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this is a presentation on the molecular medicine and biomedical sciences

this is a presentation on the molecular medicine and biomedical sciences

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  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
    • Biochemistry
    It is the study of chemical processes in living organisms.
    Biochemical processes give rise to the incredible complexity of life.
    Biochemistry include the genetic code (DNA, RNA), protein synthesis, cell membrane transport, and signal transduction.
  • 4.
    • Physiology
    It is the study of the functions of living organisms.
    This includes how organism’s, organ systems, cells and biomolecules carry out the functions that exist in a living system.
  • 5.
    • Microbiology
    It is the study of microorganisms, which are microscopic, unicellular, cell-cluster organisms, viral vectors & plasmids etc.
    It involves the production of enzymes, vitamins, vaccines & the manipulation of microorganisms at the genetic and molecular level to generate useful products.
  • 6.
    • Genetics
    Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, variation in living organisms, molecular structure and function of genes, patterns of inheritance.
    Medical geneticsseeks to understand how genetic variation relates to human health and disease.
  • 7. Molecular Biology may be referred to as the backbone of the Molecular Medicine
  • 8.
    • Molecular Medicine
    Molecular medicine is a branch of applied biology it involves the use of living organisms & bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine & other fields requiring bioproducts.
    It involves the identification of fundamental molecular & genetic errors of disease & to develop molecular interventions to correct them
    The understanding, diagnosis & treatment of many clinical conditions have been improved due to advances in molecular medicine.
    EXAMPLES:
    Infectious Diseases (AIDS)
    Cancer
    Cystic Fibrosis
    Hypertension
    Diabetes mellitus
    Organ Transplantation
  • 9.
    • Genomics(1.1)
    Genomics is a discipline in genetics concerning the study of the genomes of organisms. The field includes intensive efforts to determine the entire DNA sequence of organisms and study of interactions between loci and alleles within the genome.
  • 10. Recombinant DNA Technology
    This technology is used to make proteins.
    Once the gene for a particular protein has been cloned, it is inserted into the genome of microorganisms.
    Cloned proteins can also be inserted into cultured cells.
    The first recombinant human protein produced was Human Insulin.
    Others include growth hormone, erythropoietin, factor VIII etc.
    ADVANTAGE OF RECOMBINANT PROTEINS
    Minimized risk of infection transmission as in case of proteins purified from human or animals.
    They are not recognized by the immune system.
  • 11. Examples of Recombinant Proteins & Therapeutic Uses
  • 12. DNA Microarray
    A DNA microarray also known as gene chip, DNA chip, or biochip is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. These can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that are used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA sample (called target) under high-stringency conditions.
    Uses:
    DNA microarrays are used to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously.
    To genotype multiple regions of a genome.
    To measure changes in expression levels.
    Tumor Profiling
  • 13. Tumor Sampling
    Tumors are heterogeneous mixtures of different cell types, including malignant cells with varying degrees of differentiation, blood vessels, and inflammatory cells. Two tumors with similar clinical stages can vary markedly in grade and in relative proportions of different elements (e.g., prostatic adenocarcinoma). Tumors of different grades might potentially differ in gene expression, and different markers can be expressed either by malignant cells or by other cellular elements. So the tumors can be differentiated by using DNA microarray technique.