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The Flavour Consequences Of Good Intentions

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Presentation to the 2009 Institute of Brewing and Distilling Africa Section Convention, South Africa

Presentation to the 2009 Institute of Brewing and Distilling Africa Section Convention, South Africa

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  • 1. The flavour consequences of good intentions - common beer flavour problems arising from sustainability initiatives and how to avoid them
    Bill Simpson
    Cara Technology, UK
    Institute of Brewing & Distilling, Africa Section
    12th Conference and Exhibition
    1 – 6 March 2009
  • 2.
    • Sustainability initiatives in the brewing industry
    • 3. Beer flavour and its control
    • 4. Sustainability and flavour
    • 5. Brand identity
    • 6. Risk of off-flavours
    • 7. Risk of taints
    • 8. Conclusions
  • “Leave the environment where we operate as good as, or better than, we found it”
    Reduce
    Reuse
    Recycle
    “One person’s effluent is someone else’s ticket to riches”
    Minimize energy use
    Minimize waste
    “The future of brewing should be associated with zero waste, environmentally sustainable and clean technologies”
    Buy locally
    Use natural ingredients
    Make productive use of waste
    Minimize carbon emissions
  • 9. “It is a science so obscure and imperfect that custom and preference, confirmed by ignorance, are its sole foundations, with sacrosanct dogmas no better than maxims blindly adopted without any examination of the principles on which they were founded.”
    Marshal Saxe
    (1696 – 1750)
    Reveries on the Art of War
  • 10. Beer life cycle
    New Belgium Brewing Company
    Carbon Footprint of Fat Tire® Ale
    3,188.8 g CO2 per six pack of beer
  • 11. Contributions of different parts of the beer supply chain to carbon emissions
  • 12. Beer flavour and its control
  • 13. Target brand profile for a pale lager beer
  • 14. Beer flavours which can be impacted by sustainability activities
    Diacetyl
    Smoky
    Caprylic
    Earthy
    ‘Yeast bite’
    Acetaldehyde
    Isovaleric
    ‘Trubby’
    Worty
    Bromophenol
    Leathery
    Sweet
    Grapefruit
    Astringent
    Burnt rubber
    Butyric
    Ethyl hexanoate
    Woody
    Mouldy
    Acetic
    ‘Cooked’
    H2S
    Floral
    Ethyl acetate
    Ethyl butyrate
    Methional
    Isoamyl acetate
    Phenolic (4-VG)
    Grainy
    Rotten vegetable
    Caramel
    Bitter
    Metallic
    Citrus
    Malty
    Solvent alcoholic
    Mercaptan
    Musty
    Indole
    Honey
    Chlorophenol
    DMS
  • 15. How do we marry sustainability and flavour quality?
  • 16. Risks to brand identity
  • 17. Raw materials and brand flavour identity
    • Is it really important to produce our beers with local raw materials?
    • 18. What about the provenance of hops?
    • 19. What strategies can we use to cope with shortages? – How can we get the best out of a limited supply?
  • Reduction in use of energy in the brewhouseand brand flavour identity
    • Big reductions in energy used in wort boiling have been achieved through improved technologies
    • 20. Evaporation rates have been reduced substantially
    • 21. Flavour matching of the wort stream is not usually a key commissioning objective during upgrades – it should be
  • Risks of off-flavours
  • 22. Local raw materials and their relationship to off-flavours
    • Water and water treatment
    • 23. Malts and adjuncts
    • 24. Rice
  • Minimization of water use and its relationship to off-flavours
    • United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) says a typical water use figure for an efficient brewery is 5 hl / hl
    • 25. Foster’s Yatala brewery currently uses <2.3 hl / hl
    • 26. Risks
    • 27. Inefficient removal and killing of bugs
    • 28. Product residues with flavour carry-over
  • Minimization of extract loss and its relationship to off-flavours
    • Low last runnings gravities
    • 29. Trub recovery
    • 30. Fermentation extract loss and the risk of autolysis
    • 31. Recovery of ethanol from spent yeast
  • Reduction in energy use and its relationship to off-flavours
    • Need for early chill-back
    • 32. Trade-off associated with use of off-peak energy
    • 33. Cold maturation – really a necessary ‘evil’?
    • 34. Pasteurization
    • 35. Tunnel
    • 36. Flash
  • Risks of taints
  • 37. Recycling of packaging materials and its relationship to taints
    • Risks associated with wood preservatives
    • 38. The haloanisole issue
    • 39. Avoidance of problems associated with recycled paper and fibreboard
  • Conclusions
    • Sustainability measures taken in all areas of the beer supply chain run the risk of impacting on beer flavour
    • 40. Forewarned is forearmed

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