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Language Intervention Strategies for Monolingual and Bilingual Children
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Language Intervention Strategies for Monolingual and Bilingual Children


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This course includes a discussion about things to consider in selecting the language of intervention. SLPs will select of appropriate language goals for students who are bilingual and identify …

This course includes a discussion about things to consider in selecting the language of intervention. SLPs will select of appropriate language goals for students who are bilingual and identify appropriate approaches to address the goals. Different intervention approaches, including function, attribute, category therapy and storybook intervention will be used in case studies.

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  • 1. Identifying treatment methodsthat work across languages andcultures 2011-12 TETN Series on Bilingualism April 27, 2012
  • 2. Cu Qualification Se Lan con Low ltu Dif Typical Aspectsg Intervention: d fer ral uag of S ES en Iss e e R ssues ce ues Freq a per educe E.Difficulty in comprehending x I ily communications ue system ienc d mov am underdeveloped soundn d n eme t a expos e with l F F.An ica icG.Reduced expressivenessvo s lo w , t yp am with ties t anA n ts ili por d betw nc a acats bul ure , Dy ren y ab up een demi ry an to, Pa rac ed s nt ite uc me scho c to d l d r e olve ols pic s inv
  • 3. “The development of culturalcompetence within a framework ofeffective early interventiontreatment is more easilydemanded than practiced.”R. L. Withrow (2008)
  • 4. Cultural Make-Up of Texas • The Latino population is the fastest growing segment in the United States. • In Texas, the Latino growth is increasing more than in any other state.
  • 5. ASHA on Cultural Competence • Clinicians must recognize how a client’s cultural and linguistic characteristics will influence the clinical decision- making process ▫ Our first question?  How do we look at a report and determine what to focus on? • Clinicians are ethically obligated to provide culturally sensitive services to clients. ▫ Our second question?  When we intervene, what should we do in therapy that is culturally appropriate?
  • 6. Balancing between the languagedemands of differentenvironments.
  • 7. ConceptualL1 Lexical L2 Lexical L2 Lexical (Kroll, Michael, Tokowicz, & Dufour, 2002; Kroll, van Hell, Tokowicz, & Green, 2010)
  • 8. A Bilingual Approach Decision for language of intervention is individualized but somewhat systematic. 2. Language of intervention needs to match the 1. child’s environment. 3. Need for different languages in different 2. settings (Grosjean). 4. Good language models are critical. 3.
  • 9. A systematic approach to bilingualism • Languages of intervention should mirror languages of communication needs. ▫ Home ▫ School ▫ Other • Target goals that can generalize but may need specific instruction in each language. • Specifically teach language structures that are unique to one language or the other.
  • 11. Initial Intervention Targets Difference vs. Disorder SECOND- DEVELOPMENTAL ATYPICAL LANGUAGE ERRORS ERRORS INFLUENCE
  • 12. Linguistic Appropriateness • Remember differences between languages when selecting intervention targets • Examples ▫ Differences in prepositions across languages ▫ Pro-drop versus required pronouns ▫ Article-noun agreement
  • 13. Questions?
