SMILE for Young Children: A Bilingual Program for Improving Communication SkillsPresentation Transcript
Marie E. Wirka, M.S., CCC-SLP Katherine H. Marting, M.A., CCC-SLP Bilinguistics Speech and Language Services TSHA Annual Convention March 8-10, 2012 San Antonio, TexasSMILE for Young ChildrenA Bilingual Program forImproving CommunicationSkills
The SMILE Program Disclaimer: This is a product presentation
Objectives1. Identify the importance of family involvement in speech therapy2. List research-based strategies that help children develop speech and language3. Learn how to use and implement the SMILE for Young Children program
Background• Development: ▫ Bilingual SLPs ▫ Home-based ECI Services ▫ Need for family involvement When families are involved in the intervention process, language enrichment is ongoing rather than during “therapy” only (Rosetti, 2001) Without family involvement, intervention is unlikely to be successful (Bronfenbrebrenner, 1974)
Family Involvement• Why do we need family involvement? ▫ Social Learning Theories (Vygotsky, 1967) ▫ Family members are the guides and the child is the apprentice who learns from adult models (Rogoff, 1990) ▫ Parents are the most consistent language models in their children’s lives and their first teachers
Family Involvement• Parents use of language-based strategies leads to: ▫ Increased receptive language skills in the first year (Baumwell, Tamis-LeMonda & Bornstein, 1997) ▫ Increased receptive and expressive language skills in the second and third years of life (Olson, Bates & Bayles, 1986) ▫ Greater receptive vocabulary at 12 years of age (Beckwith & Cohen, 1989) ▫ 30 Million Word Gap by age 3 (Hart & Risley, 1995)
Family Involvement• Mother’s use of labeling and increased periods of interaction lead to increases in receptive vocabulary and greater expansion of expression in older children (Tomasello & Farrar, 1986)• Participation by fathers in early childhood programs has been shown to be beneficial to the child, father and other family members (Frey, Fewell, & Vadasy, 1989; Krauss, 1993)
Family Involvement• Empowering parents increases their likelihood of accessing information pertaining to their child’s development• Empowerment leads to self-efficacy or the belief that they can make a difference in their child’s development (Dempsey & Dunst, 2004)
Family’s Perspective They just sit The therapist and talk withjust plays with me and do my child. nothing with This is all too my child. overwhelming. I forget what I don’t have to do after thetime in my day therapist to do this. leaves.
SLP’s Perspective I can’t get Families don’t families to always follow incorporate through with ideas into daily my suggestions. routines. I don’t have Many times easily accessible families don’t resources to keep share with appointments. families.
Factors Affecting Family Involvement Limited Support System Change of Family Family Residence Factors Conflict Substance Abuse
Factors Affecting Family Involvement• Therapist factors ▫ Recognizing your assumptions ▫ Understanding family needs ▫ Engaging all family members ▫ Ability to adjust strategies to match family style ▫ Communicating rationale for intervention techniques ▫ Clearly specifying what families should do between intervention sessions
Factors Affecting Family Involvement• Provider factors ▫ Consistency and reliability ▫ Quantity (amount of services) ▫ Setting expectations ▫ Staff communication ▫ Staff education and training ▫ Staff turnover rates: High staff turnover rates reduce family involvement (Gomby, 2007)
What is SMILE?• A research based program to help SLPs work with caregivers in the home to develop speech and language skills of young children• Five different speech and language strategies to use within 12 different daily routines• In both Spanish and English• Clinician book• Parent handbooks
Strategies: Language Speech
Using SMILE with families• Make sure caregivers understand: ▫ WHAT? ▫ HOW? ▫ WHY?• Assess the caregivers• Give positive reinforcement• Take risks
Language Development • Improved communication and bonding (Goodwyn, Acredolo, & Brown, 2000; Tompson et al., 2007) • Children stop using sign when able to communicate orally (Pizer, Walters & Meier, 2007) • Provide visual support during language learning
Language Development • Frequency and consistency • The more a child hears a phrase the more likely they are to use it • Use phrases that the child is able to imitate
Language Development • Imitation is vital for speech and language development (Rogers & Williams, 2006) • Teach the child how to imitate, by imitating their sounds and movements
Language Development • Each routine focuses on different vocabulary • Multisensory learning for language targets • Label objects, actions and descriptors • Repeat object labels – the more a child hears a word, the more likely they are to use it
Language Development • Expand the childs utterances by adding semantic information or syntactic complexity can help their language grow. • It is important to keep phrases simple enough that your child can repeat them.
