Learner Objectives
• Participants will:
▫ View RTI from a broad perspective
▫ Introduce a macro approach to looking at the...
Outline
The greatest issues facing educators in the schools
• Studying our current situation
▫ Identifying the greatest is...
Interactive
Referral
Process
Decision Tree
Click here to see 
download pdfs 
referenced in this 
presentation.
What is our goal today?
• Improving services in the schools
▫ Reducing our caseloads
▫ Improving the referrals that we rec...
Do you need Continuing Education or want 
to listen to this course live?
Click here to visit 
the online courses.
Click for Audio‐over‐Powerpoint Presentation
What are the greatest difficulties we
face?
Speech Language Pathologists:
• My caseload is too large
• I have too many cam...
What are the greatest difficulties we
face?
Principals and Assistant Principals:
• I can’t get this student into special e...
What are the greatest difficulties we
face?
Speech Department Leads:
• My staff is stretched too thin
• There are not enou...
What are the greatest difficulties we
face?
Teachers:
• I can’t understand my student
• I want to help in the classroom bu...
1. How do we solve these problems
and appease everyone in the process?
Conflicting interests
and needs Speech
Pathologists...
2. How are we currently trying to
solve these problems?
Response to Intervention
• Referral Team (RT)
• Student Success Te...
What is RTI?
A regular education initiative to deal with the
problems of the discrepancy model (discrepancy
between IQ and...
• RTI is an approach to LD identification that was
first proposed by a 1982 National Research
Council report.*
▫ Google: “...
• “RTI was first proposed by Gresham
(2002 ) as a viable alternative to the
discrepancy model.”
• Provide children from cu...
• Are we correctly identifying students?
• Are we still over- or under-identifying?
• Have we improved the types of referr...
Analysis of a State's SE Population
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
% of Special Education Students
860 Districts Over-
Identifying
8.0...
How successful are we?
District Proportionality Study Results
• Out of 1008 Districts in Texas,
860 are over-identifying
•...
Should RTI be abandoned?
RTI seems to be successful or unsuccessful for
the very same reason:
The fact that it is largely ...
Virtue
 RTI is hugely successful in situations
in which good collaboration takes
place.
 It can be adapted to current ca...
Vice
 RTI allows people on the same
team to perceive their role
differently.
 It does not provide consistency
or a frame...
All of the documents and charts in this presentation 
can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library.
Click here to visi...
Supporting our
Colleagues Effectively –
A Case Study
Simultaneously:
Supporting Teachers
Responding to Administrations
Mon...
Case Study of a District
• Timeframe: Fall Semester, 2011
• Population:
▫ Kindergarten and first grade students on two
cam...
Case Study of a District (continued)
• Timeframe: Fall Semester, 2011
• Population:
▫ Kindergarten and first grade student...
Our Question:
Can we improve the referral process?
• Measures
▫ Reduced # of referrals resulting in a full evaluation
▫ Re...
RTI Problem Solving Method*
*Adapted from NASDSE, 2006
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
student’s
difficulties
Develop
s...
RTI Problem Solving Method*
*Adapted from NASDSE, 2006
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
student’s
difficulties
Develop
s...
RTI Problem Solving Method*
*Adapted from NASDSE, 2006
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
student’s
difficulties
Develop
s...
RTI Problem Solving Method*
*Adapted from NASDSE, 2006
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
student’s
difficulties
Develop
s...
RTI Problem Solving Method*
*Adapted from NASDSE, 2006
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
student’s
difficulties
Develop
s...
Gather Student Information
1. Name
2. Date of Birth
3. Grade
4. Teacher
5. Vision and Hearing
6. Parent Concern and Histor...
Initial Data
• Hearing Concern
• Parent Concern
• Teacher Concern
• I can’t understand the
words that my student
uses.
• M...
Speech and Language Concerns
The Language Information
generates data about each area
of possible concern.
Teachers read it...
Speech and Language Concerns
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
Student
Difficulties
Develop
Strategies
Implement
Strategi...
Analyze Student Difficulties
1. I can’t understand my student.
2. 27 common outcomes (not including
multiple issues, 2nd l...
