PARTS OF SPEECH ENG 101 M.BILAL YOUNAS Mass Communication & Media Bs. 3 rd . semester 03236168636 [email_address]
Eight Parts of Speech Nouns Adjectives Adverbs Conjunctions Interjections Pronouns Prepositions Verbs
Major Word Classes :
Minor Word Classes :
Word that names
A noun is often defined as a word which names a person, place,thing or idea . Here are some examples of nouns : boy, river, friend, Mexico, triangle, day, school, truth, university, idea, John F. Kennedy, movie, aunt, vacation, eye, dream, flag, teacher, class, grammar. John F. Kennedy is a noun because it is the name of a person; Mexico is a noun because it is the name of a place; and boy is a noun because it is the name of a thing.
Some grammar books divide nouns into 2 groups - proper nouns and common nouns . Proper nouns are nouns which begin with a capital letter because it is the name of a specific or particular person place or thing. Some examples of proper nouns are: Mexico, John F. Kennedy, Atlantic Ocean, February, Monday, New York City, Susan, Maple Street, Burger King. If you see a word beginning with a capital letter in in the middle of a sentence, it is probably a proper noun . Most nouns are common nouns and do not begin with a capital letter.
Kinds of Nouns
They are words that refer to groups of people, animals, or things each regarded as one whole.
Team, crowd, class, flock, army, family, etc
These are not concrete nouns like other categories. They refer to things, ideas that have no physical existance ie they cannot be touched.
Beauty, truth, health, happiness etc
Countable nouns are the names of objects, people, etc. that we can count
Book, pen, apple, boy, sister etc
These are the names of the things which we cannot count.
Milk, oil, sugar, gold, honesty
A verb is often defined as a word which shows action or state of being .
He rode the horse to victory.
He has been sick
Every sentence must have a VERB
Recognizing the verb is often the most important step in understanding the meaning of a sentence. In the sentence The dog bit the man, bit is the verb and the word which shows the action of the sentence. In the sentence The man is sitting on a chair, even though the action doesn't show much activity, sitting is the verb of the sentence. In the sentence She is a smart girl, there is no action but a state of being expressed by the verb is. The word be is different from other verbs in many ways but can still be thought of as a verb .
Types of verbs
Verbs can be classified, according to their function, into ordinary and auxiliary verbs.
Ordinary verbs: they are the verbs that can be conjugated and have different forms
Play, eat, read, clean etc
Some have three forms: cut cuts cutting
Some have four forms: help, helps,helping,helped
Some have five forms
write, writes, wrote, written,writing
And only one verb be has eight forms
Be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being
They are the verbs that help ordinary verbs. They are of two types
1. Primary Aux .
The primary aux. can be used as an ordinary verb( as the only verb in a sentence), and can be used as a helping verb ( with an ordinary verb).
I am here.
I am studying.
Be, is, am, are, was, were, being, have, has, had, do, does, did
The modal aux. are: can, shall, will, may, might, must, need, dare, used to, ought to
Relationship between time and verbs
One of the most important things about verbs is their relationship to time. Verbs tell if something has already happened, if it will happen later, or if it is happening now. For things happening now, we use the present tense of a verb; for something that has already happened, we use the past tense ; and for something that will happen later, we use the future tense
present Past future Look Looked Will look Move Moved Will move talk talked Will talk
Regular Verbs :
The great majority of English verbs are regular; that is, they have four forms:
The base (the uninflected or unchanged form) play
The—ing form playing
The—ed form played
Irregular Verbs :
Verbs in which all three parts (the base, the past, the past participle) are identical: let—let—let.
Verbs in which two of the three parts are identical: build—built—built.
Verbs in which all three parts are different: speak—spoke—spoken.
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs:
A verb that requires an object for meaning is called a transitive verb because the action transfers to the object.
A verb that does not require an object for meaning is called an intransitive verb because the action is complete in itself.
For example: (TV)
He poisoned the cat.
Everybody sang the national anthem.
She cleaned her house.
For example: ( ITV)
I sleep late at night.
Such verbs as give, ask, offer, promise, tell etc take two objects i.e. direct object and indirect object.
A verb can be used transitively or intransitively e.g.