Typical Development in Bilingual Students: Cross-linguistic inflence

1,564 views

Published on

See how we: describe the role of language surveys and formal language tests in our assessment process, describe the influence of second language on speech and language performance, develop assessment plans for bilingual students, classify errors as developmental, influenced or atypical, and apply clinical judgment to determination of eligibility for special education services.

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,564
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
219
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Typical Development in Bilingual Students: Cross-linguistic inflence

  1. 1. BILINGUISTICS Acknowledgements This research has been supported in part by: • The Spencer Foundation and the National Academy of Education, post-doctoral fellowhsip awarded to the author. • HD39521 “Oracy/Literacy Development of Spanish- speaking Children” awarded to David Francis, Jon F. Miller, and Aquiles Iglesias, jointly funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences.
  2. 2. BILINGUISTICS Current Circumstances • Over-referral and under-referral of bilingual children/ELLs for special education services • Individual implications • Institutional implications • Societal implications • In order to reduce over-referrals, current testing procedures include: • Background information • Formal testing • Narrative language samples • Problem – Limited normative data about narratives in ELLs
  3. 3. BILINGUISTICS A start • Miller & Iglesias (2006) have started to address this with the Bilingual SALT program – Database of 800 Spanish-English bilinguals grades K-3 – Database provides information about • Total number of utterances • Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) in words and morphemes • Number of Different Words • Total Number of Words • Number of word and utterance errors
  4. 4. BILINGUISTICS Practical questions of this study • How does proficiency affect performance? – No differences in this data set • What kinds of cross-linguistic influence do we see – Code-switching/Borrowing • Word • Phrase • Sentence • Borrowing – Errors • Semantic • Morphological • Syntactic
  5. 5. Do you need Continuing Education or want  to listen to this course live? Click here to visit  the online courses.
  6. 6. BILINGUISTICS Theoretical questions of this study • Do the data support a functionalist model of language acquisition? • Does it appear that children are transferring L1 knowledge to L2? • Is there evidence that they gradually “retune” their L2 definitions/settings?
  7. 7. BILINGUISTICS Participants • Typically developing native Spanish-speaking bilinguals from Texas enrolled in bilingual classes • Able to perform task in both languages with at least 80% of words in target language Grade Students Samples PK 25 50 K 75 150 1st 75 150 2nd 75 150 3rd 75 150
  8. 8. BILINGUISTICS Methodology • Task – Children heard model of Frog Where are You? – Children told the story using the book as visual support – Task completed in each language on different days • Process – Samples recorded, transcribed and checked – 650 transcripts coded and checked
  9. 9. BILINGUISTICS Coding System SEMANTICS SYNTAX MORPHOLOGY OTHER
  10. 10. All of the documents and charts in this presentation  can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
  11. 11. BILINGUISTICS Results
  12. 12. BILINGUISTICS Productivity & Complexity Measures • Often used as measures of proficiency • Look very similar in English and Spanish
  13. 13. BILINGUISTICS Mean Length of Utterances Spanish 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd MLU MLU Words MLU Morphemes Mean Lenth of Utterances English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd MLU MLU Words MLU Morphemes
  14. 14. BILINGUISTICS Productivity Measures Spanish 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd NDW TNW Productivity Measures English 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd NDW TNW
  15. 15. BILINGUISTICS Spanish CodeSwitching/Borrowing 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 PK K 1 2 3 Averageoccurrencesper sample CS Word CS Phrase CS Sentence CS Total CS Borrow English CodeSwitching/Borrowing 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd AverageOccurrencesPer Sample CS Word CS Phrase CS Sentence CS Total CS Borrow
  16. 16. BILINGUISTICS Mean Errors Per Grade Spanish 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd NumberofErrors SpnMorph SpnSemantic SpnSyntactic SpnTotal Mean Errors Per Grade English 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd NumberofErrors EngMorph EngSemantic EngSyntactic EngTotal
  17. 17. BILINGUISTICS Cross-linguistic Transfer • Based on the Competition Model as applied to bilingual development (MacWhinney & Bates, 1989) – A lot of Forward Transfer (L1 to L2) expected for second language learners – Positive transfer – Negative transfer