  • 14. Developmentally AppropriateLinguistically AppropriateNot errors influenced by another languageStart with problems affecting both languages
  • 15. Cumulative not Comparative Language and Content of Intervention  Select based on what is appropriate in each language and what is appropriate for child’s and family’s situation.  e.g. Spanish English •Gender Both •Pronouns •Verbs •People •Prepositions •Article+nouns •Functions •Nouns •Food •Categorization •Colors •Clothing •Part-Whole •Numbers •Household items •Shapes Peña & Kester, 2004
  • 16. Early Language Milestones Language Milestones English Spanish using gestures 9-12mo 9-12 mo following simple 12-15mo 12-15mo commands symbolic play 18mo 18mo episodic play 36mo 36mo recognizes familiar 7-12mo 7-12mo objects when named
  • 17. Toddler Language Skills Language Milestones English Spanish combine 2 words 1-2yrs 1-2yrs point to named items in 1-2yrs 1-2yrs book/picture combine 2-3 words 2-3yr 2-3yr follow 2-step directive 2-3yr 2-3 yr present progressive verb 2-3yr 2-3yr form plural use 2-3yr 2-3yr
  • 18. Preschool Language Skills Language Milestones English Spanish possessives 3-4yr 3-4yr negatives 3-4 yr 3-4 yr answer simple WH?s 3-4yr 3-4yr combine 4+ words 3-4yr 3-4yr tells story related to topic 4-5yr 4-5yr use of adjective and 4-5yr 4-5yr descriptors in sentences
  • 19. School-Age Language Skills Language Milestones English Spanish tell and re-tell stories in a logical order using 6-7yr 6-7yr complete sentences uses more complex 7-8yr 7-8yr sentence structures when not understood can re-clarify and explain 7-8yr 7-8yr their ideas
  • 20. LANGUAGE CASE STUDY English Elicited Narrative Sample Frog, Where Are You? ( )=maze/revision, X = unintelligible The kid (is) buy a frog and the (And the) and the dog pull a dog see the frog. bucket, house, dog. Now the frog and the boy fell And a dog fall in the window. asleep, was sleepy. And the kid was bad for the And the frog go away. [verb dog. error] And the kid say woooo. (And the) and the kid and the And some bees come. dog gray up. And the dog smell the bees. And the old one wasn’t there. (And the) and the kid say, And the frog is no more allí, not “kooook.” there. And there was the dog. (And the, and the) and the kid And the dog was catching the [said], “Where are you, frog? house bees. Koook!
  • 21. LANGUAGE CASE STUDY English Elicited Narrative Sample Frog, Where Are You? ( )=maze/revision, X = unintelligible (And the kid say, “kooook.” And there [was] there was a And then come a deer. squirt (And the deer) and the deer And the dog catching the bees’ walk. house. And the dog was following him. And the bees’ house fall. And the dog and the kid fall in And the, and he, the kid check in the water. the tree. And the kid then said there And he, it was (a) a cole (eagle?). under the water. And the kid fall. And the dog and the kid fall in And the bee follow the dog. the water and he said he hears And the dog was running fast. a log in the log. And the eagle put, and the eagle hit It was a frog. the kid. And the and the and the kid say, “Shhhh.”
  • 22. Questions?
  • 23. Developmentally AppropriateLinguistically AppropriateCulturally AppropriateVariableAddresses the needs of the classroom
  • 24. Developmentally appropriateactivities are consistent with theway children acquire languageknowledge• Accommodation & Assimilation• Semantic Network Connections• Word Association and Concept Mediation
  • 25. Vocabulary and CognitiveEquilibrium Piaget, 1972 • When we are introduced to new vocabulary, we need to ▫ Assimilate it into a category OR ▫ Accommodate by creating a new category • The FACT approach facilitates this process
  • 26. Semantic Network Model Collins & Quillian, 1969• Interlinked concept nodes• Activation of semanticinformation during onlineProcessing• Spreading activation =Information retrieval
  • 27. The Rippling Effect Nevid, 2009• Semantic activation is strongwhere connections are strongand gradually gets weaker.• Intervention is designed tostrengthen the Rippling Effect.
  • 28. Selecting Intervention Activities • Great Therapy Materials Should: ▫ provide repetitive structure ▫ be able to be used with all ages and cultures ▫ address goals across semantics, syntax, comprehension, pragmatics, and discourse ▫ decrease preparation time ▫ be fun and interesting for students ▫ make homework programs more relevant for parents ▫ allow for programmatic collection of intervention data ▫ apply to academic needs
  • 29. Literacy-based Intervention FACT Vocabulary Building• Pre-Reading Activities • Function• Reading Activities • Attribute• Post-Reading Activities • Category • Therapy• Building the narrative structure that is integral to • Building the linguistic communicating events and structure that allows new answering questions. words to be learned, accessed, and remembered.
