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A Net-Zero World and The Greening of Aiken
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A Net-Zero World and The Greening of Aiken


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The “Greening of Aiken” project is a model, “deep energy retrofit” on the University of Vermont campus. It demonstrates that renovation can out-perform new construction, while meeting a tight budget. …

The “Greening of Aiken” project is a model, “deep energy retrofit” on the University of Vermont campus. It demonstrates that renovation can out-perform new construction, while meeting a tight budget. This project sets an example for low energy-consuming design and construction, responsible use of natural resources, and healthy learning and work environments.

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  • 1. Beauty in Living Photo by John Fowler / CC-BY-2.0 Photo modified by Disenyo from photo by Paul Kempeneers / CC-BY-SA-2.5 Photo by Martin St-Amant / CC-BY-SA-3.0 Photo by Bill Maclay Photo  by  Pascal  Reusch  /  CC-­‐BY-­‐SA-­‐3.0     Photo  derived  from  photo  by  Hans  Ollermann  /  CC-­‐BY-­‐2.0     Public  Domain  
  • 2. Evolution of Energy and Settlement Renewable / Farms and Villages Coal / Urbanization Oil / SuburbanizationFarming/Renewable Coal Oil Painting by Thomas James Judkin / Public Domain Photograph by Michigan Department of Transportation / Public Domain painting by Jan Brueghel the Elder / Public Domain-US painting by Jean-François Millet / Public Domain-US Photo by austrini / CC BY 2.0 Photo by Rand, McNally & Co / Public Domain-US photo by Seattle Eng Co / Public Domain-US Photo by Minesweeper / CC-BY-SA-3.0 Photo by David Shankbone / CC-BY-SA-3.0 Derivative by Maclay Architects from Otto Krebs 1874 / Public Domain-US
  • 3. economy, energy, environment, equity & population Global Challenges & Our Buildings & Community s Impacts photo  by  Olsen  Dave,  U.S.  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service  /  Public  Domain   Photo by Ahron de Leeuw / CC-BY-2.0 Public Domain Photo by Perpetual Tourist / CC-BY-2.0 Photo by John Hill / CC-BY-SA-3.0
  • 4. Historical World Oil Price
  • 5. Projected Oil Price Based on Historical Growth
  • 6. Campus Site Plan / Analysis of Building
  • 7. Design Competition Submission
  • 8. Living Building Reprinted from David Lloyd Jones, Architecture and the Environment (Woodstock, NY: The Overlook Press, 1998). 34
  • 9. Integrated Design
  • 10. Living Systems Building
  • 11. Collaborative Design
  • 12. Pre-Renovation External Conditions Dangerous North Entrance Thermal Breaks Brick Spalling Uninviting South Façade & Entrance
  • 13. Classrooms: • Low ceilings • Poor lighting and air quality • Inefficient cooling and heating Hallways: • Dark, uninviting, cramped, not allowing community interactions Atrium: • Cramped with angled glazing limiting view and connection to campus Pre-Renovation Internal Conditions
  • 14. Air Intake at Ground Level Creates Indoor Air Quality Problems Biological Materials Inside of Fresh Air Intake Mechanical Room Duct Insulation Deteriorated Pre- Renovation Mechanical Conditions
  • 15. Pre-Renovation Wall Conditions
  • 17. The George D. Aiken Center – Therm Diagrams Existing Building Envelope New Building Envelope
  • 18. Daylighting Strategy
  • 19. Base of Wall
  • 20. Solarium Planter
  • 21. Eco Machine Detail
  • 22. Parapet
  • 23. Window Head
  • 24. Window Installation Drawings
  • 25. EIA Benchmark from – Commercial Building energy Use Survey 2003
  • 26. Wrap jamb with self-adhering air and moisture barrier sheet membrane, lapped over sill membrane.
  • 27. Install backer rod and sealant from the interior side of window, to seal window frame to air barrier. Install spray urethane foam (low-expanding type) between window frame and vinyl angle from the outside (not shown.)
  • 28. APPLY SPRAY AIR & MOISTURE BARRIER MEMBRANE Apply spray air and moisture barrier (Tremco Exo-Air 120) over sheet AMB around window perimeter, over base of masonry wall anchors and metal panel wall anchors.
