Bilingual Evaluations
A student from a second language home does not
perform typically for her age on standardized and
informal evaluations.
Is ...
How do we make this decision
confidently?
• The role of language survey
• Testing procedures and
questions
• Using informa...
When do we test in two languages?
• The Perils and Value of the Home Language
Survey
• There is one question that threaten...
When do we test in two languages?
Good home language survey questions
• What languages are spoken at home?
• What language...
When do we test in two languages?
• It is the combination of data from all languages
that determines typicality or disorde...
Cumulative not Comparative
Language and Content of Intervention
 Select based on what is appropriate in each language and...
• Difficulty learning both languages,
even with adult assistance
• Family history of language/learning disabilities
• Slow...
What makes up a bilingual
evaluation testing packet
Referral
Packet
Vision and
Hearing
Parent Info
Teacher
Info
Educationa...
How do we qualify and work
with a bilingual population when:
▫ The tests we use are not normed on this
population.
▫ My gu...
Difference vs. Disorder
NORMAL
ERRORS
SECOND-
LANGUAGE
INFLUENCE
ATYPICAL
ERRORS
“Bilingualism is random
chaos for psychometrics”
Figueroa, 1989
Tools were not developed
for our population
• We need to use an assessment tool.
• English tests were not normed for the E...
Spanish Articulation
Assessment Tools
SAM CPAC SPAT BAPA
Primary Use
Production of Spanish
consonants and
phonological pro...
Spanish Language
Assessment Tools
PLS-5-Spn CELF-4-Spn CELF-P-2-SPN SLAP
Primary Use
Identify monolingual or
bilingual Spa...
• It’s always critical to use information beyond the
assessment tool to complete an assessment.
• Let’s look now at some o...
Narrative Language AssessmentDynamic Assessment
Dynamic Assessment
• Mediated Learning Experiences (MLEs) often
include components of:
▫ Intentionality
▫ Transcendence
▫ ...
Why do Dynamic Assessment?
• Aids in determining difference vs. disorder
• Measures language learning potential rather
tha...
Who gets Dynamic Assessment?
• Are some children obviously impaired?
• Do all children get it?
• Only ELL students?
• Low ...
How do we do Dynamic Assessment?
• How do we use the results of our
formal/informal assessments to select teaching
targets...
Mediated Learning Experience (MLE)
What are mediation strategies?
• Intentionality
• Meaning
• Transcendence
• Application...
Dynamic Assessment
• Support strategies
• Teacher effort
• Cueing
▫ Number of cues
▫ Types of cues (visual, auditory)
▫ Nu...
Minimal Cueing
• Repetition
• Rephrasing
• Slowed rate
• 1-2 presentations
Moderate Cueing
• Modeling correct response
• Providing a demonstration
• Multi-sensory input
• Multiple (3-4) prompts
Maximum Cueing
• Direct imitation (verbal)
• Physically prompted (non-verbal)
• Reduced Content
• Performs task for child
How do we use results?
• Qualifying for services
• Classroom accommodations
Assessment of Fictional Narratives
• Arranged by age expectations of macrostructure
of fictional narratives.
▫ Consider mi...
Dynamic Assessment Procedures for
Fictional Narratives:
• Child listens to recording of frog story
• Clinician determines ...
Dynamic Assessment Procedures for
Fictional Narratives:
• Use mediation strategies
• Determine support strategy level
•  ...
Case Study
Writing the Bilingual FIE Report
Reason for Referral
• Evaluation or Re-evaluation
• Purpose (to determine eligibility/continued
eligibility)
• Referred by...
Background Information
• Age
• Gender
• Grade
• Language(s)
• Educational Placement
• School
• Medical History
• Parent Co...
Sources of Information
• Chart including names of all standardized
measures, informal measures, parent and
teacher questio...
Physical Abilities
• Oral motor structure and function
• Vision
▫ With or without glasses
• Hearing
▫ With or without glas...
Sociological
• Who does the child live with?
• What are the ages of siblings?
• What languages are spoken in the home?
• H...
