Where Communication and
Reading Difficulties Meet
The crossroads of speech and
reading intervention
Kristin Sankovich, M.S...
Learner Objectives
• Participants will:
▫ Discuss typical reading development in
monolingual and bilingual speakers
▫ Iden...
What is our goal today?
• Relating Speech-language intervention to
reading development
▫ Discuss the SLP’s role
▫ Review/i...
ASHA Guidelines
Research on Reading Development
Speech vs. Language Disorder and Reading
English and Spanish Acquisition
ASHA Guidelines
Do you need Continuing Education or want 
to listen to this course live?
Click here to visit 
the online courses.
ASHA Guidelines
• SLPs play a critical and direct role in literacy
development, due to established connections
between spo...
SLP roles & responsibilities in reading
and writing
• Preventing written language problems by fostering
language acquisiti...
“Reading development is a multi-
faceted, multidimensional, cognitive
process involving the dynamic
interaction of a range...
All of the documents and charts in this presentation 
can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library.
Click here to visi...
Statistics on Reading Deficits
• 52% of children with language impairment also
have reading difficulties (Tomblin, Zhang, ...
SES as a factor
• Children from higher SES homes (due to social,
language, and literacy enhancement abilities)
are advance...
Research on reading development in
children
• Frost, et.al, reported the following processes
necessary for reading
Memory...
Research on reading development in
children
• Frost, et.al, reported the following processes
necessary for reading
Memory...
Research on reading development in
children
• Frost, et.al, reported the following processes
necessary for reading
Memory...
Research looking at reading fluency
• There is a strong relationship between early
language and phonological awareness/sen...
Research looking at Reading Fluency
• Phonological Awareness
▫ Is a strong predictor of reading fluency, especially
in ort...
Research looking at Reading
Comprehension
• Early language development is a developmental
precursor and good predictor of ...
Research Looking at Reading
Comprehension
• Semantic skills at age 3 and phonological
awareness at age 6 both predicted re...
The Ultimate Goal in Reading:
Comprehension & Fluency
• Two aspects of reading development
▫ Word recognition/decoding wor...
Reading Comprehension Model
Reading Comprehension Model
Reading Fluency Model
Reading ComprehensionReading Comprehension
Reading FluencyReading Fluency
Phonological
Awareness
Phonological
Awareness
Sy...
English and Spanish systems
• English is opaque (orthographically
inconsistent)
▫ Onset-rime
• Spanish is transparent (ort...
Efficacy of Intervention
• Language of instruction should be kept at a
suitable level of complexity and clarification to
b...
Common traits of effective intervention
• They are comprehensive
• Varied teaching methods
• Theory driven
• Opportunities...
A word on dyslexia
• A disorder in reading and writing despite
ostensibly normal oral language abilities.
Language Impairm...
Ongoing Collaboration between
Educators and SLPs
Speech and Language Interventions:
Supporting Reading Fluency
• Phonological Awareness Intervention
▫ Blending and Segment...
Speech and Language Interventions:
Supporting Reading Fluency
• Core Vocabulary Model
▫ Relating concepts through categori...
Speech and Language Interventions:
Supporting Reading Fluency
• Literacy Kits
▫ Pre-teach story vocabulary/articulation wo...
Overview of Reading Programs
Esperanza Estrellitas Voyager/
Pasaporte
Visualizing &
Verbalizing
Attention Low High Moderat...
Speech vs. Language
Speech Impairment
• Articulation Disorder
• Phonological Delay
• Phonological Disorder
Language Impair...
Case Study:
• 2nd grader
▫ Significant phonological and articulation delays
▫ Highly unintelligible
▫ Higher language/high...
Case Study:
• Kindergartener
▫ Phonological awareness difficulties
▫ Needs help identifying story grammar
components and a...
Conclusions
• Overall goal: academic success
• Our current intervention often addresses
reading and writing foundations an...
Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com
Difference or Disorder? 
Understanding Speech and Language 
Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically 
Diverse Students
Ra...