Analyze Student Difficulties
1. My student doesn’t speak enough, is
confusing, or can’t understand me
2. 7 common outcomes...
Why referrals might be
daunting to teachers
• There are 7 pieces of data from three sources
• Multiple Causes
▫ There are ...
Are Teachers Referring the
Right Students?
Research on agreement between teachers and
SLPs
• Numerous studies have explore...
Teacher confidence
• Cartwright-Gard, Harmon & Bryne (2002)
surveyed teachers and found:
▫ 75% of teachers reported low co...
Distribution of time over a
student’s week
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
Student
Difficulties
Develop
Strategies
Impl...
Research on Dynamic
Assessment
• Mediation Sessions
▫ Intentionality
▫ Meaning
▫ Transcendence
▫ Competence
• Targeted Com...
Results: Story Components
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
Student
Difficulties
Develop
Strategies
Implement
Strategies
...
Results: Clauses
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
Student
Difficulties
Develop
Strategies
Implement
Strategies
Evaluate
...
Results: # Diff. Words
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
Student
Difficulties
Develop
Strategies
Implement
Strategies
Eva...
Predominantly Spanish
Bilingual Children
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
Student
Difficulties
Develop
Strategies
Implem...
Predominantly Spanish
Bilingual Children
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
Student
Difficulties
Develop
Strategies
Implem...
Implementation
• What are ways of applying DA in the schools?
• What are ways of collaborating with other team
members to ...
Outcomes of DA
• Helps us distinguish between language
difference and language disorder
• Process-oriented approach to ass...
Develop Strategies
1. What problem is a child having?
2. Example: Answering questions
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
S...
Implement Strategies
1. Example: Answering questions
2. Tell the student this story and ask him these
questions
Gather
Stu...
Evaluate Student Success
1. Example: Answering questions
2. How did he do?
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
Student
Diff...
Repeat if unsuccessful
Develop
Strategies
Gather
Student
Information
Analyze
Student
Difficulties
Develop
Strategies
Imple...
Following Progress
Tracking Students Interactions with Teachers
The two greatest roadblocks to RTI
Trying things out in the classroom
What is the outcome?
• Administration satisfaction
▫ Are the children getting served?
▫ Are the teachers supported?
• Teac...
Great Resources
on
Cultural and
Linguistic
Diversity
Great Resources
on
Cultural and
Linguistic
Diversity
Great Resources on
Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
Great Resources
on
Cultural and
Linguistic
Diversity
Click here to see 
download pdfs 
referenced in this 
presentation.
Great Resources
on
Cultural and
Linguistic
Diversity
Example Letter - No Speech
Concern
Hello,
Thank you for the information that you provided
on the sounds that your student ...
Great Resources
on
Cultural and
Linguistic
Diversity
Click here to see 
download pdfs 
referenced in this 
presentation.
Example Letter – Speech Concern
Hello,
Thank you for the data that you provided on this
student’s communication. Some of t...
Great Resources
on
Cultural and
Linguistic
Diversity
Great Resources on
Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
Great Resources
on
Cultural and
Linguistic
Diversity
Great Resources
on
Cultural and
Linguistic
Diversity
Great Resources on
Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
Who wanted to
go to the ball?
What did
Cinderella
lose?
When did she
...
Great Resources
on
Cultural and
Linguistic
Diversity
Click to visit
www.bilinguistics.com
Collaborating with Teachers to Make Great Referrals: Identifying treatment methods that work across languages and cultures
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Collaborating with Teachers to Make Great Referrals: Identifying treatment methods that work across languages and cultures

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This presentation discusses the greatest issues facing educators in the schools. The RTI process is visualized from a broad prospective. You will be introduced to a macro approach to looking at the results of RTI and further driving accurate assessment. This presentation also evaluates the make-up of students in special education, and demonstrates how RTI can reduce caseload work, better identify students, and reduce special education spending.

