Intro. to Psychology
PSY-101
By:
Muhammad Bilal Younas
0323-6168636
Research
“Systematic investigation
to establish facts”
Information gathering
Cont.
Variety of techniques are
applied to “get into the
minds of the people”
What Research is?
Attempt to achieve systematically and with the
support of data the answer to a question, the
resolution...
Scientific Research
Characteristics of scientific findings are:
Empirical
Systematic
Precise
Verifiable
Public
Ethic...
Goals of Scientific Research
Description
Explanation
Prediction
control
Goals Questions asked to
reach the goal
Description What happens?
When and where does it
happen?
How does it happen?
Expla...
Goals of Psychological Research
Description of social behavior
Are people who grow up in warm climates different from th...
Purposes of Research
 A research can be undertaken for two different
purposes:
 To solve a currently existing problem (a...
The Scientific Research Process
Identifying the
problem
Defining the
problem
Formulating
Hypothesis
Data collection
A...
The Process of Doing Research
First, select a topic
Good theory:
 Has predictive power
 Is simple & straightforward
T...
The Process of Doing Research
Next, formulate hypotheses
Hypothesis: specific statement of
expectation derived from theo...
Let’s take a closer look . . .at variables
Dependent variable (outcome variable)
Dependent on the influence of other fac...
The Process of Doing Research
Then pick your research method
Experimental vs. co relational (DesignDesign)
Field vs. la...
Correlational research
The purpose of correlational research is to discover
relationships between two or more variables.
...
Cont.
Helps us understand related events, conditions, and
behaviors.
Is there a relationship between educational levels ...
Correlational researchAdvantages
Sometimes manipulation of variables is impossible
or unethical
Efficient – look at lot...
Experimental ResearchResearcher manipulates one variable (IV) to see effect
on other variable (DV)
Try to hold everythin...
Let’s take a closer look . . . at research
methods
Research methods used in psychology:
Observation
Case Study
Tests, Q...
Imp. Concepts in Research
Population: any set of individuals (or objects) having some common
observable characteristics.
...
Triangulation
Triangulation is an approach to data analysis that
synthesizes data from multiple sources.
a combination of...
Major Limitations in
Conducting a Research
Time
Costs
Access to resources
Approval by authorities
Ethical concerns
E...
Ethics in ResearchShould the study be done?
Value vs. potential cost
APA guidelines
How do we protect Ps?
Informed co...
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Psy 101 lec4

  1. 1. Intro. to Psychology PSY-101 By: Muhammad Bilal Younas 0323-6168636
  2. 2. Research “Systematic investigation to establish facts” Information gathering
  3. 3. Cont. Variety of techniques are applied to “get into the minds of the people”
  4. 4. What Research is? Attempt to achieve systematically and with the support of data the answer to a question, the resolution to a problem, or the greater understanding of a phenomenon Generation of new information and testing of ideas
  5. 5. Scientific Research Characteristics of scientific findings are: Empirical Systematic Precise Verifiable Public Ethical & Ideological neutrality Objective
  6. 6. Goals of Scientific Research Description Explanation Prediction control
  7. 7. Goals Questions asked to reach the goal Description What happens? When and where does it happen? How does it happen? Explanation Why does it happen? Prediction What will happen next? Control How can we influence this behavior or intervene in this situation?
  8. 8. Goals of Psychological Research Description of social behavior Are people who grow up in warm climates different from those in cold climates? Establish a relationship between cause & effect Does heat cause higher amounts of aggression? Develop theories about why people behave the way that they do We dislike Duke students to feel better about ourselves Application Creating effective therapeutic treatments, more successful negotiation tactics, and greater understanding amongst groups of people
  9. 9. Purposes of Research  A research can be undertaken for two different purposes:  To solve a currently existing problem (applied research)  To contribute to the general body of knowledge in a particular area of interest (basic/fundamental research)
  10. 10. The Scientific Research Process Identifying the problem Defining the problem Formulating Hypothesis Data collection Analyzing the data Preparing a report
  11. 11. The Process of Doing Research First, select a topic Good theory:  Has predictive power  Is simple & straightforward Then, search the literature Find out what others have done that may be applicable to your area of interest
  12. 12. The Process of Doing Research Next, formulate hypotheses Hypothesis: specific statement of expectation derived from theory  State the relationship between two variables Variable: can be any event, characteristic, condition, or behavior
  13. 13. Let’s take a closer look . . .at variables Dependent variable (outcome variable) Dependent on the influence of other factor(s) How do we operationally define? Independent variable (predictor variable) Factor(s) that change the outcome variable How do we operationally define & manipulate? Control group
  14. 14. The Process of Doing Research Then pick your research method Experimental vs. co relational (DesignDesign) Field vs. laboratory (SettingSetting) Finally, collect & analyze your data
  15. 15. Correlational research The purpose of correlational research is to discover relationships between two or more variables. Relationship means that an individuals status on one variable tends to reflect his or her status on the other.
  16. 16. Cont. Helps us understand related events, conditions, and behaviors. Is there a relationship between educational levels of farmers and crop yields? To make predictions of how one variable might predict another Can high school grades be used to predict college grades?
  17. 17. Correlational researchAdvantages Sometimes manipulation of variables is impossible or unethical Efficient – look at lots of data Disadvantages CANNOT DETERMINE CAUSATION Could be a lurking variable
  18. 18. Experimental ResearchResearcher manipulates one variable (IV) to see effect on other variable (DV) Try to hold everything else constant True experiments have Random sampling: selecting Ps randomly from population Random assignment: chance assignment to condition
  19. 19. Let’s take a closer look . . . at research methods Research methods used in psychology: Observation Case Study Tests, Questionnaire, Survey Experiment
  20. 20. Imp. Concepts in Research Population: any set of individuals (or objects) having some common observable characteristics. Sample: the subset of a population which represents the characteristics of the population. A sample consists of respondents or subjects An informant: a person from whom a linguist obtains information about language, dialect, or culture. A corpus is a collection of written or spoken material. A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event
  21. 21. Triangulation Triangulation is an approach to data analysis that synthesizes data from multiple sources. a combination of Quantitative & Qualitative techniques are implied Ideas stemming from Qualitative research are tested empirically through Quantitative studies. Combined findings enable psychologists to design more meaningful and effective strategies.
  22. 22. Major Limitations in Conducting a Research Time Costs Access to resources Approval by authorities Ethical concerns Expertise
  23. 23. Ethics in ResearchShould the study be done? Value vs. potential cost APA guidelines How do we protect Ps? Informed consent Confidentiality & anonymity Debriefing

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