Where Communication and Reading Difficulties Meet
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Where Communication and Reading Difficulties Meet

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Identify language foundations for reading and learn about speech and language difficulties that negatively impact reading. Also, identify speech-language intervention techniques for children with reading difficulties.

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  • Frost, J., Madsbjerg, S., Niedersoe, J., Olofosson, A., & Sorensen, P.M. (2005). Semantic and Phonological Skills in Predicting Reading Development: From 3-16 Years of Age.
  • Phonological memory is only weakly correlated with reading abilitiy (de Jong & Van derLeij, 1999; Dufva, Niemi & Voeten, 2001; Muter & Snowling, 1998; Parila et al, 2004; Scarborough)RAN is a significant predicory of
  • In a study by frost he cited that the following processes are necessary for reading. Click one:So which processes are also involved in communication?Click two:So obviously we deal with the first three componentsClick three:An argument can also be made that ALL of the components needed for reading are also needed to provide full rich, communication. We are going to use these areas that Frost suggested and dig deeper into each area as it relates to cognitive abilities and what we address in therapy.
  • 1 Lipka, O. & Siegel, L. S. (2007). The Development of Reading Skills in Children with English as a Second Language. Scientific Studies of Reading, 11, 2, 105-131.2 Rapid automatized naming is a timed task, where students are required to name different shapes, colors, as fast as possible
  • Gilliver & Byrne (2009) found that
  • 1Hay, Elias, Fielding-Barnley, Homel & Freiberg, 2007; Nation, 20032 Johnson-Glenberg, M. C. (2000). Training Reading Comprehension in Adequate Decoders/Poor Comprehenders: Verbal Versus Visual Strategies
  • Hays, Elias, Fielding-Barnly,Homel & Freiberg, 2007; M. Nation, 2003
  • Pick a good sentence from article that is beyond comprehension. To demonstrate high fluency-low comprehension.Kid with phonological impairment (Saul video) cannot decode and therefore doesn’t comprehend.LI – Jocelyn or Daniel – fluent reader, poor comprehensionModerate to severe articulation (Miguel & Ismael) with great fluency and reading comprehension.
  • Where Communication and Reading Difficulties Meet

    1. 1. Where Communication and Reading Difficulties Meet The crossroads of speech and reading intervention Kristin Sankovich, M.S., CCC-SLP Lauren Castro M.S., CCC-SLP Webinar Series November 8th, 2013
    2. 2. Learner Objectives • Participants will: ▫ Discuss typical reading development in monolingual and bilingual speakers ▫ Identify relationships between oral language and reading ▫ Identify language foundations for reading ▫ Identify speech and language difficulties that contribute to reading difficulties ▫ Identify speech-language intervention techniques for children with reading difficulties
    3. 3. What is our goal today? • Relating Speech-language intervention to reading development ▫ Discuss the SLP’s role ▫ Review/introduce reading development ▫ Present research and statistics on reading ▫ Show the relationship between speech and reading  Reading development models ▫ Support for why we should intervene ▫ How to intervene ▫ Conclude with case studies as examples
    4. 4. ASHA Guidelines Research on Reading Development Speech vs. Language Disorder and Reading English and Spanish Acquisition
    5. 5. ASHA Guidelines
    6. 6. Do you need Continuing Education or want  to listen to this course live? Click here to visit  the online courses.