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Collaborating with Teachers to Make Great Referrals: Identifying treatment methods that work across languages and cultures

  1. 1. Learner Objectives • Participants will: ▫ View RTI from a broad perspective ▫ Introduce a macro approach to looking at the results of RTI and further driving accurate assessment ▫ Evaluate the speech pathologist’s role in the referral process ▫ Show how to use the referral process to reduce caseload work, better identify students, and reduce special education spending.
  2. 2. Outline The greatest issues facing educators in the schools • Studying our current situation ▫ Identifying the greatest issues for :  Speech-language pathologists  Administrators  Teachers  Speech department leads • Case study of a Texas school district ▫ Follow 23 students through the referral process during Fall 2011 • Share resources to improve the referral process
  3. 3. Interactive Referral Process Decision Tree Click here to see  download pdfs  referenced in this  presentation.
  4. 4. What is our goal today? • Improving services in the schools ▫ Reducing our caseloads ▫ Improving the referrals that we receive from teachers ▫ Reducing the number of DNQs from evaluations ▫ Improve our relationships and success with other professionals
  5. 5. Do you need Continuing Education or want  to listen to this course live? Click here to visit  the online courses.
  6. 6. Click for Audio‐over‐Powerpoint Presentation
  7. 7. What are the greatest difficulties we face? Speech Language Pathologists: • My caseload is too large • I have too many campuses • I have too much paperwork • I don’t have time to complete the evaluations given to me
  8. 8. What are the greatest difficulties we face? Principals and Assistant Principals: • I can’t get this student into special education • There are too many annual meetings • I can’t believe this child didn’t qualify • The evaluation process is too long • Any others that you have heard?
  9. 9. What are the greatest difficulties we face? Speech Department Leads: • My staff is stretched too thin • There are not enough bilingual SLPs • There is no money in the budget • We are over-identifying certain minority groups • Any others that you have heard?
  10. 10. What are the greatest difficulties we face? Teachers: • I can’t understand my student • I want to help in the classroom but I don’t know what to do • I have 19 other students • The referral process: ▫ Is complicated ▫ Takes too much time ▫ Involves a lot of paperwork ▫ Doesn’t result in students getting help.
  11. 11. 1. How do we solve these problems and appease everyone in the process? Conflicting interests and needs Speech Pathologists Speech Department Administration and School Staff
  12. 12. 2. How are we currently trying to solve these problems? Response to Intervention • Referral Team (RT) • Student Success Team (SST) • All Children will Learn (ACWL) • Impact Process • Student Progress Monitoring • Database Decision Making • …
  13. 13. What is RTI? A regular education initiative to deal with the problems of the discrepancy model (discrepancy between IQ and achievement). A way to determine how students respond to intervention (in the classroom with the teacher) A screening to identify children with learning disabilities. A way of determining whether children who receive “intensive” intervention in the classroom respond. All of these lead to reduced disproportionality.
  14. 14. • RTI is an approach to LD identification that was first proposed by a 1982 National Research Council report.* ▫ Google: “Response to Intervention + Year (1982-2009)” *Heller, Holtzman, & Messick, 1982 Hits in Millions 0 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 12,000,000 1982 1983 1985 1986 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 When was RTI created?
  15. 15. • “RTI was first proposed by Gresham (2002 ) as a viable alternative to the discrepancy model.” • Provide children from culturally and linguistically diverse populations with the assistance they need to succeed. • To better identify children with reading disabilities. • To better identify children with learning disabilities. • Do SLPs use a discrepancy model? • How does RTI serve SLPs in it’s intended mission of correctly identifying populations? *Fasko, 2006 Why was RTI implemented?
  16. 16. • Are we correctly identifying students? • Are we still over- or under-identifying? • Have we improved the types of referrals that we receive from general education? • Has our involvement in the referral process gone down? Is RTI Successful?
  17. 17. Analysis of a State's SE Population 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 % of Special Education Students 860 Districts Over- Identifying 8.0% Correctly Identifying 1001 Texas Districts and their Special Education Population
  18. 18. How successful are we? District Proportionality Study Results • Out of 1008 Districts in Texas, 860 are over-identifying • The referral process takes 4- 8 months on average • There is a high rate of DNQs each school year from testing • Teachers do not unanimously feel supported • The system is often abandoned by “fast-tracking” students or “work-arounds.”