Emotional/Behavioral
• Interactions with peers
• Cooperative with adults/teachers
• Accepting of responsibility
• Nervous/...
Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior
• Learning patterns
• Retention of new information
• Ability to adapt to classroom routine...
Language History
• Details from your thorough language history
form/interview
• Details of educational language environmen...
Behavior During Evaluation
This will include information such as:
Attention skills
Rapport building
Need for prompting
Oth...
Assessment Procedures/Personnel
• Who completed the evaluation
• In what languages was evaluation completed
• Standard pro...
Language
Strengths and
Weaknesses
Formal and
Informal Results
Content, Form, and
Use
Spanish and
English
Receptive and
Exp...
Test Results
• Chart
• We always attempt formal testing in both
languages if it seems feasible.
• Do we include English sc...
Receptive Language Skills
• Assessment statement.
• Scores on Formal Measures
• Statements of consistency between test res...
Areas of Strength - Receptive
• Content
▫ Formal
testing
 Spanish
 English
▫ Informal
measures
 Spanish
 English
• For...
Areas of Need - Receptive
• Content
▫ Formal
testing
 Spanish
 English
▫ Informal
measures
 Spanish
 English
• Form
▫ ...
Expressive Language Skills
• Assessment statement.
• Scores on Formal Measures
• Statements of consistency between test re...
Areas of Strength - Expressive
• Content
▫ Formal
testing
 Spanish
 English
▫ Informal
measures
 Spanish
 English
• Fo...
Areas of Need – Expressive
• Content
▫ Formal
testing
 Spanish
 English
▫ Informal
measures
 Spanish
 English
• Form
▫...
Narrative Language
• Macrostructure of the Story
• Story grammar components
▫ Characters
▫ Setting
▫ Events
▫ Attempts
▫ R...
Dynamic Assessment
• Examiner Effort
• Response level
• Indicative of Impairment
• Prognostic Indicator
What makes up a bilingual
evaluation testing packet
Referral
Packet
Vision and
Hearing
Parent Info
Teacher
Info
Educationa...
Assessment Summary
• So what do we know?
▫ Not all bilinguals are the same
▫ Children learning a second language may displ...
A word on DNQs
•DO NOT QUIT here!
• You put 60 days of work into
this student and know him
better than anyone at this poin...
Case Studies
Dual language effects on the
referral and assessment process
Case Study #1
SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS
• STUDENT 1 – 1st Grade, English classroom
▫ Below grade level in Kindergarten
▫ We...
• STUDENT 2 – 1st Grade, English classroom
• Repeating 1st grade
• Struggling academically (especially math and
reading)
•...
Questions:
• What similarities exist?
• How common do you think this scenario is?
• What are the implications of not asses...
STUDENT 1 – 1st Grade, English classroom
• Outcome
▫ Student does not qualify for speech and language services
▫ Language ...
STUDENT 2 – 1st Grade, English classroom
• Outcome
– Student does not qualify for speech and language services
– Language ...
Case Study #2
ARABIC/ADHD
• Receiving resource for Other Health Impairment
• ADHD and is now on meds
• Home Language Surve...
Questions:
• Is it possible that his language scores are "flat" due to
being bilingual?
• Should I have an Arabic assessme...
• Results
▫ Assessment completed with Arabic interpreter
▫ Language sample with much longer and more
complex utterances th...
Case Study #3
BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT
• Mild to moderate hearing impairment
• 50% Intelligible
• 1st Percentil...
Questions:
• How do we figure out what is causing the low
intelligibility? Is it a true speech impairment,
resulting from ...
• Outcome
▫ Parents more thoroughly interviewed. This was a
dialectical difference in the area they came from
▫ SLP resear...
Initial Medial Final Initial Medial Final Initial Medial Final
p t
k omit
l
n omit
b d
g omit
r
w w omit
m k
t glottal
sto...
Case Study #3
BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT
Phonemes
Phonological Processes
Blend: Error: Blend: Error: Blend: Error...
Outcome:
• Qualifies for speech services
• Evaluation provided detailed information for
which sounds to address
• Goals ar...
