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Difference vs. Disorder:  Speech Development in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations
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Difference vs. Disorder: Speech Development in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations

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This presentation explains typical speech, articulation and phonological development. It compares and contrasts speech development between English and Spanish, as well as other languages.

This presentation explains typical speech, articulation and phonological development. It compares and contrasts speech development between English and Spanish, as well as other languages.

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  • 1. Understanding the influence of two sound systems on speech development 2011
  • 2. Outline for Today • Typical Speech Development in Bilinguals ▫ How does a second language influence sound acquisition? • Speech and Articulation Development ▫ Consonants ▫ Vowels • Phonological Development • Other Languages • Case Studies
  • 3. Learner Objectives • Participants will: ▫ Understand typical speech development for bilinguals ▫ Identify typical speech processes of bilinguals ▫ List similarities in typical monolingual and bilingual speech development. ▫ Identify speech intervention goals for bilingual children.
  • 4. The influence of a second language on the acquisitions of sounds
  • 5. Difference vs. Disorder NORMAL DEVELOPMENTAL ERRORS SECOND- LANGUAGE INFLUENCE ATYPICAL ERRORS
  • 6. Speech Outcomes • Qualifies• DNQ • DNQ• DNQ Errors are typical for age Errors are due to second language Errors are atypical for age and language No errors present
  • 7. • Speech and language development from: ▫ 0-36 months ▫ 36 months forward • With: ▫ Spanish ▫ English ▫ Crosslinguistic Influence
  • 8. Similarities Differences + = Positive transfer + = Negative transfer
  • 9. • 0-1 month – crying and vegetative sounds • 1-6 months – cooing, laughter, squealing, growling • 4-6 months – marginal babbling • 6-8 months – reduplicated babbling • 8-10 months – variegated babbling • 8-12 months – echolalia* • 9-12 months – phonetically* consistent forms • 9-12 months – jargon* Language Influenced*
  • 10. • For parents: (Lynch, Brookshire & Fox, 1980) ▫ 18 months - ~25% intelligible ▫ 2 year olds - 50-75% intelligible ▫ 3 year olds - 75%-100% intelligible • For unfamiliar: (Flipsen, 2006) ▫ 18 months - ~25% intelligible ▫ 2 year olds - ~50% intelligible ▫ 3 year olds - ~75% intelligible ▫ 4 year olds - 100% intelligible
  • 11. • Difficulty producing sounds in both languages, even with adult assistance • Family history of speech-language impairment • Slower development than siblings • Difficulty interacting with peers • Difficulty with speech production in many routines and settings • Speech production unlike others with similar cultural/linguistic experiences
  • 12. The differences and shared characteristics of two sound systems
  • 13. /ɲ/ /ɾ/ /R/ /x/ /ð/ /dʒ/ /h/ /ŋ/ /θ/ /r/ /ʃ/ /v/ /w/ /z/ /ʒ/ SPANISH ENGLISH /b/ /d/ /ɡ/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /tʃ/ /j/ /l/ /f/
  • 14. Spanish & English Phonemes Side-by-Side
  • 15. • Consonants in both languages: ▫ b p d t g k m n l “ch” s “y” w f • Spanish consonants not in English ▫ X ñ  (tap r) R (rolled r) • English consonants not in Spanish ▫ v “th” (voiced and unvoiced) z “sh” “zh” “h” “j” “ng” English r • Spanish consonants allowed in word-final position: r (flap), s, l, n, d
  • 16. English consonants mastered in words across time
  • 17. English consonants mastered in words across time
  • 18. English consonants –GFTA 2
  • 19. Spanish consonants mastered in words across time
  • 20. Spanish consonant acquisition -Goldstein
  • 21. /æ/ /ɔ/ /ʊ/ /u/ /ʌ/ /ɛ/ /ɪ/ /ə/ /ɑ/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ SPANISH ENGLISH
  • 22. • 13-14 vowel sounds in English (depending on dialect and detail) • 5 vowels in Spanish (a e i o u)
  • 23. Spanish
  • 24. When the rules of two sound systems overlap or are mutually exclusive
  • 25. Cluster reduction Stopping Fronting Assimilation Gliding Final consonant deletion Deaffrication Tap/Trill Deviation Vocalization SPANISH ENGLISH
  • 26. Phonological Processes: Norms
  • 27. English Spanish • More clusters • Many words ending in Cs • Many allowable phonemes final Cs • CV dominated • Few words ending in Cs • Few allowable phonemes as final Cs (only l, n, d, s, r) C = Consonant V = Vowel
  • 28. Bilingual Influence -Cluster Reduction Age of Acquisition Phonotactics • Bilingual children make more cluster reduction errors in English than they do in Spanish. • 5-year-old children reduce clusters 3.8% of the time in Spanish 7.3% of the time in English • “Don’t” in English “Don” • “School” “Eschool” Spanish English Clusters in Final Position No Yes S-cluster in Initial Position No Yes
  • 29. Bilingual Influence – Final Consonant Deletion • As only /r, l, s, n, d/ exist in final position, other final consonants are deleted or substituted. • Anecdotal: Voiced final consonants = substitution ▫ (e.g. Dog Dok) Voiceless final consonants = deletion ▫ (e.g CatCa)
  • 30. Bilingual Influence – Substitutions As a result of the differences between the consonant sounds of English and Spanish, some of the influenced errors we see are: Stopping • /ð/  d • /θ/ t Fronting • /v/ b* Devoicing • zs (De)Affrication • Jdj • Sh ch
  • 31. /ɲ/ /ɽʱ/ /t̪ʰ/ /ʋ/ /q/ /d̪ʱ/ /ɾ/ /pʰ/ /ʈʰ/ /x/ /bʰ/ /ɖʱ/ /kʰ/ /ɡʱ/ /tʃʰ/ /dʒʱ/ /ɣ/ /ð/ /ʒ/ /ŋ/ /θ/ /v/ /w/ HINDI ENGLISH /b/ /d/ /ɡ/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /z/ /h/ /r/ /ʃ/ /tʃ/ /dʒ/ /j/ /l/ /f/
  • 32. Hindi Consonants
  • 33. Hindi Vowels
  • 34. /ɑ/ /æ/ /ɔ/ /ʊ/ /u/ /ʌ/ /ɛ/ /ɪ/ /i/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ HINDI ENGLISH
  • 35. So what do we know? • Building blocks are the same for both monolinguals and bilinguals, and across languages • General guidelines for intelligibility are the same • Expect some cross-linguistic influence in speech production where the two languages differ • Use therapy materials that provide speech sounds that are appropriate for the child’s age and language
  • 36. Case Study • . A
  • 37. Visit us at bilinguistics.com
  • 38. For more great resources visit our resource library at SpeechPathologyCEUs.net
  • 39. Thank you!

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