  19. 19. Should RTI be abandoned? RTI seems to be successful or unsuccessful for the very same reason: The fact that it is largely undefined. Vice or Virtue?
  20. 20. Virtue  RTI is hugely successful in situations in which good collaboration takes place.  It can be adapted to current campus initiatives.  It combines Special Education personnel, General Education personnel and resource professionals.
  21. 21. Vice  RTI allows people on the same team to perceive their role differently.  It does not provide consistency or a framework.  It encourages immense bureaucracy and paperwork in order to cover all our bases.
  22. 22. All of the documents and charts in this presentation  can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
  23. 23. Supporting our Colleagues Effectively – A Case Study Simultaneously: Supporting Teachers Responding to Administrations Monitoring Student Progress Improving Referrals Reducing our workload
  24. 24. Case Study of a District • Timeframe: Fall Semester, 2011 • Population: ▫ Kindergarten and first grade students on two campuses ▫ Dual Language Program • Number of Students: 23 • Teacher Concerns: ▫ Speech ▫ Language ▫ Fluency ▫ Attention/Pragmatics
  25. 25. Case Study of a District (continued) • Timeframe: Fall Semester, 2011 • Population: ▫ Kindergarten and first grade students on two campuses ▫ Dual Language Program • Number of Students: 23 • Teacher Concerns: ▫ Speech ▫ Language ▫ Fluency ▫ Attention/Pragmatics
  26. 26. Our Question: Can we improve the referral process? • Measures ▫ Reduced # of referrals resulting in a full evaluation ▫ Reduced # of evaluations resulting in a DNQ ▫ Reduced SLP time spent on referrals and evaluations ▫ Teacher satisfaction ▫ Administrator satisfaction ▫ SLP satisfaction
  27. 27. RTI Problem Solving Method* *Adapted from NASDSE, 2006 Gather Student Information Analyze student’s difficulties Develop strategies Implement the strategies Evaluate student’s success Who is concerned?
  28. 28. RTI Problem Solving Method* *Adapted from NASDSE, 2006 Gather Student Information Analyze student’s difficulties Develop strategies Implement the strategies Evaluate student’s success Is there a problem?
  29. 29. RTI Problem Solving Method* *Adapted from NASDSE, 2006 Gather Student Information Analyze student’s difficulties Develop strategies Implement the strategies Evaluate student’s success What shall we do about it?
  30. 30. RTI Problem Solving Method* *Adapted from NASDSE, 2006 Gather Student Information Analyze student’s difficulties Develop strategies Implement the strategies Evaluate student’s success Here are the steps.
  31. 31. RTI Problem Solving Method* *Adapted from NASDSE, 2006 Gather Student Information Analyze student’s difficulties Develop strategies Implement the strategies Evaluate student’s success Did our plan work?