Take Away Points
• Thorough language history is critical.
• Thorough health (especially hearing) history is
needed.
• Test...
References
• Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y., & Hoffman, M. (1979). The dynamic assessment of
retarded performers: The Learning P...
References
• Miller, L., Gillam, R., & Peña, E. (2000). Dynamic Assessment and
Intervention: Improving Children’s Narrativ...
Visit us at bilinguistics.com
Thank
you!
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Bilingual Evaluations

  1. 1. Bilingual Evaluations
  2. 2. A student from a second language home does not perform typically for her age on standardized and informal evaluations. Is this due to second language influence or is she truly impaired?
  3. 3. How do we make this decision confidently? • The role of language survey • Testing procedures and questions • Using informal information to understand testing results and outcomes
  4. 4. When do we test in two languages? • The Perils and Value of the Home Language Survey • There is one question that threatens to undo the progress that the speech-language community has made in better identifying children with disabilities who come from second language backgrounds. In what language do we test?
  5. 5. When do we test in two languages? Good home language survey questions • What languages are spoken at home? • What language(s) do you speak to your child? • What language(s) does your child speak to you? • What language is heard on the radio and television? • What language does your child use with siblings and cousins? • What language does your child use with friends? • What language(s) do other family members speak to your child (e.g., grandparents)?
  6. 6. When do we test in two languages? • It is the combination of data from all languages that determines typicality or disorder. • Speech and Language Testing is Cumulative not Comparative
  7. 7. Cumulative not Comparative Language and Content of Intervention  Select based on what is appropriate in each language and what is appropriate for child’s and family’s situation.  For example: Spanish •Gender •Verbs •Article+nouns •Food •Clothing •Household items Both •People •Functions •Categorization •Part-Whole English •Pronouns •Prepositions •Nouns •Colors •Numbers •Shapes Peña & Kester, 2004
  8. 8. • Difficulty learning both languages, even with adult assistance • Family history of language/learning disabilities • Slower development than siblings • Difficulty interacting with peers • Inappropriate pragmatic/social language skills (i.e., turn-taking, topic maintenance, considering listener needs, non-verbal communication) • Difficulty with language in many routines • Idiosyncratic error patterns • Language performance unlike others with similar cultural/linguistic experiences
  9. 9. What makes up a bilingual evaluation testing packet Referral Packet Vision and Hearing Parent Info Teacher Info Educational History English Testing Informal Speech Formal Speech Informal Language Formal Language Second Language Testing Informal Speech Formal Speech Informal Language Formal Language
  10. 10. How do we qualify and work with a bilingual population when: ▫ The tests we use are not normed on this population. ▫ My gut feeling doesn’t match the test results. ▫ I don’t know what goals are appropriate.
  11. 11. Difference vs. Disorder NORMAL ERRORS SECOND- LANGUAGE INFLUENCE ATYPICAL ERRORS
  12. 12. “Bilingualism is random chaos for psychometrics” Figueroa, 1989
  13. 13. Tools were not developed for our population • We need to use an assessment tool. • English tests were not normed for the English of English language learners (ELLs). • Clinical judgment regarding missed and correct items is critical.
  14. 14. Spanish Articulation Assessment Tools SAM CPAC SPAT BAPA Primary Use Production of Spanish consonants and phonological processes Screener/comprehensive assessment to gauge articulatory and phonological performance To examine the production of Spanish phonemes in single words. Assessment of articulation and phonological skills in English and Spanish Norm-based or Criterion Referenced Criterion Referenced Norm-based Norm-based Normative data collection in process Age Ranges 3:0 + 3;0 – 8;11 2 years 6 months to 5 years 5 months 3;0 – 8;11 Administratio n Time 15 minutes 15-20 minutes 5-10 minutes 5-7 minutes Helpful for Planning Can quickly identify phonemes in error. With hand calculations, can identify percentages of phonological processes present. Very helpful. Contains pre- and post-test reproducible pages for each sound. Very helpful for gathering baseline data and charting progress. It is helpful in identifying specific phonemes thatneed to be addressed at the word level. It is also helpful that the testdelineates in which position the sound is occurring. Automatically populates error rates. Allows you to view performance over time. Assesses each sound multiple times in all appropriate word positions.
