Using Dynamic Assessment in Differential Diagnoses of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students


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Using Dynamic Assessment in Differential Diagnoses of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

  1. 1. Dynamic assessment has been shown to be “one of the few strategies available for differentiating those students who do not perform well because of unfamiliarity with the tasks from those who do not perform well because they have intrinsic cognitive or language learning disorders” (Westby, 2001).
  2. 2. Objectives • Define dynamic assessment • Develop practical teaching tasks • Select teaching targets to perform appropriate assessments of CLD students • Use the results to make differential diagnoses of diverse learners
  3. 3. Framework for Assessment ▫ In-depth case history from multiple sources ▫ Assess both languages  Formal Assessment  Informal Assessment ▫ Observations in variety of contexts ▫ Dynamic Assessment ▫ Analyze and interpret results using difference vs. disorder
  4. 4. Informal Assessments • Language Samples: ▫ Conversation in both languages ▫ Narratives in both languages • Answering WH-questions • Following directions • Portfolio
  5. 5. Making a Diagnosis • Looking at scores • Looking at functionality ▫ school reports, teacher observations ▫ parent reports ▫ clinical judgment/observations • Doing dynamic assessment
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  8. 8. Test Teach Retest
  9. 9. Dynamic Assessment • Less-biased approach for determining difference vs. disorder • Interactive and process-oriented procedure to measure language learning potential • Test-teach-retest model based on Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) • Provides some form of intervention or “mediated learning” (Feuerstein)
  10. 10. Dynamic Assessment • Mediated Learning Experiences (MLEs) often include components of: ▫ Intentionality ▫ Transcendence ▫ Meaning ▫ Competence • Observe child’s responsiveness, amount of examiner effort, and ability to transfer what is learned
  11. 11. Why do Dynamic Assessment? • Aids in determining difference vs. disorder • Gives opportunity for children not from mainstream culture to understand demands of task; reduces situational bias • Dynamic assessment provides an alternative approach to traditional procedures by focusing on learning potential, rather than acquired skills, possibly reducing test bias
  12. 12. Who gets Dynamic Assessment? • Are some children obviously impaired? • Do all children get it? • Only ELL students? • Low SES? • Feasibility of multiple testing sessions • Ethics?
  13. 13. How do we do Dynamic Assessment? • How do we use the results of our formal/informal assessments to select teaching targets? • Scaffolding ▫ What does it take for a child to be able to perform a skill?
  14. 14. Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) What are mediation strategies? • Intentionality • Meaning • Transcendence • Application* • Competence
  15. 15. Intentionality • What’s the goal? ▫ State the purpose of the teaching.
  16. 16. Intentionality • Example: We’re going to work on following directions that have 3 steps.
  17. 17. Meaning • Why are we working on this? ▫ Tell why it’s important and relevant.
  18. 18. Meaning • Example: When someone gives you directions, it’s important to do each step so that you finish the task.
  19. 19. Transcendence • What happens if we don’t have this skill? ▫ Develop awareness of the relevance of the skill to real life through critical thinking.
  20. 20. Transcendence • Example: What if your teacher tells you to color, cut, and glue, but you only follow two of the directions? Then your project wouldn’t be finished.
  21. 21. Application • Here’s what I expect you to do. Let’s try it together. ▫ Clarify expectations and give explicit instructions. Provide a model and allow opportunities for practice.
  22. 22. Application • Example: This time when I give you a direction that has 3 steps, I want you to do all 3 steps in the order that I say them. I’ll do it first and then it will be your turn.
  23. 23. Competence • What did you learn? Why is it important? When will you use this skill? ▫ Check for understanding of the skill and its importance for the current context and future classroom activities.
  24. 24. Competence • Example: Remember, it’s important to listen to all the steps in a direction and follow each one. Now you tell me what we practiced and why it’s important. Think about when you might need to follow directions correctly in the classroom. Then we’ll try it five more times.