  18. 18. BILINGUISTICS Semantic Errors English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 M eaningXStory Articles Prepositions Pronouns PronounN oReferent G eneralW ord Use W ord Use PK K 1st 2nd 3rd Semantic Errors Spanish 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 M eaningXStory Articles Prepositions Pronouns Pronoun No Referent G eneralW ord Use W ord Use PK K 1st 2nd 3rd
  19. 19. BILINGUISTICS Morphological Errors Spanish 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Plurals Adj/AdvN egation O ther Verb:Past/Present Verb:Present/Past Verb:R eg/Irreg Verb:U nm arkedPres/Past Verb:PersonVerb:O ther G ender PK K 1 2 3 Morphological Errors English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Plurals Adj/Adv N egation O ther Verb:Past/Present Verb:Present/Past Verb:R eg/Irreg Verb:U nm arkedPres/Past Verb:PersonVerb:O ther PK K 1st 2nd 3rd
  20. 20. BILINGUISTICS Syntax Errors Spanish 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ArtO m ission C onjO m ission ExtraPreposition PrepositionO m ission D O O m ission SubjectO m ission AuxVerbO m ission C opulaO m ission M ainVerbO m ission W ord O rder PronounO m issionExtraC litic PK K 1st 2nd 3rd Syntax Errors English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ArtO m ission C onjO m ission ExtraPreposition PrepositionO m ission D O O m ission SubjectO m ission AuxVerbO m ission C opulaO m ission M ainVerbO m issionW ord O rder PronounO m ission PK K 1st 2nd 3rd
  21. 21. BILINGUISTICS Theoretical Conclusions • For features of Spanish and English that are similar, similar performance at each grade suggests positive transfer. • For features of Spanish and English that are different, different performance suggests negative transfer. • Changes in code-switching between first and third grade indicate “retuning” L2. • Pattern of errors across the grades suggests that children are refining their settings over time.
  22. 22. BILINGUISTICS Practical conclusions • The patterns of errors that occur in 1st grade suggest it is a pivotal year. • Language samples for this population should be measured against normative data with the expectation for a high number of errors, especially in first grade. • These comparisons should reduce over- referrals of ELLs to special education
  23. 23. BILINGUISTICS SEMANTIC ERRORS Meaning does not match story Article errors Preposition Errors Pronoun Errors Use of Pronoun without referent General Word Use Word use Errors
  24. 24. BILINGUISTICS SYNTAX ERRORS Article Omission Conjunction Omission Extra Preposition Preposition Omission Direct Object Omission Subject Omission Auxiliary Verb Omission Copula Omission Other Main Verb Omission Word Order Pronoun Omission Extra Clitic (Spanish only)
  25. 25. BILINGUISTICS MORPHOLOGICAL ERRORS Plurals Adjective for Adverb Past for Infinitive Past for Present Present for Past Regular for Irregular Unmarked Present for Past Verb Person Other Verb Tense Error Gender (Spanish)
  26. 26. BILINGUISTICS CODE-SWITCHING/BORROWING Codeswitching at the Word Level Codeswitching at the Phrase Level Codeswitching at the Sentence Level Borrowing
  27. 27. BILINGUISTICS Narrative Transcript Then he whistle and whistle because it don’t work because the frog it was here. Then the the the man he go end up in the frog and then the frog is gonna go in the uhm face. Then he was so mad because the frog jump over here and then the frog come And then there uhm the the boy he go to the drums and bro—um lo hicieron en pedazos? And then he’s gonna go and go um to um-- He’s gonna jump over here He’s gonna go into the person And then the frog is gonna go here He was there um He was there and my hiding and he (she) is gonna eat the frog And then he’s gonna jump o—in the juice. Then he jump in the juice and then he’s gonna give it to the person
  28. 28. BILINGUISTICS Narrative continued Then the frog was gonna kiss her in the mouth And then he was kissing in the nose And the the la lider la lider, uhm this, he was uhm he was at> He was not happy Then he get this, and the he go like this because the frog, the frog, it was uhm. The frog it was kissing it was uhm the, the, he. And he get the frog And then the little boy say, “No, that is my frog.” Then he was so mad and the little man he give it to her. Then they was so mad because why the boy he bring the frog? Then the sister the mom, the papa, and this, they’re so mad that X. And he was sad in the night. Then he the little girl, the sister throw her tongue out And he was all mad bec> uhm he told the boy go into your room
  29. 29. BILINGUISTICS Narrative continued The mom was so happy And they’re playing the bug and the turtle. They were not having fun. And they were playing with the frog and the boy. Because they’re in their room.
  30. 30. Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com

×