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Difference vs. Disorder: Language Development in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations



This presentation reviews normal language development of bilinguals. It identifies common second language-influenced errors between English and Spanish as well as other languages.

This presentation reviews normal language development of bilinguals. It identifies common second language-influenced errors between English and Spanish as well as other languages.



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    Difference vs. Disorder: Language Development in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations Difference vs. Disorder: Language Development in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations Presentation Transcript

    • Understanding the influence ofbilingualism on languagedevelopment2011
    • Outline for Today • Bilingualism and Language • Typical Language Development in Bilinguals ▫ Form  Syntax  Morphology ▫ Content • Application to All Languages • Case Studies
    • Learner Objectives • Participants will list, identify, describe…: ▫ The need for all SLPs to have CLD training ▫ A framework for categorizing difference and disorder ▫ Three types of errors that children learning two languages can make ▫ Similarities and differences in typical monolingual and bilingual language development ▫ Developmental errors, cross-linguistic errors, and atypical errors ▫ Language structures that are subject to second language influence in second language learners ▫ Models of bilingualism ▫ Facts and myths about bilingualism
    • Texas Public School Demographics: 2009 Snapshot 4% 14% 34% 48%
    • How do we qualify and workwith a bilingual population when: ▫ The tests we use are not normed on this population. ▫ My gut feeling doesn’t match the test results. ▫ I don’t know what goals are appropriate.
    • S Se Se SE Es Es E
    • ED BE BSEnglish SD Spanish ED = English Dominant BE = Bilingual English BS = Bilingual Spanish SD = Spanish Dominant
    • ConceptualL1 Lexical L2 Lexical L2 Lexical (Kroll, Michael, Tokowicz, & Dufour, 2002; Kroll, van Hell, Tokowicz, & Green, 2010)
    • • Children tend to shift - L1 to L2 ▫ 8-10 year-olds were faster in English but more accurate in Spanish. ▫ 11-13-year-olds showed no clear advantage in either language. ▫ By 14-16 years of age children were more accurate and faster in English.• Consider: ▫ Transitional programs ▫ Dual language programs
    • Questions?
    • Language Activity FACT or MYTH Children code switch between languages because they don’t know either language well.
    • Language Activity FACT or MYTH Raising children with two languages will confuse them.
    • Language Activity FACT or MYTH Parents should not use more than one language with their child.
    • Language Activity FACT or MYTH Comparisons to siblings and peers can help identify language learning difficulties.
    • Language Activity FACT or MYTH Children with language impairment should not learn more than one language at a time.
    • Differences Similarities + = Positive transfer + = Negative transfer
    • • 0-1 month – crying and vegetative sounds• 2-3 months – eye gaze• 6-9 months – joint attention• 9-12 months – using gestures• 12-15 months – following simple commands• 18 months – symbolic play, pretend play• 24 months – sequencing of activities• 36 months – episodic play
    • • Based on the Competition Model as applied to bilingual development (MacWhinney & Bates, 1989) ▫ Forward Transfer (L1 to L2) expected for ELLs• The effects of Spanish on English can result in errors in: ▫ Verb errors (especially unmarked present for past tense) ▫ Content word errors (more than general words) ▫ Prepositions ▫ Pronouns ▫ Word order
