Difference vs. Disorder: Speech Development in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations


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This presentation explains typical speech, articulation and phonological development. It compares and contrasts speech development between English and Spanish, as well as other languages.

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Difference vs. Disorder: Speech Development in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations

  1. 1. Disclosure Statement:   Financial — Ellen Kester is the founder and owner of Bilinguistics. Ellen Kester and Scott Prath receive salaries from Bilinguistics. Bilinguistics receives royalties from product sales. Nonfinancial — None
  2. 2. Outline for Today • Typical Speech Development in Bilinguals ▫ How does a second language influence sound acquisition? • Speech and Articulation Development ▫ Consonants ▫ Vowels • Phonological Development • Other Languages • Case Studies
  4. 4. Speech Outcomes • Qualifies• DNQ • DNQ• DNQ Errors are typical for age Errors are due to second language Errors are atypical for age and language No errors present
  5. 5. Do you need Continuing Education or want  to listen to this course live? Click here to visit  the online courses.
  6. 6. Click for Audio‐over‐Powerpoint Presentation
  7. 7. • Speech and language development from: ▫ 0-36 months ▫ 36 months forward • With: ▫ Spanish ▫ English ▫ Crosslinguistic Influence
  8. 8. Similarities Differences + = Positive transfer + = Negative transfer
  9. 9. • 0-1 month – crying and vegetative sounds • 1-6 months – cooing, laughter, squealing, growling • 4-6 months – marginal babbling • 6-8 months – reduplicated babbling • 8-10 months – variegated babbling • 8-12 months – echolalia* • 9-12 months – phonetically* consistent forms • 9-12 months – jargon* Language Influenced* Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  10. 10. All of the documents and charts in this presentation  can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
  11. 11. • For parents: (Lynch, Brookshire & Fox, 1980) ▫ 18 months - ~25% intelligible ▫ 2 year olds - 50-75% intelligible ▫ 3 year olds - 75%-100% intelligible • For unfamiliar: (Flipsen, 2006) ▫ 18 months - ~25% intelligible ▫ 2 year olds - ~50% intelligible ▫ 3 year olds - ~75% intelligible ▫ 4 year olds - 100% intelligible Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  12. 12. • Difficulty producing sounds in both languages, even with adult assistance • Family history of speech-language impairment • Slower development than siblings • Difficulty interacting with peers • Difficulty with speech production in many routines and settings • Speech production unlike others with similar cultural/linguistic experiences Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  13. 13. The differences and shared characteristics of two sound systems
  14. 14. /ɲ/ /ɾ/ /R/ /x/ /ð/ /dʒ/ /h/ /ŋ/ /θ/ /r/ /ʃ/ /v/ /w/ /z/ /ʒ/ SPANISH ENGLISH /b/ /d/ /ɡ/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /tʃ/ /j/ /l/ /f/ Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  15. 15. Spanish & English Phonemes Side-by-Side Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  16. 16. • Consonants in both languages: ▫ b p d t g k m n l “ch” s “y” w f • Spanish consonants not in English ▫ X ñ  (tap r) R (rolled r) • English consonants not in Spanish ▫ v “th” (voiced and unvoiced) z “sh” “zh” “h” “j” “ng” English r • Spanish consonants allowed in word-final position: r (flap), s, l, n, d
  17. 17. English consonants mastered in words across time Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  18. 18. English consonants mastered in words across time Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  19. 19. English consonants –GFTA 2
  20. 20. Spanish consonant acquisition - Goldstein Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  21. 21. THREE TREE Consonant Difference Activity
  22. 22. SHOE CHEW Consonant Difference Activity
  23. 23. VASE BASE Consonant Difference Activity
  24. 24. /æ/ /ɔ/ /ʊ/ /u/ /ʌ/ /ɛ/ /ɪ/ /ə/ /ɑ/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ SPANISH ENGLISH Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  25. 25. SpanishSpanish Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  26. 26. • 13-14 vowel sounds in English (depending on dialect and detail) • 5 vowels in Spanish (a e i o u)
  27. 27. Vowel Difference Activity HAT HOT
  28. 28. GET GATE Vowel Difference Activity
  29. 29. HIT HEAT Vowel Difference Activity
  30. 30. FUN PHONE Vowel Difference Activity
  31. 31. LOOK LUKE Vowel Difference Activity
  32. 32. When the rules of two sound systems overlap or are mutually exclusive
  33. 33. Cluster reduction Stopping Fronting Assimilation Gliding Final consonant deletion Deaffrication Tap/Trill Deviation Vocalization SPANISH ENGLISH Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  34. 34. Phonological Processes: Norms Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  35. 35. English Spanish • More clusters • Many words ending in Cs • Many allowable phonemes final Cs • CV dominated • Few words ending in Cs • Few allowable phonemes as final Cs (only l, n, d, s, r) C = Consonant V = Vowel
  36. 36. Bilingual Influence -Cluster Reduction Age of Acquisition Phonotactics • Bilingual children make more cluster reduction errors in English than they do in Spanish. • 5-year-old children reduce clusters 3.8% of the time in Spanish 7.3% of the time in English • “Don’t” in English “Don” • “School” “Eschool” Spanish English Clusters  in Final  Position No Yes S‐cluster  in Initial  Position No Yes
  37. 37. Bilingual Influence – Final Consonant Deletion • As only /r, l, s, n, d/ exist in final position, other final consonants are deleted or substituted. • Anecdotal: Voiced final consonants = substitution ▫ (e.g. Dog Dok) Voiceless final consonants = deletion ▫ (e.g CatCa)
  38. 38. Bilingual Influence – Substitutions As a result of the differences between the consonant sounds of English and Spanish, some of the influenced errors we see are: Stopping • /ð/  d • /θ/ t Fronting • /v/ b* Devoicing • zs (De)Affrication • Jdj • Sh ch
  39. 39. /ɲ/ /ɽʱ/ /t̪ʰ/ /ʋ/ /q/ /d̪ʱ/ /ɾ/ /pʰ/ /ʈʰ/ /x/ /bʰ/ /ɖʱ/ /kʰ/ /ɡʱ/ /tʃʰ/ /dʒʱ/ /ɣ/ /ð/ /ʒ/ /ŋ/ /θ/ /v/ /w/ HINDI ENGLISH /b/ /d/ /ɡ/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /z/ /h/ /r/ /ʃ/ /tʃ/ /dʒ/ /j/ /l/ /f/
  40. 40. /ɑ/ /æ/ /ɔ/ /ʊ/ /u/ /ʌ/ /ɛ/ /ɪ/ /i/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ HINDI ENGLISH
  41. 41. So what do we know? • Building blocks are the same for both monolinguals and bilinguals, and across languages • General guidelines for intelligibility are the same • Expect some cross-linguistic influence in speech production where the two languages differ • Use therapy materials that provide speech sounds that are appropriate for the child’s age and language
  42. 42. Difference or Disorder?  Understanding Speech and Language  Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically  Diverse Students Rapidly identify speech‐language  patterns related to second language  acquisition to  distinguish difference from disorder.
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