    7. 7. ASHA Guidelines • SLPs play a critical and direct role in literacy development, due to established connections between spoken and written language. ▫ Spoken language is the foundation for reading/writing ▫ Spoken language and reading/writing build on each other ▫ Children with speech-language impairment often have difficulty reading ▫ Instruction in spoken language can affect growth in reading/writing
    8. 8. SLP roles & responsibilities in reading and writing • Preventing written language problems by fostering language acquisition and emergent literacy • Identifying children at risk for reading and writing problems • Assessing reading and writing • Providing intervention and documenting outcomes for reading and writing • Providing assistance to general education teachers, parents • Advancing the knowledge base • Advocating for effective literacy programs
    9. 9. “Reading development is a multi- faceted, multidimensional, cognitive process involving the dynamic interaction of a range of related variables” (Stanovich & Beck, 2000)
    10. 10. All of the documents and charts in this presentation  can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
    11. 11. Statistics on Reading Deficits • 52% of children with language impairment also have reading difficulties (Tomblin, Zhang, Backwalter & Catts, 2000). • Poor reading skills have an ongoing, negative influence on vocabulary and language development (Catts & Kamhi, 2005). • Reading comprehension skills in 3rd grade were the best predictors of high school dropouts (California Dept. of Education).
    12. 12. SES as a factor • Children from higher SES homes (due to social, language, and literacy enhancement abilities) are advanced in later reading achievement ( Wasik & Bond, 2001) • Children from higher SES homes are more successful in making the transition from “learning to read” to “reading to learn” (Campbell, Kelly, Mullis, Martin & Sainsbury, 2001) • Matthew effect
    13. 13. Research on reading development in children • Frost, et.al, reported the following processes necessary for reading Memory Comprehension Language Motivation Attention Imagination
    14. 14. Research on reading development in children • Frost, et.al, reported the following processes necessary for reading Memory Comprehension Language Motivation Attention Imagination Which processes are also necessary for communication?
    15. 15. Research on reading development in children • Frost, et.al, reported the following processes necessary for reading Memory Comprehension Language Motivation Attention Imagination Which processes are also necessary for communication?
    16. 16. Research looking at reading fluency • There is a strong relationship between early language and phonological awareness/sensitivity and later reading and spelling development (Lipka & Siegel, 2007; Snowling ,Adams, Bishop & Stothard, 2001) • RAN is significant predictor of reading fluency
    17. 17. Research looking at Reading Fluency • Phonological Awareness ▫ Is a strong predictor of reading fluency, especially in orthographically inconsistent systems ▫ Is more taxed in orthographically inconsistent systems (e.g. English) than in orthographically consistent systems (Spanish, Greek). ▫ Phonological awareness and letter naming in kindergarten predicted at-risk or typical reading development in Grade 3 for ESL and monolingual students1
    18. 18. Research looking at Reading Comprehension • Early language development is a developmental precursor and good predictor of children’s early reading development (Teal & Sulzby, 1986) • Improving vocabulary and word knowledge is an important part of developing reading comprehension (Vaughn et al, 2006)
    19. 19. Research Looking at Reading Comprehension • Semantic skills at age 3 and phonological awareness at age 6 both predicted reading skills at age 16 (Frost, et. al., 2005) • Letter identification, working memory, rhyme detection and phoneme deletion (phonological awareness) in kindergarten predicted fourth- grade word reading. (Lesaux, Rupp, & Siegel, 2007)
    20. 20. The Ultimate Goal in Reading: Comprehension & Fluency • Two aspects of reading development ▫ Word recognition/decoding words/reading fluency  Children are learning to decode in the first two years of school  Phonological awareness, phoneme discrimination tasks, rhyming, onset-rime, syllable awareness ▫ Reading comprehension  Children are reading to learn in later elementary years (second grade and up).  Syntax, semantics, and discourse skills required
    21. 21. Reading Comprehension Model
    22. 22. Reading Comprehension Model
    23. 23. Reading Fluency Model