    • Cross-linguistic Errors in Childrenwith Typical Development Mean Errors Per Grade Spanish Mean Errors Per Grade English 35 35Number of Errors Number of Errors 30 30 25 SpnMorph 25 EngMorph 20 SpnSemantic 20 EngSemantic 15 SpnSyntactic 15 EngSyntactic 10 SpnTotal 10 EngTotal 5 5 0 0 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd PK K 1st 2nd 3rd
    • 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Pl Pl ur ur al al s s Ad Ad j/A j/A dv dv N eg N at eg io a tio n Ve n rb O :P th Ve rb O a st er :P th Ve /P a er rb re st /P :P se Ve re re nt rb se se :P Ve nt re nt rb Ve /P s :U rb as en t/P nm :R tVe Ve as eg rb ar /Ir :U rb :R t ke re nm eg dP g ar /Ir re ke re s/ dP g Ve Pa st re rb s/P :P er Ve a st so rb Ve n :P rb Morphological Errors Spanish e Morphological Errors English rs :O o th Ve n er rb G :O en th de e r r 3 2 1 K K PK 1st PK 3rd 2nd Bilingualism and Language: Form
    • Bilingualism and Language: Form Syntax Errors English 8 7 PK 6 K 5 4 1st 3 2nd 2 1 3rd 0 Syntax Errors Spanish 8 7 PK 6 K 5 4 1st 3 2nd 2 1 3rd 0
    • Verb Differences - Form English (2 verb person forms) Spanish (5-6 verb person forms) • I eat • Yo como • You eat • Tú comes • He eats • Él/Ella/Ud. come • We eat • Nosotros comemos • Y’all eat • Vosotros coméis • They eat • Ellos comenMost frequent Spanish-influenced English (SIE)verb error:Unmarked present tense for past tense
    • Unmarked Present for Past Tense
    • Multi-Purpose Verbs • Verbs such as “do,” “make,” “put,” and “take” generally have one primary meaning and other less frequent uses. • Subject to transfer of meaning from L1. Spanish phrases with English Equivalents Spanish-Influenced multi-purpose verbs English Tomar una decisión To make a decision Did you take a decision?* Poner una cita To make an appointment Do you want to put an appointment?* Tener hambre To be hungry Do you have hunger?* Tener 4 años To be 4-years old I have 4 years.*
    • Word Order - Form English Spanish • Strict Word Order • Flexible • SVO • SVO, OSV, VOS ▫ John threw the ball. ▫ Juan tiró la pelota. ▫ La pelota Juan tiró. ▫ Tiró la pelota Juan.
    • Questions?
    • Bilingualism and Language: Content Semantic Errors Spanish 8 7 PK 6 K 5 4 1st 3 2nd 2 1 3rd 0 Semantic Errors English 8 7 6 PK 5 K 4 1st 3 2nd 2 3rd 1 0 t e ns y en e ns s Us or le Us ou itio er tic St d ef on d Ar X os or or oR ng Pr W ep W ni nN Pr al ea er ou M en on G Pr
    • Preposition Differences - Content English Spanish • Satellite-framed • Verb-framed ▫ verb + preposition ▫ Directional information in ▫ e.g., To look for, the verb ▫ To get on ▫ e.g. Buscar (to look for) • Typically 1:1 correspondence ▫ Subir (to get/go up on) of meaning • Not 1:1 correspondence of ▫ In meaning ▫ On ▫ En = on, in ▫ Around ▫ Por = for, by Frequent Spanish-influenced English (SIE) error: Preposition error or omission
    • Prepositions - Content Spanish Prepositions English Equivalent Spanish-influenced Eng en “in” and “on” Put the food in the plate.*, Put the soup on the bowl.* Pensar en OR Pensar de To think about or think of I think on him every day.* Enojarse con/de Get mad at Get mad with/of* Decidir de To decide on Decide of what you want?* Casarse con To marry or be married to Is he married with her?* Enamorarse de To be in love with Is he in love of her?* Consistir en To consist of What does your plan consist in?* Buscar To look for I look my toy.* Subir To go up, to get on I go the stairs.*
    • Pronoun Differences • English • Spanish ▫ Pronouns are required ▫ Pro-drop language ▫ Once subject is ▫ Once subject is established a pronoun established, pronoun is used is dropped ▫ Related to the simple ▫ Related to the complex verb system verb system Frequent Spanish-influenced English (SIE) error: Pronoun without a reference
    • Content Errors • Spanish-influenced English may include use of words close in meaning to the target ▫ “moose” for “deer” ▫ “turtle” for “frog” ▫ “rat” for “chipmunk” ▫ “cone house of the bees” for “beehive” • Typically do not use general, non-specific vocabulary (“this,” “thing”) Frequent SIE error: Incorrect but related vocabulary
