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Psy 101 lec5


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  • 1. Introduction to Psychology PSY-101 By: Muhammad Bilal Younas 0323-6168636
  • 2. Scientific & non scientific approaches to knowledge Non Scientific Scientific General Approach Intuitive Empirical Attitude Uncritical, accepting Critical, Skeptical Observation Casual, uncontrolled Systematic, controlled Reporting Biased, Subjective Unbiased, Objective
  • 3. Scientific & non scientific approaches to knowledge Non Scientific Scientific concepts Ambiguous, with surplus meaning Clear definitions, operational specificity instruments Inaccurate, imprecise Accurate, precise measurements Not valid or reliable Valid and reliable hypotheses Un testable testable
  • 4. Methods of Psychology  To understand the influence of society on individual and individual’s influence on society, we have to understand the research methods  Research methods are important source to understand the nature of emotions, cognitions and human behavior by empirical evidences
  • 5. Methods of Psychology  e.g. causes of poverty, unemployment, how it effects the quality of people’s lives and how the individual behavior, emotions and feelings can be motivated to overcome the related problems
  • 6. Methods of Psychology  Understanding of research methods also help to avoid the some tempting logical traps e.g. lack of financial sources is the only cause of illiteracy in Pakistan
  • 7. Research Methods  Some Important Research Methods: 1. Observation 2. Experimental Method 3. Correlation Method 4.Survey Method 5. Case Study Method 6.Interview
  • 8. 1. Observation  One basic technique to study social behavior is systematic observation- Carefully observing behavior as it occurs  “A method of research in which behavior is systematically observed and recorded is called systematic observation”
  • 9. Cont.  Observation can be conducted in informal way but in social psychology systematic observation is widely used  e.g. in order to understand the causes of mass failure of students in universities, systematic observation of students can be conducted
  • 10. Naturalistic Observation:- Observing behavior in natural setting is called naturalistic observation e.g. observing students attitudes towards studies in the universities  Observation can be Direct( in which observer/researcher directly observer the phenomena or targeted behavior) or Indirect (in which information can be gathered by indirect resources e.g. by recording the behavior etc
  • 11.  Participant Observation:- A method of observation in which observer/researcher participate in the natural environment and observe the phenomena while living in the same natural environment-through this method researcher can control the effects of awareness to be observed  Non-Participant Observation:- In this method, researcher observe the phenomena as being an outsider of that natural environment
  • 12. Cont.  Merits:- i. Direct sources ii. Based on natural environment iii. Simple Method  Demerits:- i. Observer Effect ii. Observer Bias
  • 13. 2. Correlational Method  The term correlation refers to a tendency for one event to change as the other changes  A method of research in which a scientist systematically observes two or more variables to determine whether changes in one are accompanied by the changes in other.
  • 14. Cont.  e.g. Free education will increase the rate of illiteracy  Social psychologists refers to such changeable aspects of the natural world as variables because they can take different values
  • 15.  The existence of correlation is very useful from scientific point of view because when a correlation exist, it is possible to predict one variable from information about one or more other variables
  • 16. Cont.  The ability to make such prediction is one of the important goal of all branches of science  Such type of prediction are very supportive for social psychology as some of the future dangerous behaviors/attitudes which can be predicted by correlated variables will be controlled or managed before time.
  • 17. Cont.  The stronger the correlation between the variables in phenomena, the more accurate the prediction  Correlation can range from zero to -1 or + 1 , the greater the departure from zero, the stronger the correlation
  • 18. Types of Correlation  Positive Correlation:-The increase in one variable causes the increase in other variable called positive correlation Perfect Positive Correlation:- When the correlation falls at +1, it called perfect positive correlation  Negative Correlation:- The increase in one variable causes the decrease in other variable called negative correlation
  • 19. Cont. Perfect Negative Correlation:- When the correlation falls at -1, it called perfect negative correlation In this approach, social psychologists attempt to determine whether and to what extent different variables are related to each other This method involves making careful observations of each variable and then performing appropriate statistical tests to determine whether and to what degree the variables correlated
  • 20. Cont.  Merits:- i. Predict future behavior ii. Find the cause and effect relationship  Demerits:- i. Can misguide about the relationship between two variables ii. Excessive rely on predicted behavior
  • 21. 3. Experimental Method  Correlation method is very useful in making accurate prediction but it is less useful in attaining the goal of “why” question  The “why” question leads to the phenomena of explanation which is very necessary in the field of social psychology  To answer the why, social psychologists use another research method that is called Experimental Method
  • 22. Cont.  In a formal experiment , the relationship between two or more variables is investigated by deliberately producing a change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects of that change on other aspects of the situation.  “A method of research in which one or more factors are systematically changed to determine whether such variations affect one or more other factors”
  • 23. Cont.  It is a scientific attempt to see cause and effect relationship  Experimentations involves the following strategy: one variable is changed systematically, and the effects of this changed on one or more other variables are carefully measured
  • 24. Cont.  Experimental Manipulation: Experimental manipulation is the change that an experimenter deliberately produces in a situation.  The process begins with the development of one or more hypothesis to test.