  15. 15. Spanish Language Assessment Tools PLS-5-Spn CELF-4-Spn CELF-P-2-SPN SLAP Primary Use Identify monolingual or bilingual Spanish speaking children who have a language disorder or delay 1. determine eligibility for language services 2. identify language strengths and weaknesses 3. provide assessment with a strong relationship to educational objectives To detect the presence and nature of a language disorder. Evaluate how language difficulties affect classroom performance Assess structural and functional communication in Spanish-speaking children. Norm-based or Criterion Referenced Norm-based Norm-based Norm-based Criterion Referenced Age Ranges Birth to 7 years 11 months of age Overall: 5-21 years (varying age ranges for each subtest)/Ages 3;0-6;11 3:0 – 8:0 Identifies area of impairment Receptive: attention, play, gesture, semantics (qualitative, quantitative, spatial, time/sequence, vocab), language structure (morphology, syntax), phonological awareness, integrative language skills Expressive: vocal development, gesture, social communication, semantics (vocab, qualitative, Receptive: following directions, word classes, sentence structure Expressive: word structure, recalling sentences, formulating sentences Also: expressive vocab, language structure, working memory Ages 9-21 also includes: -Language content (word Receptive: following directions, word classes, sentence structure, basic concepts Expressive: word structure, recalling sentences, expressive vocabulary All areas of communication are addressed by predetermined Skills areas. Each area is not clearly delineated, and most skill areas are expected to be assessed through observation without probes.
  16. 16. • It’s always critical to use information beyond the assessment tool to complete an assessment. • Let’s look now at some of the things that can help us differentiate bilinguals with typical development from those with delayed/disordered language skills.
  17. 17. Narrative Language AssessmentDynamic Assessment
  18. 18. Dynamic Assessment • Mediated Learning Experiences (MLEs) often include components of: ▫ Intentionality ▫ Transcendence ▫ Meaning ▫ Competence • Observe child’s responsiveness, amount of examiner effort, and ability to transfer what is learned
  19. 19. Why do Dynamic Assessment? • Aids in determining difference vs. disorder • Measures language learning potential rather than acquired skills • Gives opportunity for children not from mainstream culture to understand demands of task; reduces situational bias • Dynamic assessment provides alternative approach to traditional procedures by focusing on learning potential, possibly reducing test bias
  20. 20. Who gets Dynamic Assessment? • Are some children obviously impaired? • Do all children get it? • Only ELL students? • Low SES? • Feasibility of multiple testing sessions • Ethics?
  21. 21. How do we do Dynamic Assessment? • How do we use the results of our formal/informal assessments to select teaching targets? • Scaffolding ▫ What does it take for a child to be able to perform a skill?
  22. 22. Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) What are mediation strategies? • Intentionality • Meaning • Transcendence • Application* • Competence
  23. 23. Dynamic Assessment • Support strategies • Teacher effort • Cueing ▫ Number of cues ▫ Types of cues (visual, auditory) ▫ Number of presentations
  24. 24. Minimal Cueing • Repetition • Rephrasing • Slowed rate • 1-2 presentations
  25. 25. Moderate Cueing • Modeling correct response • Providing a demonstration • Multi-sensory input • Multiple (3-4) prompts
  26. 26. Maximum Cueing • Direct imitation (verbal) • Physically prompted (non-verbal) • Reduced Content • Performs task for child
  27. 27. How do we use results? • Qualifying for services • Classroom accommodations
  28. 28. Assessment of Fictional Narratives • Arranged by age expectations of macrostructure of fictional narratives. ▫ Consider microstructure as well. • Separated by universal expectations and expectancies that may vary by culture. ▫ Selecting targets for Dynamic Assessment
  29. 29. Dynamic Assessment Procedures for Fictional Narratives: • Child listens to recording of frog story • Clinician determines targets for dynamic assessment • Clinician uses Assessment of Fictional Narratives during child’s retell • If macrostructure is weak, teach to this target and retest narrative retell for macrostructure • If microstructure features are distracting, switch to this type of analysis • If microstructure skills are consistently weak in both contexts (i.e., formal and informal), then select the corresponding language target for dynamic assessment
  30. 30. Dynamic Assessment Procedures for Fictional Narratives: • Use mediation strategies • Determine support strategy level •  If child reaches 80% level, return to narrative to look for carryover to functional context •  If skills are present, NO Support for disability •  If skills are not present, look at support strategy level to help determine if intervention is indicated •  If child is at 60% level or below, further intervention may be indicated.