  32. 32. Gather Student Information 1. Name 2. Date of Birth 3. Grade 4. Teacher 5. Vision and Hearing 6. Parent Concern and History 7. Teacher Concern 1. I can’t understand my student 2. My student doesn’t speak enough, is confusing, or can’t understand me Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 1
  33. 33. Initial Data • Hearing Concern • Parent Concern • Teacher Concern • I can’t understand the words that my student uses. • My student doesn’t speak enough, is confusing, or can’t understand me. Part A - Everyone Part B – Which best describes your student Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  34. 34. Speech and Language Concerns The Language Information generates data about each area of possible concern. Teachers read it from top to bottom SLPs read it from left to right Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 1
  35. 35. Speech and Language Concerns Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 1 Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  36. 36. Analyze Student Difficulties 1. I can’t understand my student. 2. 27 common outcomes (not including multiple issues, 2nd language, or age). Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  37. 37. Analyze Student Difficulties 1. My student doesn’t speak enough, is confusing, or can’t understand me 2. 7 common outcomes across expressive and receptive domains Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  38. 38. Why referrals might be daunting to teachers • There are 7 pieces of data from three sources • Multiple Causes ▫ There are 27 common speech outcomes ▫ There are 7 common language outcomes • There are 12 steps across 3 tiers • Referral Manuals can be 12-58 pages • Teachers on average receive less than 2 hours of training per year Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  39. 39. Are Teachers Referring the Right Students? Research on agreement between teachers and SLPs • Numerous studies have explored the rate of agreement between teachers and SLPs about who should receive speech services (Friberg, 2008).  Diehl & Sinnet (1959) – 60%  James & Cooper (1966) – 40%  Clauson & Kopatic (1975) – 18%  Davis and Harris (1992) – 81%  Cartwright-Gard, Harmon & Bryne (2002) – 58% • On average, teachers- SLP agreement is 60%. • Research indicates that 40% of students who should be referred are not (Mosheim, 2009) Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  40. 40. Teacher confidence • Cartwright-Gard, Harmon & Bryne (2002) surveyed teachers and found: ▫ 75% of teachers reported low confidence in making referrals ▫ 80% of teachers indicated a desire for more training to improve their referrals • Many teachers report very low confidence when making referrals for bilingual children Are Teachers Referring the Right Students? Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  41. 41. Distribution of time over a student’s week Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  42. 42. Research on Dynamic Assessment • Mediation Sessions ▫ Intentionality ▫ Meaning ▫ Transcendence ▫ Competence • Targeted Components and Structure following script • Modifiability Score (responsiveness + effort) Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  43. 43. Results: Story Components Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  44. 44. Results: Clauses Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  45. 45. Results: # Diff. Words Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  46. 46. Predominantly Spanish Bilingual Children Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  47. 47. Predominantly Spanish Bilingual Children Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  48. 48. Implementation • What are ways of applying DA in the schools? • What are ways of collaborating with other team members to do DA? • Other implications? Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  49. 49. Outcomes of DA • Helps us distinguish between language difference and language disorder • Process-oriented approach to assessment and intervention • Interactive procedures • Helps predict change • Guides intervention Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 2
  50. 50. Develop Strategies 1. What problem is a child having? 2. Example: Answering questions Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 3
  51. 51. Implement Strategies 1. Example: Answering questions 2. Tell the student this story and ask him these questions Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 4 Who wanted to go to the ball? What did Cinderella lose? When did she have to leave? Where did the prince live?
  52. 52. Evaluate Student Success 1. Example: Answering questions 2. How did he do? Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 5 Who wanted to go to the ball? What did Cinderella lose? When did she have to leave? Where did the prince live?
  53. 53. Repeat if unsuccessful Develop Strategies Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 3 Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 4 Gather Student Information Analyze Student Difficulties Develop Strategies Implement Strategies Evaluate Student Success 5 Implement Strategies Develop Strategies
  54. 54. Following Progress Tracking Students Interactions with Teachers The two greatest roadblocks to RTI
  55. 55. Trying things out in the classroom
  56. 56. What is the outcome? • Administration satisfaction ▫ Are the children getting served? ▫ Are the teachers supported? • Teacher Satisfaction ▫ Are my concerns being addressed? ▫ Are the students’ needs being met? • SLP satisfaction ▫ Is the amount of work less? ▫ Is the data and outcome better?
  57. 57. Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
  58. 58. Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
  59. 59. Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
  60. 60. Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Click here to see  download pdfs  referenced in this  presentation.
  61. 61. Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
  62. 62. Example Letter - No Speech Concern Hello, Thank you for the information that you provided on the sounds that your student produces. As children get older, they are expected to produce more and more sounds… Thank you for all that you do!
  63. 63. Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Click here to see  download pdfs  referenced in this  presentation.
  64. 64. Example Letter – Speech Concern Hello, Thank you for the data that you provided on this student’s communication. Some of the sounds that you identified should be produced by a child at this age. We would like to see if your student can make the corrections of the sounds….
  65. 65. Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
  66. 66. Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
  67. 67. Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
  68. 68. Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
  69. 69. Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Who wanted to go to the ball? What did Cinderella lose? When did she have to leave? Where did the prince live?
  70. 70. Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
  71. 71. Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com
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