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  1. 1. Made by : BILAL AHMED 11th PCB
  2. 2.  In botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary— together with seeds—of a flowering plant. Fruits are the means by which flowering plants disseminate seeds  In cuisine, when discussing fruit as food, the term usually refers to those plant fruits that are sweet and fleshy, examples of which include plums, apples and oranges. However, a great many common vegetables, as well as nuts and grains, are the fruit of that plant species.  Fruits are classified into six categories depending on their physical characteristics: berries, drupes, pomes. Citrus, melons and tropical.
  3. 3. Classification Of Fruits Simple Fruits Compound Fruits Accessory Fruits
  4. 4.  Fleshy Simple Fruits  Simple Dry Fruits Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy and result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary with but one pistil. Simple fruits develop from a single ovary of a single flower and may be fleshy or dry. Tomato Acorn
  5. 5. 1.1 Fleshy Simple Fruits Fleshy fruits types are the berry, in which the entire pericarp is soft and pulpy (e.g., the grape, tomato, banana, pepo, hesperidium, and blueberry) and the drupe, in which the outer layers may be pulpy, fibrous, or leathery and the endocarp hardens into a pit or stone enclosing one or more seeds (e.g., the peach, cherry, olive, coconut, and walnut). The name fruit is often applied loosely to all edible plant products and specifically to the fleshy fruits, some of which (e.g., eggplant, tomatoes, and squash) are commonly called vegetables.
  6. 6. 1.1.1 Fleshy Simple Fruits Tomato can be eaten raw in salads or cooked as a vegetable and it is a common ingredient in soups and stews. Tomato is also used in sauces, pickles and chutney, which is often made from green tomato.
  7. 7. 1.1.1 Fleshy Simple Fruits The structure of bananas looks like a long curving cylinder. The bottom end is narrowed to a point and the top end has a thick stem that attaches the fruit to the inflorescence stalk. A small group of banans is referred as "hands". Many hands are collectively called as "bunches". Banana has smooth and thick skin and often has a few vertical ridges that run along the length of the fruit. The flesh of the fruit is in creamy white and soft. Banana is an energy booster, it contains tryptophan, a type of protein that the body converts into serotonin. Serotonin is a hormone that is known to make you feel happy and improve your mood, Banana is a rich source of iron, thus it is helpful in cases of anemia and Banana is good for people who have high blood pressure because it is low in salt.
  8. 8. 1.1.1 Fleshy Simple Fruits The grape is one of the oldest fruits to be cultivated going back as far as biblical times. Spanish explorers introduced the fruit to America approximately 300 years ago. Some of the most popular ways in which the fruit is used, is eaten fresh, in preserves or canned in jellies, dried into raisins, and crushed for juice or wine. Although, machines have taken the place of much handwork, table grapes are still harvested by hand in many places. (Wellness Encyclopedia of Food and Nutrition, 1992) .
  9. 9. 1.1.1 Fleshy Simple Fruits The almond is native to Iran, from northwestern Saudi Arabia.The sweet almond itself contains practically no carbohydrates and may therefore be made into flour for cakes and cookies for low carbohydrate diets or for patients suffering from diabetes mellitus or any other form of glycosuria.
  10. 10. 1.1.1 Fleshy Simple Fruits The peach has often been called the Queen of Fruits. Its beauty is surpassed only by its delightful flavor and texture. A tree-ripened peach is something to behold -- and better to eat.Bacterial leaf spot is prevalent on peaches in all areas of the state. Sprays are not effective against this disease. If severe, bacterial leaf spot can defoliate and weaken the trees and result in reduced yields and poorer-quality fruit. Peach cultivars show varying degrees of resistance to this disease.
  11. 11. 1.1.1 Fleshy Simple Fruits Pears are original from Europe and Asia. The first cultivated races were selected from the wild varieties in the prehistoric ages. Pear, common name for about 20 species of trees of a genus in the rose family, and for their fruit. The common pear is native to Europe; the Chinese sand pear is native to the Orient. Both species are extensively cultivated for their fruit in cool, humid, temperate regions throughout the world.
  12. 12. 1.1.1 Fleshy Simple Fruits The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family Rosaceae. It is one of the most generally refined tree fruits. The tree originated from Central Asia, where its wild forebear is still found today. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples ensuing in range of desired characteristics. Cultivars differ in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock. At least 55 million tonnes of apples were grown worldwide in 2005, with a value of about $10 billion. China produced about 35% of this total. The United States is the second leading producer, with more than 7.5% of the world production. Turkey, France, Italy and Iran are among the leading apple exporters.