  31. 31. Case Study
  32. 32. Writing the Bilingual FIE Report
  33. 33. Reason for Referral • Evaluation or Re-evaluation • Purpose (to determine eligibility/continued eligibility) • Referred by? • This evaluation is considered a part of the Full and Individual Evaluation.
  34. 34. Background Information • Age • Gender • Grade • Language(s) • Educational Placement • School • Medical History • Parent Concern • Teacher Concern • Observation Information
  35. 35. Sources of Information • Chart including names of all standardized measures, informal measures, parent and teacher questionnaires, …
  36. 36. Physical Abilities • Oral motor structure and function • Vision ▫ With or without glasses • Hearing ▫ With or without glasses
  37. 37. Sociological • Who does the child live with? • What are the ages of siblings? • What languages are spoken in the home? • Have there been any significant life changes in the past three years ▫ Divorce ▫ Moves ▫ Death of friends/family members ▫ Birth of siblings ▫ Recent immigrant ▫ High family mobility ▫ School attendance
  38. 38. Emotional/Behavioral • Interactions with peers • Cooperative with adults/teachers • Accepting of responsibility • Nervous/Anxious
  39. 39. Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior • Learning patterns • Retention of new information • Ability to adapt to classroom routines • Functionality across environments
  40. 40. Language History • Details from your thorough language history form/interview • Details of educational language environment ▫ ESL Assessment Results ▫ Educational Program  ESL  Transitional Bilingual  Early Exit Transitional Bilingual  Dual Language  English
  41. 41. Behavior During Evaluation This will include information such as: Attention skills Rapport building Need for prompting Other observation
  42. 42. Assessment Procedures/Personnel • Who completed the evaluation • In what languages was evaluation completed • Standard procedures or not • Modifications that were used ▫ Additional Repetitions ▫ Additional Response Time ▫ Visual support
  43. 43. Language Strengths and Weaknesses Formal and Informal Results Content, Form, and Use Spanish and English Receptive and Expressive
  44. 44. Test Results • Chart • We always attempt formal testing in both languages if it seems feasible. • Do we include English scores????
  45. 45. Receptive Language Skills • Assessment statement. • Scores on Formal Measures • Statements of consistency between test results and parent concern, teacher concern, informal measures, and dynamic assessment. • Areas of Strength • Areas of Need
  46. 46. Areas of Strength - Receptive • Content ▫ Formal testing  Spanish  English ▫ Informal measures  Spanish  English • Form ▫ Formal testing  Spanish  English ▫ Informal measures  Spanish  English
  47. 47. Areas of Need - Receptive • Content ▫ Formal testing  Spanish  English ▫ Informal measures  Spanish  English • Form ▫ Formal testing  Spanish  English ▫ Informal measures  Spanish  English
  48. 48. Expressive Language Skills • Assessment statement. • Scores on Formal Measures • Statements of consistency between test results and parent concern, teacher concern, informal measures, and dynamic assessment. • Areas of Strength • Areas of Need
  49. 49. Areas of Strength - Expressive • Content ▫ Formal testing  Spanish  English ▫ Informal measures  Spanish  English • Form ▫ Formal testing  Spanish  English ▫ Informal measures  Spanish  English
  50. 50. Areas of Need – Expressive • Content ▫ Formal testing  Spanish  English ▫ Informal measures  Spanish  English • Form ▫ Formal testing  Spanish  English ▫ Informal measures  Spanish  English
  51. 51. Narrative Language • Macrostructure of the Story • Story grammar components ▫ Characters ▫ Setting ▫ Events ▫ Attempts ▫ Resolution
  52. 52. Dynamic Assessment • Examiner Effort • Response level • Indicative of Impairment • Prognostic Indicator
  53. 53. What makes up a bilingual evaluation testing packet Referral Packet Vision and Hearing Parent Info Teacher Info Educational History English Testing Informal Speech Formal Speech Informal Language Formal Language Second Language Testing Informal Speech Formal Speech Informal Language Formal Language
