Demographic Example: Texas Public
School
48%
34%
14%4%
2009 Snapshot
How do we qualify and work
with a bilingual population when:
▫ The tests we use are not normed on this
population.
▫ My gu...
Learner Objectives
• Participants will list, identify, describe…
▫ Reasons for testing both languages
▫ Formal and informa...
Do you need Continuing Education or want 
to listen to this course live?
Click here to visit 
the online courses.
Click for Audio‐over‐Powerpoint Presentation
+ = Positive transfer
+ = Negative transfer
Difference vs. Disorder
NORMAL
ERRORS
SECOND-
LANGUAGE
INFLUENCE
ATYPICAL
ERRORS
Exercise: The Goldman Fristoe
Test of Articulation (GFTA)
Using clinical judgment to
analyze errors due to
cross-linguisti...
GFTA Exercise: Key
All of the documents and charts in this presentation 
can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library.
Click here to visi...
The Goldman Fristoe
Test of Articulation (GFTA)
Summary: So what do we know
about assessing articulation?
Spanish Articulation
Assessment Tools
Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
“Bilingualism is random
chaos for psychometrics”
Figueroa, 1989
• We need a standardized score
• However, the formal tests have not been normed
on our populations
• We rely on informal a...
The Evolution of Language Test
Development
• A look at:
▫ Language Assessment Tools
 PLS -4
 CELF – 4
 SLAP
▫ Vocabular...
Spanish Language
Assessment Tools
Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
Other Common Languages
Vietnamese
Romanian
Hindi
Urdu
Arabic
• It’s always critical to use information beyond the
assessment tool to complete an assessment.
• Let’s look now at some o...
Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts
(SALT)
Dynamic Assessment
( )
• Difficulty learning both languages,
even with adult assistance
• Family history of language/learning disabilities
• Slow...
A student from a second language home does not
perform typically for her age on standardized and
informal evaluations.
Is ...
When do we test in two languages?
• Is the language survey valuable to us?
• Are the results from language proficiency tes...
Cumulative not Comparative
Language and Content of Intervention
 Select based on what is appropriate in each language and...
Assessment Summary
• So what do we know?
▫ Not all bilinguals are the same
▫ Children learning a second language may displ...
What makes up a bilingual
evaluation testing packet
Referral
Packet
Vision and
Hearing
Parent Info
Teacher
Info
Educationa...
What makes up a bilingual
evaluation testing packet
Referral
Packet
Vision and
Hearing
Parent Info
Teacher
Info
Educationa...
Language Outcomes
• Qualifies• DNQ
• DNQ• DNQ
Errors
are
typical
for age
Errors
are due
to
second
language
Errors
are
atyp...
Speech Outcomes
• Qualifies• DNQ
• DNQ• DNQ
Errors
are
typical
for age
Errors
are due
to
second
language
Errors
are
atypic...
A word on DNQs
•DO NOT QUIT here!
• You put 60 days of work into
this student and know him
better than anyone at this poin...
Case Studies
Dual language effects on the
referral and assessment process
Case Study #1
SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS
• STUDENT 1 – 1st Grade, English classroom
▫ Below grade level in Kindergarten
▫ We...
Case Study #1
SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS
• STUDENT 1 – 1st Grade, English classroom
▫ Below grade level in Kindergarten
▫ We...
• STUDENT 2 – 1st Grade, English classroom
• Repeating 1st grade
• Struggling academically (especially math and
reading)
•...
• STUDENT 2 – 1st Grade, English classroom
• Repeating 1st grade
• Struggling academically (especially math and
reading)
•...
STUDENT 1 – 1st Grade, English classroom
• Outcome
▫ Student does not qualify for speech and language services
▫ Language ...
STUDENT 2 – 1st Grade, English classroom
• Outcome
– Student does not qualify for speech and language services
– Language ...
Case Study #2
ARABIC/ADHD
• Receiving resource for Other Health Impairment
• ADHD and is now on medication
• Home Language...
Questions:
• Is it possible that his language scores are "flat" due to
being bilingual?
• Should I have an Arabic assessme...
• Results
▫ Assessment completed with Arabic interpreter
▫ Language sample with much longer and more
complex utterances th...