  13. 13. 1.1.2 Simple Dry Fruits Dry fruits are divided into those whose hard or papery shells split open to release the mature seed (dehiscent fruits) and those that do not split (indehiscent fruits). Among the dehiscent fruits are the legume (e.g., the pod of the pea and bean), which splits at both edges, and the follicle, which splits on only one side (e.g., milkweed and larkspur); others include the dry fruits of the poppy, snapdragon, lily, and mustard. Indehiscent fruits include the single-seeded achene of the buttercup and the composite flowers; the caryopsis (grain); the Dried Fruits And Nuts of the carrot and parsnip (not to be confused with their edible fleshy roots)
  14. 14. 1.1.2Simple Dry Fruits Indehiscent Dry Fruits Dehiscent Dry Fruits
  15. 15. Indehiscent Dry Fruits The caryopsis is widely called as a grain. A very small, one-seeded dry, indehiscent fruit in which the actual seed coat is completely merged to the pericarp. The outer layer of pericarp or husk is referred to as the bran, while the inner, seed layer is referred as the germ. Caryopsis is the featured fruit of the large grass family . This is truly a fruit and not a seed because it came from a ripened ovary inside the grass inflorescence. Corn (maize), wheat, rice, rye, barley, oats, Johnson grass, Bermuda grass and many more species are the other examples of this type. In corn grains, the major white material that bursts when the grains are heated is endosperm tissue within the seed. Grain type fruits are generated by members of the grass family which comprises main food crops such as rice, corn and wheat.
  16. 16. Indehiscent Dry Fruits The achene contains a single seed that stick to the wall of the ovary. Seed coat is not merged with ovary wall. The matured ovary wall is thin and immature, so when it dries, the fruit will developed as a seed-like appearance. Sunflowers,dandelions are examples for achenes.Buttercup and buckwheat fruits are the typical achenes. Sunflower "seed" is not a seed actually a fruit. They are tiny and one-seeded fruit, generally produced in clusters. At maturity the pericarp is dry and not attached to the internal seed, except at the placental attachment. An achene is a type of simple dry fruit that is developed by many species of flowering plants sometimes called as akene, and rarely called as achenium or achenocarp.
  17. 17. Indehiscent Dry Fruits A samara is a simple dry fruit in which a flattened "wing" of fibrous, papery tissue is produced from the ovary wall. A samara is bicarpellate (two carpels) and indehiscent (not opening along a seam) type. The shape of a samara allows the wind to carry the seed from the parent tree. A special form of samara is sometimes called a key, where the papery sheath widens far out to one side so that the seed spirals as it falls. The Samara is a wind borne fruit that contains single seed. It is much similar to achene except for the paper-like wing which is produdec from the ovary wall of the flower.
  18. 18. Indehiscent Dry Fruits Nuts are same in structure as like achene and the ovary wall is tough and woody. The shell of this nut covers as the coat for fruit. The coat is developed from the ovary wall after fertilization. Some nuts have a husk that covers the hard shell. The husk is developed from the outer layer of the ovary wall and the hard coat from the inner layer of the ovary wall. The examples of this type of nuts as follows. (1) Acorn of oak (Quercus): The actual nut lays in a cup-shaped involucre of imbricate (overlapping) scales. (2) Chestnut (Castanea), beech (Fagus) & chinquapin (Castanopsis): One or more nuts lies in a spiny, cup-shaped involucre.
  19. 19. Dehiscent Dry Fruits It develops from a single carpel and therefore seed(s) are in one locule. The fruits produced in Columbine and milkweed plants are known as a follicle. Magnolia is an example of follicle fruit. The Follicle fruit develops from a single ripened ovary and split only once to release their seeds in to the environment. The discharging seeds is always along. Follicles may occur individually, example - milkweed. When the fruit splits it looks like a dry leaf and that carpels are modified and the leaves first produce spores, then gametes and finally seeds. The cone-like magnolia tree fruit is an aggregate of many small follicles, each has single bright red seed. The term apocarpous refers to flowers that has separate and distinct carpels, such as delphiniums and columbines of the buttercup family.
  20. 20. Dehiscent Dry Fruits The legume splits into two lines of dehiscence subsequent to maturation and drying. The legume fruits are derived from a simple ovary that has one carpel with two rows of ovules. Peas, beans and peanuts are the examples of legume type. A peanut is not a nut, it is one of the indehiscent legumes that will not split open when ripe. This is possibly because the peanut fruit is produced in the soil rather than in the air. A legume is a plant or a fruit in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae). "Pod" is the common name for this type of fruit, even though pod is also applied to a few other fruit types.
  21. 21. Dehiscent Dry Fruits The capsule is also a type of dry dehiscent fruit. The capsule is composed of more than one carpel. For example, lily fruits split length-wise into several sections corresponding to the number of carpels. The Sweet Gum fruit which is a cluster of capsules discharge winged seeds as each ovary splits open at maturity. A capsule is composed of two or more carpels, which splits apart (dehisce) to release the seeds, at maturity.
