PARTS OF SPEECHPARTS OF SPEECH
ENG 101ENG 101
M.BILAL YOUNASM.BILAL YOUNAS
Mass Communication & Media
Bs. 1st. semester
Eight Parts of Speech
Conj unct ionsConj unct ions
Major Word Classes:
• Main Verbs,
• and Adverbs
Minor Word Classes:
• Auxiliary Verbs,
• and Interjections
Word that names
• An Idea
• A Thing
• A Place
• A noun is often defined as a word which names a
person, place,thing or idea. Here are some examples
of nouns: boy, river, friend, Mexico, triangle, day,
school, truth, university, idea, John F. Kennedy,
movie, aunt, vacation, eye, dream, flag, teacher,
class, grammar. John F. Kennedy is a noun because
it is the name of a person; Mexico is a noun
because it is the name of a place; and boy is a noun
because it is the name of a thing.
• Some grammar books divide nouns into 2
groups - proper nouns and common nouns.
Proper nouns are nouns which begin with a
capital letter because it is the name of a
specific or particular person place or thing.
Some examples of proper nouns are: Mexico,
John F. Kennedy, Atlantic Ocean, February,
Monday, New York City, Susan, Maple
Street, Burger King. If you see a word
beginning with a capital letter in in the
middle of a sentence, it is probably a proper
noun. Most nouns are common nouns and
do not begin with a capital letter.
Kinds of NounsKinds of Nouns
• They are words that refer to groups of
people, animals, or things each
regarded as one whole.
• Team, crowd, class, flock, army, family,
• These are not concrete nouns like other
categories. They refer to things, ideas
that have no physical existance ie they
cannot be touched.
• Beauty, truth, health, happiness etc
Countable nouns are the names of
objects, people, etc. that we can count
Book, pen, apple, boy, sister etc
• These are the names of the things
which we cannot count.
• Milk, oil, sugar, gold, honesty
A verb is often defined as a word which shows
action or state of being.
He rode the horse to victory.
He has been sick
Every sentenceEvery sentence mustmust
• Recognizing the verb is often the most
important step in understanding the
meaning of a sentence. In the sentence The
dog bit the man, bit is the verb and the word
which shows the action of the sentence. In
the sentence The man is sitting on a chair,
even though the action doesn't show much
activity, sitting is the verb of the sentence.
In the sentence She is a smart girl, there is
no action but a state of being expressed by
the verb is. The word be is different from
other verbs in many ways but can still be
thought of as a verb.
Types of verbs
• Verbs can be classified, according to their function,
into ordinary and auxiliary verbs.
• Ordinary verbs: they are the verbs that can be
conjugated and have different forms
• Play, eat, read, clean etc
• Some have three forms: cut cuts cutting
• Some have four forms: help, helps,helping,helped
• Some have five forms
write, writes, wrote, written,writing
• And only one verb be has eight forms
• Be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being
• They are the verbs that help ordinary verbs.
They are of two types
1. Primary Aux.
• The primary aux. can be used as an ordinary
verb( as the only verb in a sentence), and can
be used as a helping verb ( with an ordinary
• I am here.
• I am studying.
• Be, is, am, are, was, were, being, have, has,
had, do, does, did
The modal aux. are: can, shall, will, may,
might, must, need, dare, used to, ought
time and verbs
• One of the most important things about
verbs is their relationship to time. Verbs tell
if something has already happened, if it
will happen later, or if it is happening now.
For things happening now, we use the
present tense of a verb; for something that
has already happened, we use the past
tense; and for something that will happen
later, we use the future tense
present Past future
Look Looked Will look
Move Moved Will move
talk talked Will talk
• The great majority of English verbs are
regular; that is, they have four forms:
• The base (the uninflected or unchanged
• The—s form
• The—ing form
• The—ed form
• Verbs in which all three parts (the base,
the past, the past participle) are
• Verbs in which two of the three parts
are identical: build—built—built.
• Verbs in which all three parts are
• A verb that requires an object for
meaning is called a transitive verb
because the action transfers to the
• A verb that does not require an object
for meaning is called an intransitive
verb because the action is complete in
For example: (TV)
• He poisoned the cat.
• Everybody sang the national anthem.
• She cleaned her house.
For example: ( ITV)
• John wept.
• Zubair smokes.
• I sleep late at night.
• Such verbs as give, ask, offer, promise,
tell etc take two objects i.e. direct object
and indirect object.
• A verb can be used transitively or
• He spoke the truth. He spoke