Typical Development in Bilinguals and Bilingual Assessment


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Typical Development in Bilinguals and Bilingual Assessment

  1. 1. Typical Speech Development in Bilinguals of English and Other Languages Ellen Kester, PhD, CCC-SLP Scott Prath, MA, CCC-SLP July 12, 2012
  2. 2. Outline for Today • Typical Speech Development in Bilinguals ▫ How does a second language influence sound acquisition? • Speech and Articulation Development ▫ Consonants ▫ Vowels • Phonological Development • Other Languages • Case Studies
  3. 3. Learner Objectives • Participants will: ▫ Understand typical speech development for bilinguals ▫ Identify typical speech processes of bilinguals ▫ List similarities in typical monolingual and bilingual speech development. ▫ Identify speech intervention goals for bilingual children.
  4. 4. Do you need Continuing Education or want  to listen to this course live? Click here to visit  the online courses.
  5. 5. The influence of a second language on the acquisition of sounds
  7. 7. Speech Outcomes • Qualifies• DNQ • DNQ• DNQ Errors are typical for age Errors are due to second language Errors are atypical for age and language No errors present
  8. 8. • Speech and language development from: ▫ 0-36 months ▫ 36 months forward • With: ▫ Spanish ▫ English ▫ Crosslinguistic Influence
  9. 9. All of the documents and charts in this presentation  can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
  10. 10. Similarities Differences + = Positive transfer + = Negative transfer
  11. 11. • 0-1 month – crying and vegetative sounds • 1-6 months – cooing, laughter, squealing, growling • 4-6 months – marginal babbling • 6-8 months – reduplicated babbling • 8-10 months – variegated babbling • 8-12 months – echolalia* • 9-12 months – phonetically* consistent forms • 9-12 months – jargon* Language Influenced* Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  12. 12. • For parents: (Lynch, Brookshire & Fox, 1980) ▫ 18 months - ~25% intelligible ▫ 2 year olds - 50-75% intelligible ▫ 3 year olds - 75%-100% intelligible • For unfamiliar: (Flipsen, 2006) ▫ 18 months - ~25% intelligible ▫ 2 year olds - ~50% intelligible ▫ 3 year olds - ~75% intelligible ▫ 4 year olds - 100% intelligible Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  13. 13. • Difficulty producing sounds in both languages, even with adult assistance • Family history of speech-language impairment • Slower development than siblings • Difficulty interacting with peers • Difficulty with speech production in many routines and settings • Speech production unlike others with similar cultural/linguistic experiences Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  14. 14. The differences and shared characteristics of two sound systems
  15. 15. Bilingual Speech Evaluation: 3 important things • Shared and unshared sounds/processes • Developmental acquisition within each language • Phonotactics of each language ▫ The set of permissible sequences of sounds in a given language
  16. 16. /ɲ/ /ɾ/ /R/ /x/ /ð/ /dʒ/ /h/ /ŋ/ /θ/ /r/ /ʃ/ /v/ /w/ /z/ /ʒ/ SPANISH ENGLISH /b/ /d/ /ɡ/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /tʃ/ /j/ /l/ /f/
  17. 17. English consonants mastered in words across time Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  18. 18. Spanish consonants mastered in words across time Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  19. 19. Cluster reduction Stopping Fronting Assimilation Gliding Final consonant deletion Deaffrication Tap/Trill Deviation Vocalization SPANISH ENGLISH
  20. 20. Phonological Processes: Norms
  21. 21. English Spanish • More clusters • Many words ending in Cs • Many allowable phonemes final Cs • S-clusters allowed in word initial position • CV dominated • Few words ending in Cs • Few allowable phonemes as final Cs (only l, n, d, s, r) • S-clusters not allowed in word initial position C = Consonant V = Vowel
  22. 22. Consonant Difference Activity BATH BAT
  23. 23. THREE TREE Consonant Difference Activity
  24. 24. SHOE CHEW Consonant Difference Activity
  25. 25. VASE BASE Consonant Difference Activity
  26. 26. /æ/ /ɔ/ /ʊ/ /u/ /ʌ/ /ɛ/ /ɪ/ /ə/ /ɑ/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ SPANISH ENGLISH
  27. 27. Vowel Difference Activity HAT HOT
  28. 28. GET GATE Vowel Difference Activity
  29. 29. HIT HEAT Vowel Difference Activity
  30. 30. FUN PHONE Vowel Difference Activity
  31. 31. LOOK LUKE Vowel Difference Activity