  54. 54. Assessment Summary • So what do we know? ▫ Not all bilinguals are the same ▫ Children learning a second language may display behaviors common in monolinguals with language impairment ▫ Problems associated with all assessment tools ▫ We need to go beyond the tool in assessment ▫ Ongoing assessment across many daily routines is critical ▫ Exploring all languages is essential
  55. 55. A word on DNQs •DO NOT QUIT here! • You put 60 days of work into this student and know him better than anyone at this point • Share the data to explain how to support the student and make him successful in the classroom
  56. 56. Case Studies Dual language effects on the referral and assessment process
  57. 57. Case Study #1 SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS • STUDENT 1 – 1st Grade, English classroom ▫ Below grade level in Kindergarten ▫ Wears glasses ▫ Reading is below grade level ▫ Difficulty answering questions ▫ Easily distracted Spn Eng Composite Language Scores Stnd Score %ile Rank Stnd Score %ile Rank Core Language 86 18 78 7 Receptive Language 78 7 73 4 Expressive Language 85 16 69 2 Language Content 77 6 73 4 Language Structure 84 14 78 7
  58. 58. • STUDENT 2 – 1st Grade, English classroom • Repeating 1st grade • Struggling academically (especially math and reading) • Does not talk often in class • Talks at recess • Bilingual home Spanish English Composite Language Scores Stnd Score Stnd Score Core Language 68 Core Language 90 Receptive Language 83 Listening Comprehension 96 Expressive Language 57 Oral Expression 87 Language Structure 57 Case Study #1 SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS
  59. 59. Questions: • What similarities exist? • How common do you think this scenario is? • What are the implications of not assessing in both languages? Case Study #1 SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS
  60. 60. STUDENT 1 – 1st Grade, English classroom • Outcome ▫ Student does not qualify for speech and language services ▫ Language development is within normal limits in Spanish ▫ Language development in English is typical for a second language learner ▫ Reading difficulties may be related to visual impairment Incidentally, LD testing results matched speech and language results after the student was tested in both languages. Case Study #1 SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS
  61. 61. STUDENT 2 – 1st Grade, English classroom • Outcome – Student does not qualify for speech and language services – Language development is within normal limits in English – Language development in Spanish indicates low proficiency – Academic difficulties may be related to a learning disability LD testing recommended. Case Study #1 SPANISH-ENGLISH SPEAKERS
  62. 62. Case Study #2 ARABIC/ADHD • Receiving resource for Other Health Impairment • ADHD and is now on meds • Home Language Survey says Arabic/English • Did not qualify as LD • English Language Testing: ▫ CELF-4  Core Language = 77  Receptive Language = 76  Expressive Language = 78  Language Content = 78  Language Memory = 78
  63. 63. Questions: • Is it possible that his language scores are "flat" due to being bilingual? • Should I have an Arabic assessment done? If so, how should I go about it? • Or since he isn't LEP, should we go ahead and qualify him as SI? • Additional information you might want? Case Study #2 ARABIC/ADHD
  64. 64. • Results ▫ Assessment completed with Arabic interpreter ▫ Language sample with much longer and more complex utterances than demonstrated in English ▫ Minimal vocabulary errors ▫ Minimal syntax errors ▫ Fully intelligible to interpreter Case Study #2 ARABIC/ADHD
  65. 65. Case Study #3 BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT • Mild to moderate hearing impairment • 50% Intelligible • 1st Percentile with standardized speech testing • 69% intelligible during 100 word sample • Family from England and has been living in the United States for two years
