The Flavour Consequences Of Good Intentions


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Presentation to the 2009 Institute of Brewing and Distilling Africa Section Convention, South Africa

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The Flavour Consequences Of Good Intentions

  1. 1. The flavour consequences of good intentions - common beer flavour problems arising from sustainability initiatives and how to avoid them<br />Bill Simpson<br />Cara Technology, UK<br />Institute of Brewing & Distilling, Africa Section<br />12th Conference and Exhibition<br />1 – 6 March 2009<br />
  2. 2. <ul><li>Sustainability initiatives in the brewing industry
  3. 3. Beer flavour and its control
  4. 4. Sustainability and flavour
  5. 5. Brand identity
  6. 6. Risk of off-flavours
  7. 7. Risk of taints
  8. 8. Conclusions</li></li></ul><li>“Leave the environment where we operate as good as, or better than, we found it”<br />Reduce<br />Reuse<br />Recycle<br />“One person’s effluent is someone else’s ticket to riches”<br />Minimize energy use<br />Minimize waste<br />“The future of brewing should be associated with zero waste, environmentally sustainable and clean technologies”<br />Buy locally<br />Use natural ingredients<br />Make productive use of waste<br />Minimize carbon emissions<br />
  9. 9. “It is a science so obscure and imperfect that custom and preference, confirmed by ignorance, are its sole foundations, with sacrosanct dogmas no better than maxims blindly adopted without any examination of the principles on which they were founded.”<br />Marshal Saxe<br />(1696 – 1750) <br />Reveries on the Art of War<br />
  10. 10. Beer life cycle<br />New Belgium Brewing Company<br />Carbon Footprint of Fat Tire® Ale<br />3,188.8 g CO2 per six pack of beer<br />
  11. 11. Contributions of different parts of the beer supply chain to carbon emissions<br />
  12. 12. Beer flavour and its control<br />
  13. 13. Target brand profile for a pale lager beer<br />
  14. 14. Beer flavours which can be impacted by sustainability activities<br />Diacetyl<br />Smoky<br />Caprylic<br />Earthy<br />‘Yeast bite’<br />Acetaldehyde<br />Isovaleric<br />‘Trubby’<br />Worty<br />Bromophenol<br />Leathery<br />Sweet<br />Grapefruit<br />Astringent<br />Burnt rubber<br />Butyric<br />Ethyl hexanoate<br />Woody<br />Mouldy<br />Acetic<br />‘Cooked’<br />H2S<br />Floral<br />Ethyl acetate<br />Ethyl butyrate<br />Methional<br />Isoamyl acetate<br />Phenolic (4-VG)<br />Grainy<br />Rotten vegetable<br />Caramel<br />Bitter<br />Metallic<br />Citrus<br />Malty<br />Solvent alcoholic<br />Mercaptan<br />Musty<br />Indole<br />Honey<br />Chlorophenol<br />DMS<br />
  15. 15. How do we marry sustainability and flavour quality?<br />
  16. 16. Risks to brand identity<br />
  17. 17. Raw materials and brand flavour identity<br /><ul><li>Is it really important to produce our beers with local raw materials?
  18. 18. What about the provenance of hops?
  19. 19. What strategies can we use to cope with shortages? – How can we get the best out of a limited supply?</li></li></ul><li>Reduction in use of energy in the brewhouseand brand flavour identity<br /><ul><li>Big reductions in energy used in wort boiling have been achieved through improved technologies
  20. 20. Evaporation rates have been reduced substantially
  21. 21. Flavour matching of the wort stream is not usually a key commissioning objective during upgrades – it should be</li></li></ul><li>Risks of off-flavours<br />
  22. 22. Local raw materials and their relationship to off-flavours<br /><ul><li>Water and water treatment
  23. 23. Malts and adjuncts
  24. 24. Rice</li></li></ul><li>Minimization of water use and its relationship to off-flavours<br /><ul><li>United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) says a typical water use figure for an efficient brewery is 5 hl / hl
  25. 25. Foster’s Yatala brewery currently uses <2.3 hl / hl
  26. 26. Risks
  27. 27. Inefficient removal and killing of bugs
  28. 28. Product residues with flavour carry-over</li></li></ul><li>Minimization of extract loss and its relationship to off-flavours<br /><ul><li>Low last runnings gravities
  29. 29. Trub recovery
  30. 30. Fermentation extract loss and the risk of autolysis
  31. 31. Recovery of ethanol from spent yeast</li></li></ul><li>Reduction in energy use and its relationship to off-flavours<br /><ul><li>Need for early chill-back
  32. 32. Trade-off associated with use of off-peak energy
  33. 33. Cold maturation – really a necessary ‘evil’?
  34. 34. Pasteurization
  35. 35. Tunnel
  36. 36. Flash</li></li></ul><li>Risks of taints<br />
  37. 37. Recycling of packaging materials and its relationship to taints<br /><ul><li>Risks associated with wood preservatives
  38. 38. The haloanisole issue
  39. 39. Avoidance of problems associated with recycled paper and fibreboard</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions<br /><ul><li>Sustainability measures taken in all areas of the beer supply chain run the risk of impacting on beer flavour
  40. 40. Forewarned is forearmed</li>