Ellen Kester, Ph.D Scott Prath, M.A. BilinguisticsTexas Speech-Language Hearing AssociationAnnual ConventionHouston, TXMarch 5, 2011
Texas Public SchoolDemographics: 2009 Snapshot
How do we qualify and workwith a bilingual population when: • The tests we used are not normed on this population. • My gut feeling doesn’t match the test results. • I don’t know what goals are appropriate.
Learner Objectives Participants will list, identify, describe…: • The need for all SLPs to have CLD training • Similarities and differences in typical monolingual and bilingual speech and language development. • Red flags for speech and language impairment in bilingual children. • Sounds on the Goldman-Fristoe that are subject to second language influence • Developmental errors, cross-linguistic errors, and atypical errors • Language structures that are subject to second language influence in second language learners
Learner Objectives Participants will list, identify, describe… • Reasons for testing both languages • Formal and informal measures for testing ELLs • Use of tests when a student is not represented in the normative sample • Selection of the language of intervention • Development of appropriate goals • ASHA guidelines for intervention with bilingual students
Difference vs. Disorder SECOND-NORMAL ATYPICAL LANGUAGEERRORS ERRORS INFLUENCE
“For adults, the idea of an“uncontaminated” monolingual is probably a fiction.” Ellen Bialystok
For parents: (Lynch, Brookshire & Fox, 1980) • 18 months - ~25% intelligible • 2 year olds - 50-75% intelligible • 3 year olds - 75%-100% intelligible For unfamiliar: (Flipsen, 2006) • 18 months - ~25% intelligible • 2 year olds - ~50% intelligible • 3 year olds - ~75% intelligible • 4 year olds - 100% intelligible
Difficulty producing sounds in both languages, even with adult assistance Family history of speech-language impairment Slower development than siblings Difficulty interacting with peers Difficulty with speech production in many routines and settings Speech production unlike others with similar cultural/linguistic experiences
The differences and shared characteristics of two sound systems
13-14 vowel sounds in English (depending on dialect and detail) 5 vowels in Spanish (a e i o u)
owel ChartEnglish and Spanish
Vowel Difference ActivityHAT HOT
Vowel Difference ActivityGET GATE
Vowel Difference ActivityHIT HEAT
Vowel Difference ActivityFUN PHONE
Vowel Difference ActivityLOOK LUKE
When the rules of two sound systems overlap or are mutually exclusive
SPANISH Cluster reduction ENGLISH StoppingTap/Trill FrontingDeviation Assimilation Vocalization Gliding Final consonant deletion Deaffrication
Phonological Processes: Norms
Spanish English CV Dominated More clusters Few words ending in Cs Many words ending in Cs Few allowable phonemes Many allowable phonemes as final Cs (only l, n, d, s, r) final Cs C = Consonant V = Vowel
Bilingual Influence – Cluster Reduction – Age of AcquisitionBilingual children make more cluster reduction errors in English than they do in Spanish.5-year-old Children reduce cluster 3.8% of the time in Spanish 7.3% of the time in English
Bilingual Influence – Cluster Reduction - Phonotactics Spanish English Clusters in Final No Yes Position S-cluster in Initial No Yes Position “Don’t” in English “Don” “School” “Eschool”
Bilingual Influence – Final Consonant Deletion As only /r, l, s, n, d/ exist in final position, other final consonants are deleted or substituted. Anecdotal:Voiced final consonants = substitution • (e.g. Dog Dok)Voiceless final consonants = deletion • (e.g CatCa)
Clinical judgment with the Goldman Fristoe
Other Common Languages U rd u H ind i Vie tnam e s e Arab icR om anian
HINDI ENGLISH /b/ /d/ /ɡ/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /z/ /h/ /r/ /ʃ/ /tʃ/ /dʒ/ /j/ /l/ /f/
HINDI ENGLISH /ɑ/ /æ/ /ɔ/ /ʊ/ /u/ /ʌ/ /ɛ/ /ɪ/ /i/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/
Speech Summary So what do we know: • Building blocks are the same for both monolinguals and bilinguals, and across languages • General guidelines for intelligibility are the same • Expect some cross-linguistic influence in speech production where the two languages differ • Use therapy materials that provide speech sounds that are appropriate for the child’s age and language
“No language is immune to the intrusion from the barrage of words and phrasesthat rise out of one language…and deposit themselves in the lexicon of another.” Ellen Bialystok
Fact or Myth Language ActivityChildren code switch between languages FACT because they or don’t know either language MYTH well.
Fact or Myth Language ActivityRaising children with two languages will FACT confuse them. or MYTH
Fact or Myth Language ActivityParents should not use more than one FACT language with or their child. MYTH
Fact or Myth Language ActivityComparisons to siblings and peers can help FACT identify or language learning MYTH difficulties.
