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  1. 1. Communication Communication: Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules. Types of Communication Non verbal communication Verbal communication Visual communication Written communication Intrapersonal communication Interpersonal communication Group communication Mass communication Intercultural communication Organizational communication Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication is the process of communicating through sending and receiving wordless message. Such messages can be communicated through gesture, body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture, or symbols and infographics, as well as through an aggregate of the above, such as behavioral communication
  2. 2. Visual communication Visual communication as the name suggests is communication through visual aid. It is the conveyance of ideas and information in forms that can be read or looked upon. Primarily associated with two dimensional images, it includes: signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, colour and electronic Verbal Communication Verbal communication includes sounds, words, language and speaking. Language is said to have originated from sounds and gestures. There are many languages spoken in the world. The bases of language formation are: gender, class, profession, geographical area, age group and other social elements. Speaking is an effective way of communicating and is again classified into two types interpersonal communication and public speaking. Written Communication Written communication is writing the words which you want to communicate. Good written communication is essential for business purposes. Written communication is practiced in many different languages. E-mails, reports, articles and memos are some of the ways of using written communication in business. Intrapersonal Communication Intrapersonal communication is language use or thought internal to the communicator. Intrapersonal communication is the active internal involvement of the individual in symbolic processing of messages. Intrapersonal communication is the thought process or communication with one person or one's self. The individual becomes his or her own sender and receiver, providing feedback to him or herself in an ongoing internal process. It can be useful to envision intrapersonal communication occurring in the mind of the individual in a model which contains a sender, receiver, and feedback loop. Interpersonal communication Interpersonal communication is defined by communication scholars in numerous ways, usually describing participants who are dependent upon one another and have a shared history. Communication channels, the conceptualization of mediums that carry messages from sender to receiver, take two distinct forms: direct and indirect. Direct channels are obvious and easily recognized by the receiver. Both verbal and non- verbal information is completely controlled by the sender. Verbal channels rely on words, as in written or spoken communication. Non-verbalchannels encompass facial
  3. 3. expressions, controlled body movements (police present hand gestures to control traffic), color (red signals 'stop', green signals 'go'), and sound (warning sirens). Indirect channels are usually recognized subconsciously by the receiver, and are not always under direct control of the sender. Body language, comprising most of the indirect channel, may inadvertently reveal one's true emotions, and thereby either unintentionally taint or bolster the believability of any intended verbal message. Subconscious reception and interpretation of these signals is often described with arbitrary terms like gut-feeling, hunch, or premonition. Group Communication The term group communication refers to a programming paradigm used in the context of data or service replication. Processes form groups based on the similarity of interest. Individual groups may correspond to the particular services, or to particular data objects. Example of this include a group of processes that can view or edit a document, a group of processes that maintain replicas of a database, a group of processes that represent players in a massive multiplayer game that reside in the particular room in a castle, or a group of nodes in a trading system that process events related to the given stock. Small Group communication Small-group Communication refers to the nature of communication that occurs in groups that are between 3 and 12 to 20 individuals. Small group communication generally takes place in a context that mixes interpersonal communication interactions with social clustering. Large Group communication It involes communication anywhere from a dozen to several hundred participents. This message is usually highly structured by the speaker. This communication situation restricts active involvement to only a few parties. Telephonic Communication The telephone is a telecommunications device that transmits and receives sound, most commonly the human voice. It is one of the most common household appliances in the developed world, and has long been considered indispensable to business, industry and government. The word "telephone" has been adapted to many languages and is widely recognized around the world. The device operates principally by converting sound waves into electrical signals, and electrical signals into sound waves. Such signals when conveyed through telephone
  4. 4. networks — and often converted to electronic and/or optical signals — enable nearly every telephone user to communicate with nearly every other worldwide. Mass Communication Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of the various means by which individuals and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time. It is usually understood to relate to newspaper and magazine publishing, radio, television and film, as these are used both for disseminating news and for advertising. Mass communication is a message created by a person or a group of person or a group of people sent through a transmitting device or medium to a large audience or market. Intercultural Communication Intercultural communication in its most basic form refers to an academic field of study and research. Its seeks to understand how people from different countries and cultures behave, communicate and perceive the world around them. The findings of such academic research are then applied to 'real life' situations such as how to create cultural synergy between people from different cultures within a business or how psychologists understand their patients. The definition of intercultural communication must also include strands of the field that contribute to it such as anthropology, cultural studies, psychology and communication. Organizational Communication Organizational communication is a subfield of the larger discipline of communication studies. Organizational communication, as a field, is the consideration, analysis, and criticism of the role of communication in organizational contexts. Informal and Formal Communication are used in an organization. Informal ommunication: Informal communication, generally associated with interpersonal, horizontal communication, was primarily seen as a potential hindrance to effective organizational performance. This is no longer the case. Informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work in modern organizations.