Transcript of "Literacy Based Intervention: From Theory to Practice"
Round Rock Independent School District November 22, 2011
Zone of Proximal Development(Vygotsky, 1978)• ZPD is a range of skill level for each student• The bottom of the range is what the student is able to do independently• The top of the range is what the student can do with maximal assistance• As the student learns, their ZPD moves to higher levels
Why use literacy-based intervention? Hybrid approach that works acrossages, grades, disorders, languages and cultures
Outline for Today: • Identify research regarding literacy-based intervention • Design literacy-based intervention to address a variety of goals • Case Studies • Create a literacy-based intervention kit
Studies that examine general story bookintervention, general language interventionand successful intervention techniquesusing story book intervention
Support for storybooks• “Children develop oral and written abilities as a natural consequence of their communicative interactions with adults, including storybook readings (p. 133 Jonathan)• Shared reading activities increase development in multiple areas (Doyle & Bramwell, 2006; Debaryshe, 1993; Burner, 1978)
Support for storybooks• Shared reading activities promote language development in children with typical development (Teale & Sulzby, 1986; Westby, 1985) and with language impairments (Gillam & Ukrainetz, 2006)• Can be used for different ages and grades
Support for Improved LanguageOutcomes• Gillam and Loeb, (2010) reported that four components of language intervention were associated with successful language outcomes ▫ Intensity ▫ Active Attention ▫ Feedback ▫ Rewards
Support for Improved LanguageOutcomes• Repetition of Vocabulary words requires exposure of at least 15 times (Pui Fong, 2010 )• Longer interventions• Teaching words through definitions and in context (Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986)• More word encounters• Active processing (Baumann et.al, 2003 and A. Graves, 1986)
Research supporting literacy basedintervention• Storytelling is the largest predictor of literacy outcomes [Engel (1997), as cited in Novick, 1988]• Pretend play and storytelling require similar knowledge (e.g. social rules, language, etc.) [McLane & McNamee (1991), as cited in Novick, 1998]
Research supporting literacy basedintervention• Repeated use of stories: ▫ Increases students comments and questions related to the stories (Yaden, 1985) ▫ Allows students to retell and/or reenact the story (Sulzby, 1985) ▫ Improves students ability to understand and evaluate stories (as cited in Gambell, Morrow, & Pennington, 2000)
Developmentally AppropriateLinguistically AppropriateCulturally AppropriateVariableAddresses the needs of the classroom
Storybook interventioncomponents• Pre-Reading Activities• Reading Activities• Post-Reading ActivitiesCan be used to address all areas of communicationin and out of context
Selecting Intervention Activities • Great Therapy Materials Should: ▫ provide repetitive structure ▫ be able to be used with all ages and cultures ▫ address goals across semantics, syntax, comprehension, pragmatics, an d discourse ▫ decrease preparation time ▫ be fun and interesting for students ▫ make homework programs more relevant for parents ▫ allow for programmatic collection of intervention data ▫ apply to academic needs
Book Selection • Age-appropriate • Interesting and relevant • Related to goals • Simple • Good illustrations • Resources ▫ School librarians ▫ Classroom teachers ▫ Internet
Pre-Reading Activities Pre-reading activities are used to bridge any gaps between a student’s current skills and the targeted skills. • Music – use songs semantically related to the material in the book. (Hoggan & Strong, 1994) • Semantic mapping/graphic organizers – the adult and students develop a list of words and concepts related to the story and then develop a visual representation of how the concepts are related (Gillam & Ukrainetz, 2006; Hoggan & Strong, 1994).
Pre-Reading Activities • Illustration discussion – The student creates a story using illustrations from the selected book. Scaffolding techniques may be used to facilitate higher semantic and syntactic complexity. Several templates that can be used during this activity are included. • Pre-reading discussion – Pre-reading questions are designed to tie the students’ knowledge and ideas from the graphic organizer to the concepts in the book.
Pre-Reading Activities• Categorization games• “Surprise bag” containing thematic items• Students draw pictures of items related to the central theme• Review other books/magazines with similar content• Videos and iPad applications relevant to the topic• Articulation cards developed from book vocabulary• Expected/Unexpected behaviors
Reading Activities While reading the book, use scaffolding techniques to engage the student and check understanding. Clinicians commonly use scaffolding techniques in order to help the student learn target skills. Scaffolding techniques • Print reference – The adult references a target from the book by pointing or commenting (e.g. The adult points to an illustration and asks, “What is happening in the picture?”) • Cloze procedures – The adult provides the first part of an utterance and the student completes the thought (e.g. A: The mouse lost his balance and ______ S: fell off).
Reading Activities Scaffolding techniques • Syntactic and semantic expansions – The adult expands on an utterance provided by the student using the grammar and vocabulary targets (e.g. S: The mouse walking. A: Yes, the little mouse is walking on the vine.). • Binary choice – The adult offers the student two choices of responses (e.g. A: What happened to the mouse? Did he fall off or jump off the vine? S: He fell off the vine.). • Modeling – The adult models the target structure for the student (e.g. What happened to the mouse when he was crossing the river? The mouse fell into the river.) (Liboiron & Soto, 2006).
Post-Reading Activities • Post-reading activities create a time when the student can review and reflect on what they have learned. For students with language impairments, post-reading activities are a powerful way to allow the student to experience success that they may not often feel in the classroom. Here are general post-reading activities. • Discussion questions – The adult and student discuss the story. According to Gillam and Ukrainetz (2006), the clinician should respond to 40% to 60% of all questions with scaffolding techniques. • Syntactic activities – Students create grammatical structures through a variety of art activities and games. Suggested targets: past tense and present progressive
Post-Reading Activities • Semantic activities – Students add to their word books through art activities in the areas of object/function, part/whole, categories, antonyms , and synonyms. Suggested targets: comparison, categories, and action words. • Narrative retelling – use scaffolding techniques and visuals from the book to support the student while retelling the story. • Phonology/Articulation – Use images from the book as well as general images in order to target specific phonological and articulation skills. See articulation chart in the following activities.
Post-Reading Activities• Auditory bombardment -files with targeted sentence structures and sounds• Video feedback• Videos and iPad - applications related to the theme
Graphic organizer - ex. Bear on a Bike • Say: “We are going to read about a bear who goes on an adventure. On his adventure, he uses different types of transportation.” • Ask: ▫ What are ways we get from one place to another? ▫ How do you get to school? ▫ How do others get to school? ▫ What do you use to travel in your neighborhood? ▫ What do you use to travel in the water?
Take Away Points forStorybook Intervention • Let the child and the classroom guide the topics • Use the same book across multiple groups to save planning time • Use the books and literacy based activities for multiple sessions- repetition is great! • Literacy based therapy can be used for a variety of ages and goals • Using literacy based activities in and out of context helps students carryover and generalize concepts learned
How to Create and Organize YourOwn Literacy Based Interventions• 1. Choose your favorite books to work with• 2. Review goals you will need to address• 3. Come up with a variety of pre-reading activities that address your goals• 4. Develop activities that can be used as pre or post reading activities based on your favorite books (see black-line masters provided)• 5. Organize in a binder so it is easy to access materials