Fact or Myth Language ActivityChildren with language impairment FACT should not learn or more than one language at a MYTH time.
Fact or Myth Language ActivityBilingual children have to translate from FACT their weaker to or their stronger language. MYTHSee www.nethelp.no/cindy/myth.html and www.spanglishbaby.com forresponses to many myths about bilingualism.
Based on the Competition Model as applied to bilingual development (MacWhinney & Bates, 1989) • Forward Transfer (L1 to L2) expected for ELLs The effects of Spanish on English can result in errors in: • Verb errors (especially unmarked present for past tense) • Content word errors (more than general words) • Prepositions • Pronouns • Word order
ross-linguistic Errors in Children with Typical Development Mean Errors Per Grade Spanish Mean Errors Per Grade English 35 35 30 30Number of Errors Number of Errors 25 SpnMorph 25 EngMorph 20 SpnSemantic 20 EngSemantic 15 SpnSyntactic 15 EngSyntactic 10 SpnTotal 10 EngTotal 5 5 0 0 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd PK K 1st 2nd 3rd
When the rules of two grammar systems positively or negatively influence each other. Syntax
Verb DifferencesMost frequent SIE verb error: Unmarked present tense for past tense
Pronouns Spanish is called a Pro-Drop language because subjects/pronouns are usually dropped once the subject has been established. In English, pronouns are required. Spanish English Maria fue a la tienda. (Ella) Maria went to the store. She Compró pan. bought bread.
Word OrderENGLISH SPANISH Strict Word Order Flexible SVO SVO, OSV, VOS • John threw the ball. • Juan tiró la pelota. • La pelota Juan tiró. • Tiró la pelota Juan.
When two languages compete to apply meaning to words and phrases. Semantics
Multi-Purpose Verbs • Verbs such as “do, “make,” “put,” and “take” generally have one primary meaning and other less frequent uses. • Subject to transfer of meaning from L1.Spanish phrases with English Equivalents Spanish-Influencedmulti-purpose verbs EnglishTomar una decisión To make a decision Did you take a decision?*Poner una cita To make an appointment Do you want to put an appointment?*Tener hambre To be hungry Do you have hunger?*Tener 4 años To be 4-years old I have 4 years.*
Preposition Differences Frequent SIE error: Preposition error or omission
PrepositionsSpanish Prepositions English Equivalent Spanish-influenced Engen “in” and “on” Put the food in the plate.*, Put the soup on the bowl.*Pensar en OR Pensar de To think about or think of I think on him every day.*Enojarse con/de Get mad at Get mad with/of*Decidir de To decide on Decide of what you want? *Casarse con To marry or be married to Is he married with her?*Enamorarse de To be in love with Is he in love of her?*Consistir en To consist of What does your plan consist in?*Buscar To look for I look my toy.*Subir To go up, to get on I go the stairs.*
Content Errors Spanish-influenced English may include use of words close in meaning to the target • “moose” for “deer” • “turtle” for “frog” • “rat” for “chipmunk” • “cone house of the bees” for “beehive” Typically do not use general vocabulary (“this,” “thing”) Frequent SIE error: Incorrect but related vocabulary
Bilingual children develop early vocabulary at the same rate as monolingual children (Pearson, 1993). Early language milestones are similar (single words, lexical spurt, 2-word phrases) (Pearson and Fernandez, 2001). Conceptual scores are similar (Pearson, 1998). Language exposure drives vocabulary production (Pearson, Fernandez, Lewedeg, and Oller, 1997)
For bilingual toddlers 30% of vocabulary are translation equivalents1 Young school-age bilinguals produce same # of category items in Spanish and English BUT 70% are unique to one language2 Task performance varies by language3 1 Pearson, Fernandez & Oller, 1995 2 Peña, Bedore & Zlatic, 2002 3 Peña, Bedore, & Rappazzo, 2003
Children tend to shift - L1 to L2 • 8-10 year-old were faster in English but more accurate in Spanish. • 11-13-year-olds showed no clear advantage in either language. • By 14-16 years of age children were more accurate and faster in English.
LANGUAGE CASE STUDYIM, Age 7;2, 2nd gradeIM lives with his mother, two siblings (ages 6 and 5), grandmother, aunts and cousins. Spanish is the dominant language in the home. IM reported that he speaks Spanish at home and English at school.
“Bilingualism is random chaos for psychometrics” Figueroa
Tools were not developed for our population We need to use an assessment tool. English tests were not normed for the English of ESL learners. Clinical judgment regarding missed items and items correct is critical.