  • 30. Storybooks•provide structure for addressinggoals Qualification•can be used with all ages and Typical Aspects of Intervention:cultures•can be used to address goals D.Difficulty in comprehending communicationacross semantics, syntax, E.An underdeveloped soundcomprehension, pragmatics, and systemdiscourse. F.Reduced expressiveness•can decrease preparation time arefun and interesting for students•make homework programs morerelevant for parents•allow for programmatic collection ofintervention data
  • 31.  Shared reading activities • Increase development in multiple areas (Doyle & Bramwell, 2006; Qualification Typical Aspects of Intervention: Debaryshe, 1993; Burner, 1978) • Promote language development in D.Difficulty in comprehending communication children with typical development E.An underdeveloped sound (Teale & Sulzby, 1986; Westby, system 1985) and with language F.Reduced expressiveness impairments (Gillam & Ukrainetz, 2006) • Promote a greater desire to read (Mason & Blanton, 1971) • Exposes student to printed materials and positive reading models (Teal, 1984)
  • 32. Develop Pre-linguistic Skills• Play – Symbolic play predicts Qualification comprehension Typical Aspects of Intervention:• Gestures/Signs D.Difficulty in comprehending – Bridge to producing language communication• Joint Attention E.An underdeveloped sound – Gaze, pointing, showing, system F.Reduced expressiveness directing attention• Vocalizations – Diversity of sound types predicts expressive vocabulary and speech performance• Comprehension – Predicts grammatical complexity and vocabulary Watt, Wetherby & Shumway, 2006
  • 33. Book Selection • Age-appropriate • Interesting and relevant • Related to goals • Simple • Good illustrations • Resources ▫ School librarians ▫ Classroom teachers ▫ Internet
  • 34. Pre-Reading Activities Pre-reading activities are used to bridge any gaps between a student’s current skills and the targeted skills. • Music – use songs semantically related to the material in the book. (Hoggan & Strong, 1994) • Semantic mapping/graphic organizers – the adult and students develop a list of words and concepts related to the story and then develop a visual representation or map of how the words and concepts are related to one another (Gillam & Ukrainetz, 2006; Hoggan & Strong, 1994).
  • 35. Pre-Reading Activities • Illustration discussion – The student creates a story using illustrations from the selected book. Scaffolding techniques may be used to facilitate higher semantic and syntactic complexity. Several templates that can be used during this activity are included. • Pre-reading discussion – Pre-reading questions are designed to tie the students’ knowledge and ideas from the graphic organizer to the concepts in the book.
  • 36. Reading Activities While reading the book, use scaffolding techniques to engage the student and check understanding. Clinicians commonly use scaffolding techniques in order to help the student learn target skills. Scaffolding techniques • Print reference – The adult references a target from the book by pointing or commenting (e.g. The adult points to an illustration and asks, “What is happening in the picture?”) • Cloze procedures – The adult provides the first part of an utterance and the student completes the thought (e.g. A: The mouse lost his balance and ______ S: fell off).
  • 37. Reading Activities Scaffolding techniques • Syntactic and semantic expansions – The adult expands on an utterance provided by the student using the grammar and vocabulary targets (e.g. S: The mouse walking. A: Yes, the little mouse is walking on the vine.). • Binary choice – The adult offers the student two choices of responses (e.g. A: What happened to the mouse? Did he fall off or jump off the vine? S: He fell off the vine.). • Modeling – The adult models the target structure for the student (e.g. What happened to the mouse when he was crossing the river? The mouse fell into the river.) (Liboiron & Soto, 2006).