  • 25. Cont.  Experimental research requires the responses of at least two groups be compared with each other.  Experimental Group A group receiving a treatment (the manipulation implemented by the experimenter) in an experiment.  Control Group A group that receives no treatment in an experiment.  The variable involved in a particular experiment may be classified as independent and dependent.
  • 26. Cont.  Variable: any thing which can changes its value called variable  Independent Variables: The variable that is manipulated by an experimenter which is often linked to causes.  Dependant Variables: The variable that is measured and is expected to change as a result of changes caused by the experimenter’s manipulation, which is often linked to effects.
  • 27. Cont. Control:  Another important characteristic of the experimenter method is control. it means that only independent variable be allowed to change. Factor other than I.V ,which might affect the dependent variable, must be held constant.  In an experiment we must control conditions , which would give misleading results.
  • 28. Cont. Random Assignment to condition:  To make the experiment a valid test of the hypothesis , the researcher need to add a final step to the design properly assigning participants to receive a particular treatment.  The solution is random assignment to conditions.  A procedure in which participants are assigned to different experimental groups or “ conditions” on the basis of chance and chance alone is called random assignment to condition.
  • 29. Cont.  Extraneous Variables: There are some variables which can also effect the results of the experiment but experimenter does not want them to effect the dependent variables e.g. in the above mentioned example lack of coeducation institution in some particular region can not create a change in the people attitude even after taking effects from media or due to lack of financial sources people can not go for studies in coeducation, these two factors can work as extraneous variables unless they are controlled by the experimenter in both groups
  • 30. Cont.  Merits:- The experimental method has the following advantages:  Very useful to infer the cause and effect relationship  With the help of this method psychologists gain better understanding of behavior by exerting control over stimuli.
  • 31. Cont.  Demerits:- i. Expensive Method ii. A serious limitation: we can not easily manipulate mobs or large groups of people that might lead to mental illness iii. Artificial Environment iv. Humans react differently when they know they are participating in an experiment
  • 32. Cont. iv. Need highly expert and skilled experimenter v. Experimenter Bias vi. May involve ethical concerns vii. Might not be able to apply to outside the laboratory settings.
  • 33. Survey Method  A method of research in which large numbers of persons answer questions about their attitudes or behavior  A method in which information are gathered from a large number of people either through written questionnaires or through interviews.  A sample of people chosen to represent some larger group of interest (population)
  • 34. Cont.  In survey Method information from people can be taken by following methods: Written questionnaire Recording Telephonic survey Face to Face/Direct Interview
  • 35. Cont.  Questionnaire: A list of statements either in form of question or simple statement which are the direct source of taking information about some particular phenomena  Types of Questionnaire: i. Open-Ended Questionnaire ii. Fixed-Ended Questionnaire
  • 36. Cont.  Merits: i. Information from a large group of people in short period ii. Can be less expensive in some cases  Demerits: i. Non-serious attitudes of people ii. Can be expensive in some cases
  • 37. The Case Study Method  An in-depth study of an individual in order to understand that individual better and to make inferences about people in general.  Every human being is unique; each of us possess a distinctive combination of traits, abilities; and characteristics.
  • 38. The Case Study method  Among the oldest research methods.  A Research method that focuses on the life history, attitudes, behavior, and emotions of a single individual or organizations, or group of people.  It is possible to learn anything about human behavior from detailed study of one individual or perhaps a few person.  Information taken from a case study is then used by the researchers to formulate principles, or to reach at conclusions that may be applied to large number.
  • 39. Cont.  When the behavior involved is very unusual, the case study method can be quite revealing.  Researcher asks people what they have done in past ,rather than observing the behaviors of interest.
  • 40. Cont. Advantages:  In depth, detailed knowledge  Individuals can give such fruitful knowledge, which leads to general truths. Disadvantages:  Unrepresentative information, common source of mistaken judgment.  If persons are unique, we cant generalize the results.  There is repeated contact with the individual, being studied, so researcher's bias may be there( lose scientific objectivity)
  • 41. Interview Method  An interview is a conservation between twi or more people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee.  Types of Interview i. Structured ii. Unstructured iii. Semi structured
  • 42. Interviews  Structured Interview Has a formalized , limited set of questions which are asked during interview.  Semi Structured Interview Flexible ,allowing new questions to be brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee says.  Unstructured Interview Questions can be changed or adapted to meet the respondents intelligence , understanding or beliefs.
  • 43. Questions  Open ended Questions is designed to encourage a full, meaningful answer using the subjects own knowledge and feelings. e.g Tell me about your self?  Close ended Questions Encourages a short or single word answer. e.g Do you get on well with your teacher? Yes No
  • 44. Cont. Advantages:  A great deal of information can be obtained in a relatively short period of time. Disadvantages:  Subjects are sometimes not willing to express themselves. they may be suspicious or uncooperative.  Interpretations could not be reliable when there is a factor of subjectivity and personal liking,disliking.