  25. 25. Dynamic Assessment Protocol Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  26. 26. Dynamic Assessment Protocol   Age of  Acquisition  Narrative Language Target  (Macrostructure)  Pre‐Test  Results  Post‐Test  Results  (Min)  Post‐Test  Results  (Mod)  Post‐Test  Results  (Max)  3 years  Setting (Time, Place)    Initiating event           4 years Temporal sequence*   Central theme*  5 years  Labels characters    Labels surroundings    Attempts    Consequence    Reaction          6 years  Provides implicit  aims/intentions of characters    Resolution          7 years  Theme and Moral*          8 years Explicit aims/plans of characters  (uses words like “decided to”)  11 years  Multiple plans    Multiple attempts    Multiple consequences    Embedded Stories*          >12 years  Two separate but parallel  episodes that influence each  other            Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  27. 27. Dynamic Assessment Protocol Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  28. 28. Dynamic Assessment • Support strategies • Teacher effort • Cueing ▫ Number of cues ▫ Types of cues (visual, auditory) ▫ Number of presentations
  29. 29. How do we use results? • Qualifying for services • Classroom accommodations
  30. 30. How do we use results? • 5-point scale: ▫ Teaching Tasks: Mediation Strategies ▫ Support Strategies/Teaching Effort • Child’s Responsiveness to Strategies • Results: how do we measure improvement? • Re-test same formal items? • Get a score?
  31. 31. Assessment of Fictional Narratives • Arranged by age expectations of macrostructure of fictional narratives. ▫ Consider microstructure as well. • Separated by universal expectations and expectancies that may vary by culture. ▫ Selecting targets for Dynamic Assessment
  32. 32. Dynamic Assessment Procedures for Fictional Narratives: • Child listens to recording of frog story • Clinician determines targets for dynamic assessment • Clinician uses Assessment of Fictional Narratives during child’s retell • If macrostructure is weak, teach to this target and retest narrative retell for macrostructure • If microstructure features are distracting, switch to this type of analysis • If microstructure skills are consistently weak in both contexts (i.e., formal and informal), then select the corresponding language target for dynamic assessment
  33. 33. Dynamic Assessment Procedures for Fictional Narratives: • Use mediation strategies • Determine support strategy level •  If child reaches 80% level, return to narrative to look for carryover to functional context •  If skills are present, NO Support for disability •  If skills are not present, look at support strategy level to help determine if intervention is indicated •  If child is at 60% level or below, further intervention may be indicated.
  34. 34. Questions • If a student is a fast learner, does that mean he/she does not need therapy? • Do some fast learners need therapy to learn the skill? • Why haven’t they gotten it on their own already?
  35. 35. Questions • Can we feel confident saying a child is a typical language learner when we only assess dynamically in one language area? • If the child performs well with minimal support and low teacher effort in one area, should you look at other language targets?
  36. 36. Summary SLPs “will have to argue for the need for dynamic assessment approaches, and they will have to develop these approaches” (Westby, 2001).
  37. 37. References • Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y., & Hoffman, M. (1979). The dynamic assessment of retarded performers: The Learning Potential Assessment Device. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. • Hughes et al. (1997). Guide to Narrative Language. Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications. • Gillam, R., & Pearson, N. (2004). Test of Narrative Language, Examiner’s Manual. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. • Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F. (2002). Narratives in Two Languages: Assessing Performance of Bilingual Children. Linguistics & Education, Vol.13 Issue 2, p199. • Heath, S.B. (1982). What no bedtime story means: Narrative skills at home and school. Language in Society, 11(1), 49-76. • Metzi, Gigliana. (2000). Cultural variations in the construction of personal narratives: Central American and European American mothers’ elicitation styles. Discourse Processes. Vol. 30(2). 153-177.
  38. 38. References • Miller, L., Gillam, R., & Peña, E. (2000). Dynamic Assessment and Intervention: Improving Children’s Narrative Abilities. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. • Poveda, David. (2002). La Ronda in a Spanish kindergarten classroom with a cross-cultural comparison to sharing time in the U.S.A. Anthorpology & Educaiton Quarterly. Vol 32(3). 301-325. • Shiro, Martha Klein (1998). A discourse analysis approach to evaluate stance in Venezuelan children’s narratives. Dissertation Abstracts International: Sediton B: the Sciences and Engineering. Vol. 58 (8-B), • Silliman et. al. (2002). Spanish and English Proficiency in the Linguistic Encoding of Mental States in Narrative Retellings. Linguistics and Education, Vol.13 Issue 2, p175. • Vygotsky, L.S. (1967). Play and its Role in the Mental Development of the Child. Soviet Psychology, 5, 6-18. • Westby, C. (2001). Dynamic Assessment. Austin, TX: Word of Mouth, 13(1), 7-9.
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  40. 40. Difference or Disorder?  Understanding Speech and Language  Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically  Diverse Students Rapidly identify speech‐language  patterns related to second language  acquisition to  distinguish difference from disorder.