  22. 22.  A compound fruit is one that develops from several ovaries in either a single flower or multiple flowers. Conversely, a simple fruit actually develops from one ovary. Types of Compound Fruits 1.2.1Aggregate fruit 1.2.2Multiple fruits
  23. 23. 1.2.1 Aggregate fruit Aggregate means collection of small fruits . A fruit that contains a number of small fruits (fruitlets) is called an aggregate fruit. Fruitlets that are derived from a single flower are collectively called as etaerio. An aggregate fruit develops from the apocarpous ovary of a flower. The flower has multiple carpels which are not joined together and thus forms individual fruitlets on
  24. 24. Aggregate fruit types 1. Etaerio of follicles 2. Etaerio of achenes 3. Etaerio of drupes 4. Etaerio of berries Aggregate fruit examples 1. Raspberry 2. Blackberry 3. Strawberry 4. Custard applee
  25. 25. What most people call seeds on the outside of the strawberry fruit are actually the true fruits. Technically, they are achenes. In an achene, the single seed is enclosed by the ovary wall. A sunflower fruit is also an achene. A strawberry "fruit" is unusual because the red, fleshy part is the enlarged receptacle. The receptacle is the enlarged tip of the flowering stem to which the petals, sepals, stamens and carpels are attached. The strawberry is said to have an accessory fruit because much tissue other than the ovary is part of the "fruit". Apples and pineapples are also accessory fruits. The strawberry is also termed an aggregate fruit because it is formed from many separate carpels of a single flower. Other aggregate fruits are raspberry and blackberry. Some people mistakenly refer to strawberries as a multiple fruit. In a multiple fruit, the carpels of several flowers merge to form the fruit. Pineapple and figs are
  26. 26. 1.2.2 Multiple Fruit A multiple fruit or composite fruit develops from an entire inflorescence i.e., from a cluster or group of flowers into an entire fruit. Each of the flower produces a fruit, but these all mature into a single mass to form the composite fruit. In simple words we can say that - Fruits of individual flowers closely packed to form a Multiple fruits examples Pineapple Mulberry Breadfruit Osage-Orange
  27. 27. There are 2 types of multiple fruits - 1. Syconus A collective fleshy fruit, in which the ovaries are hidden within a hollow receptacle, as in the fig 2. Sorosis A Sorosis develops from spike or spaidx or catkin, where the fleshy and juicy part is formed from the axis, the bract and the perianth. Jackfruit develops from spadix inflorescence. The female flowers have styles which are spines on the surface. The perianth, fleshy peduncle are edible and enclose a bladder like fruit with a single large seed.
  28. 28. Accessory fruit defines a false fruit also known as pseudocarp. In these fruits the parts other than ovary and its wall are important in forming the fleshy fruit part. The true fruit is red and accessory is white.
  29. 29. 1.3.1 Accessory Fruits The strawberry is an accessory fruit as discussed earlier; that is, the fleshy part is derived not from the ovaries (which are the "seeds", actually achene) but from the peg at the bottom of the hypanthia that held the ovaries. So from a technical standpoint it could be that, the actual fruits of the plant are the seeds, and the flesh of the strawberry is a vegetable. It is greenish-white as it develops and in most species turns red when ripe. The rosette growth of these plants is a well-known characteristics. Most of the species send out long slender runners that actually produce a new bud at the extremity. The leaves typically have three leaflets, but the number of leaflets may be five or one.
  30. 30. 1.3.1 Accessory Fruits Apple tree is a deciduous tree. The spring season is the most ideal for the apple flowers to bloom along with the leaves. Flowers are white, initially tinged pink with five petals. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple oval with an acute tip and serrated margin, slightly downy below, 5-12 cm long and 3-6 cm broad on a 2-5 cm petiole. The season for the apple fruits is usually the autumn. Apples are always known for health reasons as said "an apple a day keeps the doctor away". There are many reasons why we say so! Apples are suggested to reduce certain levels of risk of colon, prostate and lung cancer. .
  31. 31. 1.3.1 Accessory Fruits Watermelon is the fruit and also plant of a vine-like (climber and trailer) herb originally from southern Africa. This flowering plant bears an accessory fruit of a type that are actually called as false berry by botanists. The watermelon fruit are, loosely considered as a type of melon (although not in the genus Curcumas) it has a smooth exterior rind and a juicy, sweet, and usually carries red interior flesh.
  32. 32. 1.3.1 Accessory Fruits The pineapple is a fruit native to the Asian tropics, with a delicate and fresh fragrance that's simply irresistible! The top of the fruit resembles a royal crown or as some would say the feathers of the mythical Phoenix bird and the flesh is golden like the skin of the Asian pear. In Taiwanese the pronunciation of the word pineapple sounds like a propitious meaning blessing of good fortune and future prosperity.
  33. 33. 1.3.1 Accessory Fruits A berry is a simple fruit with seeds and pulp formed from a single ovary. In non-technical usage, berry means any small fruit that can be eaten whole and lacks objectionable seeds. The bramble fruits, compound fruits of genus Rabus (blackberries) are some of the most popular pseudo-berries. There are different varieties of berries which are classified as true berries and false berries