    24. 24. Reading ComprehensionReading Comprehension Reading FluencyReading Fluency Phonological Awareness Phonological Awareness Syllable ID (Spn) Syllable ID (Spn) RhymingRhyming Onset-RimeOnset-Rime Phonemic Awareness Phonemic Awareness Syllable Blending/Segmentation Syllable Blending/Segmentation Orthographic Coding Orthographic Coding Rapid Automatic Naming Rapid Automatic Naming Letter-Sound Correspondence Letter-Sound Correspondence Rapid Serial NamingRapid Serial Naming Listening ComprehensionListening Comprehension MorphologyMorphology Oral Vocabulary Oral Vocabulary Word Meanings Word Meanings Word RelationshipsWord Relationships SyntaxSyntax DiscourseDiscourse Narrative Structure Narrative Structure Conversational Patterns Conversational Patterns ExpositoryExpository ProceduralProcedural Phonological Memory Phonological Memory
    25. 25. English and Spanish systems • English is opaque (orthographically inconsistent) ▫ Onset-rime • Spanish is transparent (orthographically consistent) ▫ Syllable
    26. 26. Efficacy of Intervention • Language of instruction should be kept at a suitable level of complexity and clarification to better accommodate children’s speed of oral language processing (Bishop & Leonard, 2000; Nation, 2005)  Engaging children in reciprocal verbal interactions that support the child in producing more linguistically complex dialogues directly facilitates the development of children’s language proficiency and indirectly the development of their reading skills  Both visual and verbal models of intervention resulted in gains in reading comprehension for adequate decoders/poor comprehenders2
    27. 27. Common traits of effective intervention • They are comprehensive • Varied teaching methods • Theory driven • Opportunities for positive relationships to develop
    28. 28. A word on dyslexia • A disorder in reading and writing despite ostensibly normal oral language abilities. Language Impairment Dyslexia Specific Language Impairment Typical Development Language Difficulties Yes Yes No No ReadingDifficulties
    29. 29. Ongoing Collaboration between Educators and SLPs
    30. 30. Speech and Language Interventions: Supporting Reading Fluency • Phonological Awareness Intervention ▫ Blending and Segmenting Syllables ▫ Phonological Sound Inventory-take words from a story for the child to blend and segment • Minimal Pairs ▫ Distinguish between rake/wake or huele/duele • High Frequency Word Lists ▫ Support sight word recognition
    31. 31. Speech and Language Interventions: Supporting Reading Fluency • Core Vocabulary Model ▫ Relating concepts through categories • Story Grammar Instruction ▫ Teaching identification of characters, setting, initiating event, a sequence of events and a resolution
    32. 32. Speech and Language Interventions: Supporting Reading Fluency • Literacy Kits ▫ Pre-teach story vocabulary/articulation word lists ▫ Create games to provide additional exposure to content • Graphic Organizers for Story Comprehension ▫ Semantic mapping ▫ Venn Diagram
    33. 33. Overview of Reading Programs Esperanza Estrellitas Voyager/ Pasaporte Visualizing & Verbalizing Attention Low High Moderate High Motivation Low High Moderate High Memory High High Moderate Moderate Imagination Low Low Low High Language High Low High High Spanish Yes Yes Yes No English No No Yes Yes
    34. 34. Speech vs. Language Speech Impairment • Articulation Disorder • Phonological Delay • Phonological Disorder Language Impairment • Expressive Language Impairment • Receptive Language Impairment • Impaired Discourse skills
    35. 35. Case Study: • 2nd grader ▫ Significant phonological and articulation delays ▫ Highly unintelligible ▫ Higher language/highly verbal ▫ Low reading fluency -> Decreased reading comprehension ▫ High comprehension of material read to him ▫ Intervention targeting core vocabulary and high frequency word lists paired with a phonological approach
    36. 36. Case Study: • Kindergartener ▫ Phonological awareness difficulties ▫ Needs help identifying story grammar components and answering questions about stories appropriately. ▫ Incomplete syntax ▫ Limited vocabulary in amount and variety ▫ Audio File
    37. 37. Conclusions • Overall goal: academic success • Our current intervention often addresses reading and writing foundations and it is important for us to be able to explain how. • Knowing that our students may additionally have reading difficulties, we can more efficiently address their difficulties, we benefit by providing them with academic success, giving them more opportunities to practice what we teach them and gain knowledge for themselves.
    38. 38. Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com
    39. 39. Difference or Disorder?  Understanding Speech and Language  Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically  Diverse Students Rapidly identify speech‐language  patterns related to second language  acquisition to  distinguish difference from disorder.

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