  66. 66. Questions: • How do we figure out what is causing the low intelligibility? Is it a true speech impairment, resulting from the hearing impairment, or influence from British English? • Can the norms from the standardized test be used because he speaks “English?” • If he qualifies, how do we determine appropriate goals? • Additional information you might want? Case Study #3 BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT
  67. 67. • Outcome ▫ Parents more thoroughly interviewed. This was a dialectical difference in the area they came from ▫ SLP researched (“googled”) specific dialect to identify attributes ▫ Speech errors were put up against  Typical errors with hearing impairment  Age-appropriate errors in SA English  Dialectal differences of “Brummie English” ▫ Results follow Case Study #3 BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT
  68. 68. Initial Medial Final Initial Medial Final Initial Medial Final p t k omit l n omit b d g omit r w w omit m k t glottal stop s st n "ng" g omit z s omit f v w v t h De- aspirated De- aspirated De- aspirated dz j (y) n voiced "th" v Case Study #3 BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT
  69. 69. Case Study #3 BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT Phonemes Phonological Processes Blend: Error: Blend: Error: Blend: Error: bl bj (y) gr gw sl s br b kl k sp dr g kr kw st fl f kw gw sw fr fw pl tr Process Example Final consonant deletion "ba" for "ball" Medial consonant deletion "waon" for "wagon" Fronting "take" for "cake" Backing "kelephone" for "telephone" Gliding "bawoons" for "balloons" and "wing" for "ring," "fwog" for "frog" Cluster reduction "lasses" for "glasses" Deaffrication "share" for "chair"
  70. 70. Outcome: • Qualifies for speech services • Evaluation provided detailed information for which sounds to address • Goals are specific to non-dialectal sounds said in error Case Study #3 BRITISH ENGLISH /HEARING IMPAIRMENT
  71. 71. Take Away Points • Thorough language history is critical. • Thorough health (especially hearing) history is needed. • Testing in all languages is the only way to get a complete picture of a student’s abilities • Understanding the features of the non-English language as well as how those compare to English will help identify what errors may be due to cross-linguistic influence.
  72. 72. References • Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y., & Hoffman, M. (1979). The dynamic assessment of retarded performers: The Learning Potential Assessment Device. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. • Hughes et al. (1997). Guide to Narrative Language. Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications. • Gillam, R., & Pearson, N. (2004). Test of Narrative Language, Examiner’s Manual. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. • Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F. (2002). Narratives in Two Languages: Assessing Performance of Bilingual Children. Linguistics & Education, Vol.13 Issue 2, p199. • Heath, S.B. (1982). What no bedtime story means: Narrative skills at home and school. Language in Society, 11(1), 49-76. • Metzi, Gigliana. (2000). Cultural variations in the construction of personal narratives: Central American and European American mothers’ elicitation styles. Discourse Processes. Vol. 30(2). 153-177.
  73. 73. References • Miller, L., Gillam, R., & Peña, E. (2000). Dynamic Assessment and Intervention: Improving Children’s Narrative Abilities. Austin, TX: PRO- ED. • Poveda, David. (2002). La Ronda in a Spanish kindergarten classroom with a cross-cultural comparison to sharing time in the U.S.A. Anthorpology & Educaiton Quarterly. Vol 32(3). 301-325. • Shiro, Martha Klein (1998). A discourse analysis approach to evaluate stance in Venezuelan children’s narratives. Dissertation Abstracts International: Sediton B: the Sciences and Engineering. Vol. 58 (8-B), • Silliman et. al. (2002). Spanish and English Proficiency in the Linguistic Encoding of Mental States in Narrative Retellings. Linguistics and Education, Vol.13 Issue 2, p175. • Vygotsky, L.S. (1967). Play and its Role in the Mental Development of the Child. Soviet Psychology, 5, 6-18. • Westby, C. (2001). Dynamic Assessment. Austin, TX: Word of Mouth, 13(1), 7-9.
  74. 74. Visit us at bilinguistics.com
  75. 75. Thank you!
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