Case Study #3
BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT
• Mild to moderate hearing impairment
• 50% Intelligible
• 1st Percentil...
Questions:
• How do we figure out what is causing the low
intelligibility? Is it a true speech impairment,
resulting from ...
• Outcome
▫ Parents more thoroughly interviewed. This
was a dialectical difference in the area they
came from
▫ SLP resear...
Initial Medial Final Initial Medial Final Initial Medial Final
p t
k omit
l
n omit
b d
g omit
r
w w omit
m k
t glottal
sto...
Case Study #3
BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT
Phonemes
Phonological Processes
Blend: Error: Blend: Error: Blend: Error...
Outcome:
• Qualifies for speech services
• Evaluation provided detailed information for
which sounds to address
• Goals ar...
Take Away Points
• Thorough language history is critical.
• Thorough health (especially hearing) history is
needed.
• Test...
Difference or Disorder? 
Understanding Speech and Language 
Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically 
Diverse Students
Ra...
Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com
Evaluating Students From Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations: Determining difference from disorder
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Evaluating Students From Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations: Determining difference from disorder

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This presentation describes how to appropriately conduct speech-language evaluations with students from culturally and linguistically diverse populations. It reviews informal and formal testing as well as dynamic assessment. You will learn how to distinguish between language difference vs. disorder, the reasons for testing both languages, and well as formal and informal measures for testing ELLs. You will also learn to identify red flags for speech and language impairment in bilingual children, and sounds on the Goldman-Fristoe that are subject to second language influence. This presentation reviews ASHA guidelines for assessment with bilingual students.

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Evaluating Students From Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations: Determining difference from disorder

  1. 1. Demographic Example: Texas Public School 48% 34% 14%4% 2009 Snapshot
  2. 2. How do we qualify and work with a bilingual population when: ▫ The tests we use are not normed on this population. ▫ My gut feeling doesn’t match the test results. ▫ I don’t know what goals are appropriate.
  3. 3. Learner Objectives • Participants will list, identify, describe… ▫ Reasons for testing both languages ▫ Formal and informal measures for testing ELLs ▫ Use of tests when a student is not represented in the normative sample ▫ ASHA guidelines for assessment with bilingual students ▫ Red flags for speech and language impairment in bilingual children. ▫ Sounds on the Goldman-Fristoe that are subject to second language influence
  4. 4. Do you need Continuing Education or want  to listen to this course live? Click here to visit  the online courses.
  5. 5. Click for Audio‐over‐Powerpoint Presentation
  6. 6. + = Positive transfer + = Negative transfer
  7. 7. Difference vs. Disorder NORMAL ERRORS SECOND- LANGUAGE INFLUENCE ATYPICAL ERRORS
  8. 8. Exercise: The Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation (GFTA) Using clinical judgment to analyze errors due to cross-linguistic influence
  9. 9. GFTA Exercise: Key
  10. 10. All of the documents and charts in this presentation  can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
  11. 11. The Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation (GFTA) Summary: So what do we know about assessing articulation?
  12. 12. Spanish Articulation Assessment Tools Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  13. 13. “Bilingualism is random chaos for psychometrics” Figueroa, 1989
  14. 14. • We need a standardized score • However, the formal tests have not been normed on our populations • We rely on informal assessment • We use formal testing as a way to gather information
  15. 15. The Evolution of Language Test Development • A look at: ▫ Language Assessment Tools  PLS -4  CELF – 4  SLAP ▫ Vocabulary Assessment Tools  ROWPVT  EOWPVT  CELF -4
  16. 16. Spanish Language Assessment Tools Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  17. 17. Other Common Languages Vietnamese Romanian Hindi Urdu Arabic
  18. 18. • It’s always critical to use information beyond the assessment tool to complete an assessment. • Let’s look now at some of the things that can help us differentiate bilinguals with typical development from those with delayed/disordered language skills.