  32. 32. The influence of a second language on the acquisitions of sounds
  33. 33. Hindi/Urdu • Hindi and Urdu are mutually intelligible languages, though mutual intelligibility decreases in specialized contexts. • Related to Persian and Arabic and also influenced by English
  34. 34. Hindi/Urdu Phonotactics • Consonant clusters are uncommon • No initial consonant clusters are allowed in Urdu • In Hindi, a vowel is often inserted prior to word initial consonant clusters (iskul) • Mostly monosyllabic words (except borrowed words) • Words never begin with /R/ or /Rh/ • Words do not end in / ɖ /, /ɖh/ and /ph/
  35. 35. /ɲ/ /ɽʱ/ /t̪ʰ/ /ʋ/ /q/ /d̪ʱ/ /ɾ/ /pʰ/ /ʈʰ/ /x/ /bʰ/ /ɖʱ/ /kʰ/ /ɡʱ/ /tʃʰ/ /dʒʱ/ /ɣ/ /ð/ /ʒ/ /ŋ/ /θ/ /v/ /w/ HINDI ENGLISH /b/ /d/ /ɡ/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /z/ /h/ /r/ /ʃ/ /tʃ/ /dʒ/ /j/ /l/ /f/
  36. 36. /ɑ/ /æ/ /ɔ/ /ʊ/ /u/ /ʌ/ /ɛ/ /ɪ/ /i/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ HINDI ENGLISH
  37. 37. Mandarin and Cantonese • Both tonal languages (rising and falling intonation) • The tonal systems of the languages differ ▫ Mandarin has 4 distinct tones and 1 neutral tone ▫ Cantonese has 6-9 tones (linguists debate) • The combination of intonation and sounds provide meaning to syllables
  38. 38. Mandarin & Cantonese Phonotactics • Stop consonants are contrasted by aspiration unlike English voiced and voiceless contrasts • No consonant clusters • Words are monosyllabic • Only a few consonants are allowed at the end of a word ▫ Mandarin allows /n, ŋ, ʔ / in final word position ▫ Cantonese allows / t, k, p, m, n, ŋ / in word final position
  39. 39. Common patterns noted in English for native speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese • Omission of final consonants • Devoicing of voiced sounds • Lack of differentiation between /l/ and /r/ • Addition of the schwa between consonants in a cluster
  40. 40. /pʰ/ /tʰ/ /kʰ/ /kʷ/ /kʷʰ/ /ʔ/ /b/ /d/ /g/ /v/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /tʃ/ /dʒ/ /θ/ /ð/ /ɹ/ CANTONESE ENGLISH /p/ /m/ /f/ /t/ /s/ /l/ /k/ /ŋ/ /n/ /h/ /w/ /j/
  41. 41. /œ/ /ɵ/ /ɐ/ /y/ /e/ /æ/ /o/ /ʌ/ /ə/ /ɑ/ /i/ /ɪ/ /ɛ/ /a/ /u/ /ʊ/ /ɔ/ CANTONESE ENGLISH
  42. 42. /pʰ/ /tʰ/ /ts/ /tsʰ/ /ɕ/ /tɕ/ /tɕʰ/ /ʂ/ /ʐ/ /tʂ/ /tʐ/ /kʰ/ /ʔ/ /x/ /ɽ / /b/ /d/ /g/ /h/ /w/ /j/ /v/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /tʃ/ /dʒ/ /θ/ /ð/ /ɹ/ MANDARIN ENGLISH /p/ /m/ /f/ /t/ /s/ /l/ /k/ /ŋ/ /n/ /h/ /w/ /j/
  43. 43. /œ/ /ɵ/ /ɐ/ /y/ /e/ /æ/ /o/ /ʌ/ /ə/ /ɑ/ /i/ /ɪ/ /ɛ/ /a/ /u/ /ʊ/ /ɔ/ MANDARIN ENGLISH
  44. 44. Tagalog • A language spoken in the Phillipines. • Its general form is often called Filipino • Related to Spanish, Malay, Javanese, Hawaiian, English, Hindi, Arabic, Sanskrit, Chinese, Japanese and Tamil.
  45. 45. Tagalog Phonotactics & Phonology • Primary stress occurs on the last or next-to-last syllable • Words frequently end in glottal stops • Very few consonant clusters • The consonants / tʃ , n, w, r / are represented in both languages; however, they are produced in different places.
  46. 46. /ɴ̺/ /tʃ̺/ /ɾ/ /ɲ/ /ʔ/ /w/ /v/ /n/ /ŋ/ /w/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /tʃ/ /dʒ/ /θ/ /ð/ /ɹ/ TAGALOG ENGLISH /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ /m/ /f/ /s/ /l/ /h/ /j/
  47. 47. /ɪ/ /ɛ/ /æ/ /ɔ//ʊ/ /ɚ/ /ə/ /ʌ/ /i/ (/ɪ/) /e/ (/ɛ/) /a/ (/ə/) /o/ (/ɔ/) /u/ (/ʊ/) TAGALOG ENGLISH
  48. 48. Vietnamese • A tonal language with 6 distinct phonemic tones (variations in pitch and stress) • Three different types of phonemes ▫ Consonants ▫ Vowels ▫ Tones • A monosyllabic language (except borrowed words)
  49. 49. Vietnamese Consonants and Vowels • 24 Consonants • 11 Single Vowels • 30 Vowel Combinations (Diphthongs and Triphthongs) • Consonants can occur in word initial and final positions (monosyllabic so no medial Cs) • Final consonants are voiceless stops or nasals
  50. 50. /th / /ʈ//c/ /ʔ/ /ɲ/ /ɣ/ /x/ /ɽ/ /ð/ /dʒ/ /ŋ/ /θ/ /ʃ/ /v/ /s/ /ʒ/ VIETNAMESE ENGLISH /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /ɡ/ /m/ /n/ /j/ /w/ /f/ /z/ /h/ /tʃ/ /l/ /r/
  51. 51. /ɯ/ /ɤ/ /ɤˇ/ /ɑ̆/ /ɔˇ/ /ʌ/ /ɪ/ /e/ /o/ VIETNAMESE ENGLISH /ɑ/ /æ/ /ɔ/ /ʊ/ /u/ /ɛ/ /i/
  52. 52. Arabic • A Semitic language from the Afro-Asiatic family • Dialects ▫ Classic (Fous-ha) used in the Quran and highly formal situations ▫ Modern Standard Arabic – similar to classic but with contemporary words incorporated ▫ Colloquial Arabic – many dialects • The dialects differ so significantly that speakers of different dialects are often unable to understand each other.