Speech Development • Visual, tactile and motor cues • Examples: ▫ Clap out syllables in words ▫ Put hand in front of mouth to feel air on plosives
Speech Development • Auditory cues ▫ Emphasize specific sounds in words ▫ Melodic cues • Model appropriate speech production ▫ Break consonant clusters apart ▫ Model target words slowly with emphasis
Speech Development• Imitate sounds in the environment• Repeat an incorrect production correctly, repeating the correct production several times
Speech Development • Have a scavenger hunt • Label objects that begin with the same sound to increase phonological awareness
Speech Development • Follow the hierarchy of speech production • Help parents measure small successes
Speech Development Example by Brianne Ruhnke on www.speakingofspeech.com
Daily Routines• 12 daily routines• Frequency and consistency• More natural• Extra time is not needed to implement strategies• Use objects in their environment as therapy materials
Daily Routines• Each routine includes: • Speech/language focus • Examples of each strategy • Suggested target vocabulary and 6 pictures of signs • Homework sheet • Activity sheet• The amount of time spent on each routine varies
Developmental Guidelines• “Apples to Apples” ▫ http://speechpathologyceus.net/wp- content/uploads/2010/10/Apples-to-Apples-for-Speech- and-Language.pdf• Milestones for both English and Spanish: ▫ Language ▫ Articulation and Phonology• Typical phonological processes• FAQ: Myths regarding Bilingualism
Using SMILE• Script for sample session 1. Review the plan and any progress 2. Select the strategy and daily routine 3. Model the strategy 4. Give the family time to practice the strategy
Case Study• What strategies could you observe?• What daily routine was being used?• What was the language focus, or targeted skill?
What strategies could you observe?A. SignB. ModelC. ImitateD. LabelE. ExpandF. All of the above
What was the language focus, ortargeted skill?A. Turn-takingB. RequestsC. Two-word UtterancesD. DescribingE. Contrasting – Yes/No Questions
What daily routine was being used?A. Bath timeB. GreetingsC. BedtimeD. Getting DressedE. Story time
Important WordsPractiquen estas palabras importantes y agreguen más:
Data Collection Sheet
Data Collection Sheet
Data Collection• What words or gestures does your child use? ▫ Greetings/Saludos: Cuando saluda mueve la mano. Translation: To give a greeting, he waves his hand. ▫ Getting Dressed/Vestirse: Todavía no puede vestirse él solo. Le tengo que ayudar. He still doesn’t get dressed on his own. I have to help him.
Data Collection• What words or gestures does your child understand? ▫ Greetings/Saludos: Sí entiende pero no puede pronunciarlas. Translation: He does understand, but he can’t pronounce them. ▫ Getting Dressed/Vestirse: No response
Data Collection• What words or gestures does your child use? ▫ Toys and Playtime/Jugando: Sí juega con niños de su edad. Translation: He does play with children his age. ▫ Mealtime/Hora de Comer: Se sienta a comer pero en ocasiones le tengo que dar en la boca. He sits to eat but sometimes I have to put the food in his mouth.
Data Collection• What words or gestures does your child understand? ▫ Toys and Playtime/Jugando: Para salir a jugar, dice “quiero jugar.” Translation: When he wants to go out to play, he says, “I want to play.” ▫ Mealtime/Hora de Comer: “Quiero comer.” Translation: “I want to eat.”
Session Record Form
Find out more online… http://bilinguistics.com/smile-program
References• Goodwyn, Acredolo, & Brown (2000). Impact of symbolic gesturing on early language development. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 24, 81-103.• Kummerer, B., Lopez-Reyna, N.A., & Hughes, M.T. (2007). Mexican Immigrant Mothers’ Perceptions of Their Children’s Communication Disabilities, Emergent Literacy Development, and Speech-Language Therapy Program. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16, 271-282.• McWilliams, R. (2007). Early Intervention in Natural Environments. Retrieved February 5, 2008 from http://naturalenvironments.blogspot.com/2007/10/toy-bags.html• Pizer, G., Walters, K., & Meier, R. P. (2007). Bringing up baby with baby signs: Language ideologies and socialization in hearing families. Sign Language Studies, 7 (4), 387-430.• Rogers, S. J., & Williams, J. H. G. (Eds.). (2006). Imitation and the Social Mind: Autism and Typical Development. New York: The Guliford Press.• Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in Thinking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.• Thompson, R.H., Cotnoir-Bichelman, N.M., McKerchar, P.M., Tate, T.L., & Dancho, K.A. (2007). Enhancing early communication through infant sign training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 15-23.• Vygotsky, L. S. (1967). Play and its role in the mental development of the child. Soviet Psychology, 5, 6-18.
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