  19. 19. Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) Dynamic Assessment ( )
  20. 20. • Difficulty learning both languages, even with adult assistance • Family history of language/learning disabilities • Slower development than siblings • Difficulty interacting with peers • Inappropriate pragmatic/social language skills (i.e., turn-taking, topic maintenance, considering listener needs, non-verbal communication) • Difficulty with language in many routines • Idiosyncratic error patterns • Language performance unlike others with similar cultural/linguistic experiences
  21. 21. A student from a second language home does not perform typically for her age on standardized and informal evaluations. Is this due to second language influence or is she truly impaired?
  22. 22. When do we test in two languages? • Is the language survey valuable to us? • Are the results from language proficiency testing valuable to us (Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey)? Speech and Language Testing is Cumulative not Comparative
  23. 23. Cumulative not Comparative Language and Content of Intervention  Select based on what is appropriate in each language and  what is appropriate for child’s and family’s situation.  For example: Spanish •Gender •Verbs •Article+nouns •Food •Clothing •Household items Both •People •Functions •Categorization •Part-Whole English •Pronouns •Prepositions •Nouns •Colors •Numbers •Shapes Peña & Kester, 2004
  24. 24. Assessment Summary • So what do we know? ▫ Not all bilinguals are the same ▫ Children learning a second language may display behaviors common in monolinguals with language impairment ▫ Problems associated with all assessment tools ▫ We need to go beyond the tool in assessment ▫ Ongoing assessment across many daily routines is critical ▫ Exploring all languages is essential
  25. 25. What makes up a bilingual evaluation testing packet Referral Packet Vision and Hearing Parent Info Teacher Info Educational History English Testing Informal Speech Formal Speech Informal Language Formal Language
  26. 26. What makes up a bilingual evaluation testing packet Referral Packet Vision and Hearing Parent Info Teacher Info Educational History English Testing Informal Speech Formal Speech Informal Language Formal Language Second Language Testing Informal Speech Formal Speech Informal Language Formal Language
  27. 27. Language Outcomes • Qualifies• DNQ • DNQ• DNQ Errors are typical for age Errors are due to second language Errors are atypical for age and language No errors present
  28. 28. Speech Outcomes • Qualifies• DNQ • DNQ• DNQ Errors are typical for age Errors are due to second language Errors are atypical for age and language No errors present
  29. 29. A word on DNQs •DO NOT QUIT here! • You put 60 days of work into this student and know him better than anyone at this point • Share the data to explain how to support the student and make him successful in the classroom
  30. 30. Case Studies Dual language effects on the referral and assessment process
  31. 31. Case Study #1 SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS • STUDENT 1 – 1st Grade, English classroom ▫ Below grade level in Kindergarten ▫ Wears glasses ▫ Reading is below grade level ▫ Difficulty answering questions ▫ Easily distracted Spn Eng Composite  Language  Scores Stnd  Score %ile  Rank Stnd  Score %ile  Rank Core  Language 86 18 78 7 Receptive  Language 78 7 73 4 Expressive  Language 85 16 69 2 Language  Content 77 6 73 4 Language  Structure 84 14 78 7
  32. 32. Case Study #1 SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS • STUDENT 1 – 1st Grade, English classroom ▫ Below grade level in Kindergarten ▫ Wears glasses ▫ Reading is below grade level ▫ Difficulty answering questions ▫ Easily distracted Spn Eng Composite  Language  Scores Stnd  Score %ile  Rank Stnd  Score %ile  Rank Core  Language 86 18 78 7 Receptive  Language 78 7 73 4 Expressive  Language 85 16 69 2 Language  Content 77 6 73 4 Language  Structure 84 14 78 7
  33. 33. • STUDENT 2 – 1st Grade, English classroom • Repeating 1st grade • Struggling academically (especially math and reading) • Does not talk often in class • Talks at recess • Bilingual home Spanish English Composite Language  Scores Stnd Score Stnd Score Core Language 68 Core Language 90 Receptive Language 83 Listening Comprehension 96 Expressive Language 57 Oral Expression 87 Language Structure 57 Case Study #1 SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS
  34. 34. • STUDENT 2 – 1st Grade, English classroom • Repeating 1st grade • Struggling academically (especially math and reading) • Does not talk often in class • Talks at recess • Bilingual home Spanish English Composite Language  Scores Stnd Score Stnd Score Core Language 68 Core Language 90 Receptive Language 83 Listening Comprehension 96 Expressive Language 57 Oral Expression 87 Language Structure 57 Case Study #1 SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS
  35. 35. STUDENT 1 – 1st Grade, English classroom • Outcome ▫ Student does not qualify for speech and language services ▫ Language development is within normal limits in Spanish ▫ Language development in English is typical for a second language learner ▫ Reading difficulties may be related to visual impairment Incidentally, LD testing results matched speech and language results after the student was tested in both languages. Case Study #1 SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS
  36. 36. STUDENT 2 – 1st Grade, English classroom • Outcome – Student does not qualify for speech and language services – Language development is within normal limits in English – Language development in Spanish indicates low proficiency – Academic difficulties may be related to a learning disability LD testing recommended. Case Study #1 SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS
  37. 37. Case Study #2 ARABIC/ADHD • Receiving resource for Other Health Impairment • ADHD and is now on medication • Home Language Survey says Arabic/English • Did not qualify as LD • English Language Testing: ▫ CELF-4  Core Language = 77  Receptive Language = 76  Expressive Language = 78  Language Content = 78  Language Memory = 78
  38. 38. Questions: • Is it possible that his language scores are "flat" due to being bilingual? • Should I have an Arabic assessment done? If so, how should I go about it? • Or since he isn't LEP, should we go ahead and qualify him as SI? Case Study #2 ARABIC/ADHD
  39. 39. • Results ▫ Assessment completed with Arabic interpreter ▫ Language sample with much longer and more complex utterances than demonstrated in English ▫ Minimal vocabulary errors ▫ Minimal syntax errors ▫ Fully intelligible to interpreter Case Study #2 ARABIC/ADHD
  40. 40. Case Study #3 BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT • Mild to moderate hearing impairment • 50% Intelligible • 1st Percentile with standardized speech testing • 69% intelligible during 100 word sample • Family from England and has been living in the United States for two years
  41. 41. Questions: • How do we figure out what is causing the low intelligibility? Is it a true speech impairment, resulting from the hearing impairment, or influence from British English? • Can the norms from the standardized test be used because he speaks “English?” • If he qualifies, how do we determine appropriate goals? Case Study #3 BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT
  42. 42. • Outcome ▫ Parents more thoroughly interviewed. This was a dialectical difference in the area they came from ▫ SLP researched (“googled”) specific dialect to identify attributes ▫ Speech errors were put up against  Typical errors with hearing impairment  Age-appropriate errors in SA English  Dialectal differences of “Brummie English” ▫ Results follow Case Study #3 BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT
  43. 43. Initial Medial Final Initial Medial Final Initial Medial Final p t k omit l n omit b d g omit r w w omit m k t glottal stop s st n "ng" g omit z s  omit f v  w v t    h  De- aspirated De- aspirated De- aspirated dz j (y) n voiced "th" v Case Study #3 BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT
  44. 44. Case Study #3 BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT Phonemes Phonological Processes Blend: Error: Blend: Error: Blend: Error: bl bj (y) gr gw sl s br b kl k sp dr g kr kw st fl f kw gw sw fr fw pl tr  Process Example Final consonant deletion "ba" for "ball" Medial consonant deletion "waon" for "wagon" Fronting "take" for "cake" Backing "kelephone" for "telephone" Gliding "bawoons" for "balloons" and "wing" for "ring," "fwog" for "frog" Cluster reduction "lasses" for "glasses" Deaffrication "share" for "chair"
  45. 45. Outcome: • Qualifies for speech services • Evaluation provided detailed information for which sounds to address • Goals are specific to non-dialectal sounds said in error Case Study #3 BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT
  46. 46. Take Away Points • Thorough language history is critical. • Thorough health (especially hearing) history is needed. • Testing in all languages is the only way to get a complete picture of a student’s abilities • Understanding the features of the non-English language as well as how those compare to English will help identify what errors may be due to cross-linguistic influence.
  47. 47. Difference or Disorder?  Understanding Speech and Language  Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically  Diverse Students Rapidly identify speech‐language  patterns related to second language  acquisition to  distinguish difference from disorder.
  48. 48. Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com

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