Spanish Language Assessment Tools PLS-4 CELF-4 CELF-P-3 TELD 3S To Identify To determine For identification, To identify Spanish- monolingual or eligibility for diagnosis, and speaking children bilingual Spanish language services, follow-up evaluation whose early speaking children Identify strengths of language and language who have a and weaknesses, communication development is language disorder or provide disorders in Spanish- below average andPrimary Use delay performance-based, speaking children. identify strengths authentic assessment and weaknesses with a strong relationship to educational objectives and the curriculum Norm-based Norm-based Norm-based Norm-basedMeasurement Birth to 6 years 11 Overall: 5-21 years 3;0-6;11 2;0-7;11Age Ranges months of age (varying age ranges for each subtest)
It’s always critical to use information beyond the assessment tool to complete an assessment. Let’s look now at some of the things that can help us differentiate bilinguals with typical development from those with delayed/disordered language skills.
Dynamic Assessment Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT)( )
Difficulty learning both languages, even with adult assistance Family history of language/learning disabilities Slower development than siblings Difficulty interacting with peers Inappropriate pragmatic/social language skills (i.e., turn- taking, topic maintenance, considering listener needs, non- verbal communication) Difficulty with language in many routines Idiosyncratic error patterns Language performance unlike others with similar cultural/linguistic experiences
A student from a second language homedoes not perform typically for her age on standardized and informal evaluations.Is this due to second language influence or is she truly impaired?
How do we make this decision confidently? Testing Procedures and Using Case Studies to questions understand testing The role of language results and outcomes survey
When do we test in two languages? Is the language survey valuable to us? Are the results from language proficiency testing valuable to us? (woodcock-muñoz language survey) Speech and Language Testing is Cumulative not Comparative
Cumulative not ComparativeLanguage and Content of Intervention Select based on what is appropriate in each language and what is appropriate for child’s and family’s situation. e.g. Spanish English •Gender Both •Pronouns •Verbs •People •Prepositions •Article+nouns •Functions •Nouns •Food •Categorization •Colors •Clothing •Part-Whole •Numbers •Household items •Shapes Peña & Kester, 2004
Take Away Points• Thorough language history is critical.• Thorough health (especially hearing) history is needed.• Testing in all languages is the only way to get a complete picture of a student.• Understanding the features of the non-English language as well as how those compare to English will help identify what errors may be due to cross-language influence.
Assessment Summary So what do we know: • Not all bilinguals are the same • Children in recent second language environments may display behaviors common in monolinguals with language impairment • Problems associated with all assessment tools • We need to go beyond the tool in assessment • Ongoing assessment across many daily routines is critical • Exploring both/all languages is essential.
What makes up a bilingualevaluation testing packet
A word on DNQsDO NOT QUIT here! You put 60 days of work into this student and know him better than anyone at this point Share the data to explain how to support the student and make him successful in the classroom
More Great Resources on Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
Helpful Resources on typical phonological process errors in English-speaking, Spanish-speaking and Bilingual Children. Davis, B. L., Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., Kester, E. S., Peña, E. D. (2008). English speech sound development in pre-school aged children from bilingual English-Spanish environments. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2008 39: 314-328. Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., Peña E. D, Davis, B. L., Kester, E.S.,. (2009). Effects of L1 during early acquisition of L2: Speech changes in Spanish at first English contact. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 2, 259-272.
Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., Kester, E.S., Davis, B. L., & Peña, E. D.(2007). Speech development in 3- to 4-year-old children from bilingualSpanish/English and monolingual Spanish and English environments.Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in the Schools.Goldstein, B. (2007a). Spanish speech acquisition. In S. McLeod (Ed.),The international guide to speech acquisition (pp. 539-553). Clifton Park,NY:Thomson Delmar Learning.Goldstein, B. (2007b). Speech acquisition across the world: SpanishInfluenced English. In S. McLeod (Ed.), The international guide tospeechacquisition (pp. 345-356). Clifton Park, NY: Thomson DelmarLearning.
Goldstein, B. (2007). Phonological skills in Puerto Rican- and Mexican-Spanish speaking children with phonological disorders. ClinicalLinguistics and Phonetics, 21, 93-109.Goldstein, B., Fabiano, L., & Washington, P. (2005). Phonological skillsinpredominantly English, predominantly Spanish, and Spanish-Englishbilingual children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools,36, 201-218.Goldstein, B. (2005). Substitutions in the phonology of Spanish-speakingchildren. Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders, 3,56-63.Fabiano, L., & Goldstein, B. (2005). Phonological cross-linguisticinfluencein sequential Spanish-English bilingual children. Journal ofMultilingual Communication Disorders, 3, 56-63.