Document purging and disposal
  • 30. Storage Management SMF
    • Objectives
      • Operation and maintenance of disks, tapes, and other storage media
      • Backup and restoration of data and file systems
    • Key concepts
      • Storage resource management
      • Backup and restore
  • 31. 操作象限中 SMF 的内在关系
  • 32. Operations Review
    • Objective
      • Assess and improve effectiveness of daily operational activities based on established metrics and business need
    • Timing
      • Interval based – regularly scheduled
        • Once a month or once a quarter, for example
      • Depends entirely on environment – specifically on rate of change of service solution and target environment (people, process, and technology)
  • 33. Operations Review: Inputs and Deliverables
    • Inputs
      • Existing OLAs
      • Metrics reports per OLAs (for example, production)
      • Operations guide and service solution specifications
    • Deliverables
      • Request for change to update OLAs
        • Actual versus planned metrics reports with recommendations
      • Target environment efficiency opportunities and quick fixes
        • Modification of procedures, automation, and tools
        • Staffing levels and skill requirements
        • Technical changes (service packs, hardware, tuning)
      • Operations guide updates
  • 34. 支持象限
  • 35. Supporting Quadrant – Mission of Service
    • Mission of service: the timely resolution of incidents, problems, errors, and inquiries within approved requirements contained in service level agreements
    • Constituent objectives
      • Integrate the processes, tools, and staff required to identify, prioritize, assign, diagnose, track, and resolve:
        • Incidents, problems, errors, requests, and inquiries
      • Provide clear and concise communication with the customer
      • Balance “knowledge scalable” self-help with human-assisted help
      • Achieve seamless external and internal service desks
  • 36. Service Desk SMF
    • Objectives
      • Provide call center services
      • Manage customer communications and customer relationships
    • Key concepts
      • Call center
      • Help desk
      • Customer relationship management (CRM)
  • 37. Incident Management SMF
    • Objectives
      • Restore normal service operation as quickly as possible and minimize any adverse impact on business operations
      • Classify, log, assign, make initial diagnosis, prioritize, and escalate incidents according to policy documents
    • Key concepts
      • Service desk activity
      • Incident
      • Escalation
      • Known error database
  • 38. Problem Management SMF
    • Objectives
      • Minimize the impact of problems on the business capabilities of an organization
      • Identify and correct the underlying causes of problems so that they do not occur repeatedly
    • Key concepts
      • Problem resolution typically involves software developers and hardware manufacturers
      • Root cause analysis
      • Known error
  • 39. 支持象限中 SMF 的内在关系
  • 40. SLA Review
    • Objective
      • Assess and improve the alignment of business need with IT service delivery per SLA
      • Include cost of service versus level of service optimization
    • Timing
      • Interval based, regularly scheduled
        • Once a month or once a quarter, for example
      • Depends entirely on rate of change of service solution and business environment
  • 41. SLA Review: Inputs and Deliverables
    • Inputs
      • Existing SLAs
      • Metrics summaries (for example, production)
        • Support metrics
        • Customer satisfaction metrics
      • RFCs
        • Changes in the service requested by customers and IT
    • Deliverables
      • List of IT services prioritized according to their importance to the business
      • List of SLAs that require re-negotiation
      • Requests for change to update SLAs
  • 42. 优化象限
  • 43. Optimizing Quadrant – Mission of Service
    • Mission of service: the optimization (reduction) of costs while maintaining or improving service levels
    • Constituent objectives
      • Examine cost structures, staffing levels and skillsets, and system availability and performance
      • Analyze and forecast capacity
      • Plan for contingencies
      • Identify changes that are required to respond to changing business needs
  • 44. Service Level Management SMF
    • Objectives
      • Maintain and incrementally improve IT service quality
      • Focus IT effort on those areas that the customer considers important
      • Engage the customer in the service delivery chain
      • Formalize the relationship between groups within the IT organization
      • Formalize the relationship between the IT organization and its suppliers and customers
    • Key concepts
      • Service level agreement (SLA)
      • Operating level agreement (OLA)
      • Underpinning contract (UC)
  • 45. Financial Management SMF
    • Objectives
      • Manage monetary resources soundly in support of organizational goals
    • Key Concepts
      • Cost accounting
      • Cost recovery
      • Budgeting
      • Project investment appraisals
  • 46. Service Continuity Management SMF
    • Objectives
      • Ensure that any given IT service provides value to the customer in the event that normal availability solutions fail
      • Manage risks to availability for which no straightforward countermeasures exist or where the countermeasure is prohibitively expensive
    • Key concepts
      • Service level objectives (SLOs)
      • Operating level agreements (OLAs)
      • Risk management
      • Failover and recovery
      • Contingency plans and drills
  • 47. Availability Management SMF
    • Objectives
      • Provide high availability of solutions
      • Minimize service disruptions
    • Key concepts
      • Availability
      • Reliability
      • Manageability
      • Serviceability
  • 48. Capacity Management SMF
    • Objectives
      • Balance capacity and demand
      • Manage capacity proactively
      • Ensure that SLA capacity targets are reasonable and attainable
    • Key concepts
      • Capacity plan
      • Resource management
      • Workload management
      • Modeling – simulation and usage
      • Trends analysis and tuning
  • 49. Workforce Management SMF( 人力资源管理 )
    • Objectives
      • Acquire, allocate, and maintain skilled resources to meet service commitments
      • Achieve staff commitment to service quality and professionalism
    • Key concepts
      • Retention
      • Recruiting
      • Skills assessment and development
  • 50. 优化象限中 SMF 的内在关系
  • 51. Release Approved Review
    • Objective
      • Formal business/IT approval for operations spending on a release
    • Timing
      • Event based
      • Takes place as part of the change management SMF
      • Follows ITIL CAB process, is scalable
  • 52. Release Approved Review : 输入和成果
    • Inputs
      • RFCs
      • Impact analyses/assessments
      • Business case analyses (BCAs)
    • Deliverables
      • Release approved list (including releases denied, goes back to development)
      • Authorization to begin release planning
      • Operations staffing plan
      • Feedback on the SMFs in the optimizing quadrant
      • Updates to the operations guide
      • Updated change control schedule
  • 53. TechNet 是什么 ?
    • 只需轻轻点击,答案就在您的指尖
      • 对于 IT 专业人员来说, TechNet 是一个知识的宝库,你可以找到关于如何规划,部署和管理微软产品的的技术资源
    • 每月发放包含最新信息的 DVD 或者 CD
      • 这是最权威的资源,可以帮助你评估、配置和维护微软产品。
    订阅 TechNet
    • 可以访问该站点 www.microsoft.com/china/technet
      • 在线资源和社区
      • 订户 -- 仅仅提供在线服务
    TechNet 网站
    • 两周发放一次的中文电子快报
      • 安全更新 , 新的资源等等
    TechNet 中文电子快报
    • 有关最新微软产品介绍和技术的简报
    • 上机试验 , “ 如何操作”等信息
    TechNet 活动 和网站消息
    • 用户群
    • 可管理的新闻组
    中文社区
  • 54. 我们从哪里可以了解到 TechNet?
    • 访问 TechNet 的官方网站 www.microsoft.com/China/technet
    • 注册 TechNet 快报 www.microsoft.com/china/technet/abouttn/subscriptions/flash.mspx
    • 加入到中文在线论坛 http://www.microsoft.com/china/community/
    • 成为 TechNet 的订户
    • www.microsoft.com/china/technet
    • 参与到更多的 TechNet 活动中或者在线了解 www.microsoft.com/china/technet
  • 55. 您的潜力,我们的动力!