  • 38. Examples of Scaffolding Techniques
  • 39. Post-Reading Activities • Post-reading activities create a time when the student can review and reflect on what they have learned. For students with language impairments, post-reading activities are a powerful way to allow the student to experience success that they may not often feel in the classroom. Here are general post-reading activities. • Discussion questions – The adult and student discuss the story. According to Gillam and Ukrainetz (2006), the clinician should respond to 40% to 60% of all questions with scaffolding techniques. • Syntactic activities – Students create grammatical structures through a variety of art activities and games. Suggested targets: past tense and present progressive
  • 40. Post-Reading Activities • Semantic activities – Students add to their word books through art activities in the areas of object/function, part/whole, categories, antonyms, and synonyms. Suggested targets: comparison, categories, and action words. • Narrative retelling – use scaffolding techniques and visuals from the book to support the student while retelling the story. • Phonology/Articulation – Use images from the book as well as general images in order to target specific phonological and articulation skills. See articulation chart in the following activities.
  • 41. Graphic organizer - ex. Bear on a Bike • Say: “We are going to read about a bear who goes on an adventure. On his adventure, he uses different types of transportation.” • Ask: ▫ What are ways we get from one place to another? ▫ How do you get to school? ▫ How do others get to school? ▫ What do you use to travel in your neighborhood? ▫ What do you use to travel in the water?
  • 42. Graphic OrganizerPre-reading and Reading
  • 43. Post reading activitiesstory recall template
  • 44. Post-reading activitiessequence recall
  • 45. Take Away Points for StorybookIntervention • Language of intervention should mirror the child’s environment • Initial therapy targets should be elements that exist in both language • Let the child and the classroom guide the topics • Use the same book across multiple groups to save planning time
  • 46. Function, Attribute, Category Therapy • What is important to academics? ▫ Low vocabulary is often sited in referrals ▫ Vocabulary is heavily weighted in academic testing ▫ Vocabulary is heavily weighted in LD testing. • Do we teach vocabulary? • How does vocabulary relate to us? • The answer is that we teach the structure that allows vocabulary to be acquired.
  • 47. ( ) TEST – choose a field of 20 items from one category and ask the child to name them. TEACH – the items that were not named RE-TEST – all 20 items
  • 48. FACT: How do I choose a category? Choose a category that relates to the student, to the classroom, AND to the home. You can choose • Animals subcategories but • Body Parts wait until the • Household Objects process is • Clothes learned. • Transportation Transportation: -Air • Instruments -Land -Water • Food
  • 49. FACT: Animals field of 20
  • 50. FACT: Divide into Known andUnknown
  • 51. FACT: Teach Unknown
  • 52. FACT: Teach Unknown • Teaching of Vocabulary Acquisition is: ▫ Systematic  The same process for each category group  We are not teaching specific vocabulary!  We are teaching the structure that allows them to learn, organize retain, and retrieve vocabulary! ▫ Multimodal 1.Description (utterance expansion) 2.Compare and Contrast 3.Video/Audio 4.Storybook on Topic 5.In Context
  • 53. FACT 1: Animal Description
  • 54. FACT 1: Animal Description
  • 55. FACT 1: Animal Description
  • 56. FACT 2: Compare and Contrast
  • 57. FACT 3: Video/Audio Video/Visual Audio • Youtube • Clip Art • Public Library • Google • School Library • Songs • Google
  • 58. FACT 4: Storybooks on Topics • Fiction and Non-fiction
  • 59. FACT 5: In Context • Relate the topic back to the real world by putting it in context.
  • 60. FACT: Retest the field of 20
  • 61. Take Away Points for Functional, Attribute,Category Therapy • Don’t make any assumptions of prior knowledge • Do not teach vocabulary, teach structure • Use classroom topics and areas of interest • Use the mode (video) that the student likes best as a reward.
  • 62. • Good Storybooks for Bilingual Intervention• Literacy-based Intervention Templates• Vocabulary Building Map – (FACT)
  • 63. Visit us at
  • 64. For more great resources visit our resourcelibrary at
  • 65. Thank you!