  53. 53. Arabic Phonotactics • No more than two consonant sounds can occur together. • Words can start with a vowel or a single consonant • Words cannot start with a consonant cluster
  54. 54. /ʈ̥/ /d̥ / /s̥ / /ð̥ / /z̥ / /ǰ/ /š/ /l̥/ /q/ /x/ /ɣ/ /ħ/ /ʕ/ /ʔ/ /v/ /ɺ/ /g/ /ŋ/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /tʃ/ /dʒ/ ARABIC ENGLISH /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /m/ /n/ /f/ /θ/ /ð/ /s/ /z/ /h/ /l/ /w/ /j/ There are phonemic contrasts between emphatic (pharyngealized and velarized) and non-emphatic sounds
  55. 55. /æ/ /e/ /o//ɔ/ /ʊ/ /u/ /ʌ/ /ɛ/ /ɪ/ /ə/ /ɑ/ /i/ /u/ ARABIC ENGLISH
  56. 56. Order of Acquisition of Consonant Phonemes Common to English and Arabic BY 3;6 BY 3;6 BY 4;0 BY 5;0 BY 6;0 BY 7;0 ARABIC t, k, f, m, n, w b, d l S, ʃ, h, r Θ, ð, z, dʒ, j ENGLISH w, t, d, k, m, h, n, w f, j s, ʃ, h, dʒ Θ, ð, z, l, ɹ Information adapted from Amaryeh & Dyson (1998)
  57. 57. So what do we know? • Building blocks are the same for both monolinguals and bilinguals, and across languages • General guidelines for intelligibility are the same • Expect some cross-linguistic influence in speech production where the two languages differ • Phonotactic constraints can result in cross-linguistic influence.
  58. 58. Case Study 3 - Slovak • Please find the Goldman-Fristoe protocol form and the information about Slovak in your packet. • Create your Venn Diagram • Evaluate the errors on the Goldman-Fristoe • Determine whether or not the errors could be due to influence from Slovak
  59. 59. Accessing clients and families through their home language.
  60. 60. The Top Ten Tips • Establish and agree to ground rules ▫ How to run the session ▫ Number of sentences at a time ▫ Confirmation of jargon/idioms – Avoid it! ▫ When to take breaks • Brief the interpreter prior to the session ▫ Who, what, why ▫ Specific terminology ▫ Format ▫ Your job and what you are looking for
  61. 61. The Top Ten Tips (continued) • Familiarize them with the topic ▫ Best if your interpreter has some experience in education, special education, speech-language ▫ Important for interpreter to know what you need • Avoid humor • Plan your time carefully (twice the time) • Do not rush, speak slowly and clearly and provide pauses for the interpreter
  62. 62. The Top Ten Tips (continued) • An interpreter should never translate emotions, body language works for that • An interpreter should never answer questions on your behalf. • Ask them their opinion after the session • An interpreter should never alter what you say.
  63. 63. How to work with an interpreter • Talk to the family, not to the interpreter • Sit across from client and interpreter takes a mediating position Note: An inexperienced interpreter may talk more or less than you do.
  64. 64. Interpreter bias • It is human nature to want a member of your culture to perform well • An interpreter should: ▫ Maintain Neutrality ▫ Translate statements verbatim ▫ Maintain confidentiality
  65. 65. Types of Interpretation • Consecutive Interpreting ▫ The interpreter listens to a section and then the speaker pauses to give time to interpret ▫ Used in one-to-one and small group meetings • Simultaneous Interpreting ▫ The interpreter attempts to relay the meaning in real time. ▫ Used more for conferences and speeches to large groups
  66. 66. How to find an interpreter • On-line resources ▫ www.professionalinterpreters.com • The Professional Community ▫ Nurses, healthcare professionals • Community Volunteers ▫ Cultural centers ▫ Religious groups • The family ▫ Extended members preferred
  67. 67. Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com
  68. 68. Difference or Disorder?  Understanding Speech and Language  Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically  Diverse Students Rapidly identify speech‐language  patterns related to second language  acquisition to  distinguish difference from disorder. This image cannot currently be displayed.