    • • Bilingual children develop early vocabulary at the same rate as monolingual children (Pearson, 1993).• Early language milestones are similar (single words, lexical spurt, 2-word phrases) (Pearson and Fernandez, 2001).• Conceptual scores are similar (Pearson, 1998).• Language exposure drives vocabulary production (Pearson, Fernandez, Lewedeg, and Oller, 1997)
    • • For bilingual toddlers 30% of vocabulary are translation equivalents1• Young school-age bilinguals produce same # of category items in Spanish and English BUT 70% are unique to one language2• Task performance varies by language3• 1 Pearson, Fernandez & Oller, 1995• 2 Peña, Bedore & Zlatic, 2002• 3 Peña, Bedore, & Rappazzo, 2003
    • Cumulative not Comparative Language and Content of Intervention  Select based on what is appropriate in each language and what is appropriate for child’s and family’s situation.  For example: Spanish English •Gender Both •Pronouns •Verbs •People •Prepositions •Article+nouns •Functions •Nouns •Food •Categorization •Colors •Clothing •Part-Whole •Numbers •Household items •Shapes Peña & Kester, 2004
    • Code-SwitchingA natural dynamic phenomenonthat serves specific purposes inspecific contexts.
    • Code-switching • Used for a variety of functions ▫ Emphasis ▫ To gain a listener’s attention ▫ To change speaking roles • Draws on the resources of both codes at once • Rule-based • Indicative of socio-linguistic competency
    • Measures of Productivity &ComplexityOften used as measures ofproficiencyLook very similar in English andSpanish
    • Mean Length of Utterances Spanish 9 8 7 6 5MLU MLU Words 4 MLU Morphemes 3 2 1 0 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd Mean Lenth of Utterances English 9 8 7 6 5MLU MLU Words 4 MLU Morphemes 3 2 1 0 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd
    • Productivity Measures Spanish400350300250 NDW200 TNW150100 50 0 NDW: Number PK K 1st 2nd 3rd of Different Words Productivity Measures English400 TNW: Number350 of Total Words300250 NDW200 TNW150100 50 0 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd
    • Linguistic Element Spanish Syntax English Syntax Examples of SIESpanish-Influenced EnglishSentences Flexible Word Order Ridged Word Order “Juan me hit.”Modifiers Noun + Adjective Adjective + Noun The river big.Questions No auxiliary Auxiliary “Where you went?”Pronouns Pronoun dropping Maintenance of “Is hot today.” pronounsNegation Double Single “I no want nothing”Plurals Nouns & Adjectives Only nouns marked “The bigs trees” markedPrepositions Verb-framed Satellite-framed To climb (on*) the(syntax) bus.Multi-purpose Often no Direct Often no Direct I put anverbs (semantics) Translation Translation appointment.Verb system Complex (3rd Simple (3rd person He look for the frog person unmarked, marked, 2 person 5-6 person forms/verb) forms/verb)
    • Questions?
    • Intervening with other languagesof the world Urdu Hindi Vietnamese Arabic Romanian
    • Other Common Languages • “difference between ___________ and English Language”
    • Portuguese vs. English • Grammar - Verb/Tense: Portuguese leads to such errors as… ▫ Tense choice is a significant problem for… • Grammar - Other: Portuguese word order is… • Vocabulary: Because of shared Latin roots…
    • Russian vs. English • Grammar - Verb/Tense: Russian and English convey meaning through… • learners often omit the auxiliary in questions or negatives: How you do that? ▫ Tense choice is a significant problem for Russians learning English… • Grammar - Other: Russian has no articles…
    • Language Outcomes • DNQ • DNQ Typical in Typical in English, n both ot languages Spanish Below Typical in normal Spanish, not Limits in English both languages • DNQ • Qualifies
    • Questions?
    • More Great Resources onCultural and Linguistic Diversity
    • Visit us at bilinguistics.com