  • 29. APPLY RIGID FOAM (XPS) INSULATION Install rigid foam tight to face of AMB, cut out around wall anchors, in two layers (3” and 2”) with joints staggered. Sealant daubs hold insulation boards temporarily, masonry wall anchors retain the insulation permanently.
  • 30. Seal around openings (window openings, wall anchor penetrations) and gaps with spray foam or sealant. Gaps ¼” or greater in rigid foam are sealed with spray urethane foam, less than ¼” sealed with flexible sealant.
  • 31. Existing walls adjacent to Solarium receive same treatment, with less insulation.
  • 32. INSTALL REMAINDER OF MASONRY (BRICK) AND METAL PANELS Install brick first, then metal panels between.
  • 33. Seal joints between brick and windows, brick and metal panels, metal panels below windows (window head not sealed to allow drainage.)
  • 34. THERMAL ISOLATION Dense polyurethane blocks provide thermal isolation of exterior structural elements.
  • 35. The Construction Process •  Mock-up includes as many actual building elements as possible •  Shortened construction schedule by team working through details and installation sequences
  • 36. The Construction Process •  Treat the mock-up as the building •  All elements of the mock-up reviewed •  Aiken included smoke testing the mock-up
  • 37. The Construction Process Inspection, Inspection, Inspection •  Every aspect of the membrane: mock-up to caulking inspected •  Apparent flaws identified by colored dots and initialed by contractor when complete for re-inspection •  All inspections of each stage needed to pass prior to next step starting
  • 38. •  Window air and water leakage testing •  Compliance Testing Enclosure Testing During Construction
  • 39. Enclosure Testing During Construction Window water leakage testing
  • 40. Enclosure Testing Result 0.11 cfm50/sq.ft. excluding slab – 3,900 cfm50 0.079 cfm50/sq.ft. including slab
  • 41. George D. Aiken Center: The Results South Entry Renovated North Entry and Stair
  • 42. EcoMachine
  • 43. The updated central stair with locally sourced boulders
  • 44. Green Conference Room
  • 45. Open Offices
  • 46. TEAM MEMBERS   OWNER TEAM University of Vermont Robert Vaughn, Director, Capital Planning and Management Paula Carlaccini, Director, Facilities Design and Construction Ken Bean, University Architect Todd Merchant, Senior Construction Administrator Mike Stevens, Construction Project Coordinator “Greening of Aiken Committee” Gary Hawley, Research Associate Carl Waite, Senior Research Analyst Alan McIntosh, Professor Deane Want, Associate Professor Don DeHayes, Professor & Former Dean Mary Watzin, Dean Eco-Machine Matthew Beam, Graduate Student John Todd, Professor Commissioning Consultant Allan Bullis , Efficiency Innovations, LLC, Envelope Inspection and Testing Building Durability Consultant Gale Associates Construction Cost Consultant Vermeulens Cost Consultants DEW Construction, Inc. Owner LEED Consultant Linda Samter CONSTRUCTION TEAM PC Construction, General Contractor Laura Clements, Project Manager Jordan Hershman, Project Engineer John Lavoie, Site Superintendent Amie Hammer & Kaitlyn Evarts, Project Assistants St. Albans Glass, Window and Metal Panel Subcontractor Greg Swan North Stars Masonry, Inc., Masonry Subcontractor Larry Shelton Dayco, Inc., Membrane Roofing Subcontractor Dana Geno Nicom Coatings, Corp., Wall Coatings and Membranes Subcontractor John Larosa DESIGN TEAM Maclay Architects Bill Maclay, Principal Brian Leet & Tom Bodell, Project Managers Lisa Sawin, Job Captain Chris Cook, Project Assistant Energy Consultant Andy Shapiro, Energy Balance Cost Consultant DEW Construction, Inc. Kohler Lewis, Mechanical and Plumbing Engineers Joe Kohler Adam Kohler Dan Lewis Roy Swain Pearson and Associates, Electrical Engineer Alan Gould Engineering Ventures, Civil Consulting Engineer Sarah Thyng Engineering Ventures, Structural Engineer Greg Sellers Chase Engineering, Fire Protection Engineer Matt Chase