Invent a Species
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A lyger? An elephish? A duck-billed cat? Apply knowledge of life and scientific reasoning to invent a species!

A lyger? An elephish? A duck-billed cat? Apply knowledge of life and scientific reasoning to invent a species!

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Invent a Species Invent a Species Document Transcript

  • PROJECT BASED LEARNING Invent a species GROUP DIRECTIONS 2 KICKOFF 6 PROJECT CHECKLIST 9 INFORMATIONAL WRITING RUBRIC 10 PRESENTATION RUBRIC 11 COLLABORATION RUBRIC 12 FEEDBACK TABLE 13 BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) 1
  • PBL: INVENT A SPECIES Group directions Group Name Group Members Project Prompt Invent a species. Task As a group you have the opportunity to invent a new species. Where did your species come from and how did it evolve? What skills and abilities does it have? What are the connections between the trends that led to its survival, its current ecosystem, and its characteristics and adaptations? What is its familial structure and location in the food web? How would your species impact other things, both biologically and socially? The development of your species must be grounded in scientific thought and reason. Evidence gathered from multiple sources must support the key features and descriptions of your species. Final deliverables are due on: Deliverables A. A built model of your new species (physical or digital) B. A Wikipedia entry about your new species C. A presentation about your new species A. Model  This is a built model of your species. Be creative. Make sure your model demonstrates at least six key features of your species. The model can be physical or digital. Physical models must be built from scratch (for example, you cannot alter a doll that you bought) and durable enough to withstand presentations and transportation. B. Wikipedia Entry  This is a written document that describes your species. Design it similar to a Wikipedia page. Your information must contain supporting evidence that clearly, concisely, and logically follows a line of reasoning. Your Wikipedia page will include: BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) 2
  • 1.  n image or photo A 2. An introductory description  3.  etails about the categories below. You must include all five categories as well as a D cohesive summary that clarifies the relationships among the categories. a. Etymology (origin) and Definition b. History and Evolution •  ould include but is not limited to the following topics: C i. Environmental trends that lead to survival ii. Current ecosystem iii. Characteristics, attributes, and adaptations c. Habitat and Population •  ould include but is not limited to the following topics: C i. Familial structure ii. Location in the food web d. Biology •  ould include but is not limited to the following topics: C i. Anatomy and physiology ii. Life cycle iii. Diet e. Impact on the Earth 4. Sources (properly cited) •  ake sure you use claim testers (logic, evidence, authority, intuition) to validate M each source. C. Presentation  a group, you will give an eight-minute presentation to the class about your species. The As presentation will be directly followed by a four-minute question-and-answer (Q&A) session. Every group member must speak in the presentation. Prepare visuals aids as needed. Consult the Presentation Rubric as you prepare. Timeline and Checkpoints As a group, use the template below to plan how you will complete all the deliverables by the due dates. Your teacher will sign off on each checkpoint. You must complete each checkpoint — it will be factored into your final grade. Everyone in your group will receive the same grade for the overall project; each individual will also receive points for collaboration. A. Group decision about the species and its key features B. Draft model plan C. Draft of Wikipedia page BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) Date due: Date due: Date due: 3
  • Resources2 Remember to use claim testers (logic, evidence, authority, intuition) to validate each source. Books 1. Last Ape Standing, by Chip Walter 2. A Brief History of Time, by Stephen Hawking 3. The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution,  by Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending 4. Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley 5. Nineteen Eighty-Four, by George Orwell Articles 1.  aily Galaxy, “Are We Close to Creating Super Humans? –A Galaxy Insight” D http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2009/01/are-we-close-to.html 2. Wikipedia page on humans  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human 3. The Wall Street Journal, “Humans: Why They Triumphed”  http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703691804575254533386933138.html 4.  An Overdue Family Reunion,” by Stephanie Guzik “ http://vertebrates.si.edu/fishes/whalefish/index.html 5. National Geographic, “Species Hunt”  http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/04/125-explore/seeking-new-species Websites 1. Humanity+ is an international nonprofit membership organization that advocates the  ethical use of technology to expand human capacities http://humanityplus.org/ 2. “All About the Human Genome Project (HGP),” the National Human Genome  Research Institute http://www.genome.gov/10001772 3.  he Top 10 New Species — 2012 T http://species.asu.edu/Top10 4.  ncyclopedia of Life E http://eol.org/ 5. Science Daily New Species News  http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/plants_animals/new_species/ 6. The Telegraph Earth Picture Galleries — “New Species Found: Walking Catfish,  Beelzebub Bat and Two-legged Lizard” http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthpicturegalleries/9753208/New-species-foundwalking-catfish-Beelzebub-bat-and-two-legged-lizard.html?frame=2431153 2 Y  ou may draw from any Big History Project resources, the resources provided here, or any resources that you find in your own research. BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) 4
  • Videos 1.  Juan Enriquez: Will Our Kids Be a Different Species?” “ http://www.ted.com/talks/juan_enriquez_will_our_kids_be_a_different_species.html 2. “Spencer Wells Builds a Family Tree for Humanity”  http://www.ted.com/talks/spencer_wells_is_building_a_family_tree_for_all_humanity. html Scientific Journal Articles 1.  Adaptive Evolution of a Key Phytoplankton Species to Ocean Acidification” “ http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v5/n5/abs/ngeo1441.html 2. “Impacts of Climate Change on the Future of Biodiversity”  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01736.x/full 3.  Human Enhancement, Evolution and Lifespan: Evolving Towards Immortality?” “ http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-35096-2_8 4.  The Genomic Impact of 100 Million Years of Social Evolution in Seven Ant Species” “ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168952511001387 BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) 5
  • PBL: INVENT A SPECIES Kickoff Directions Read these short articles and then brainstorm your initial ideas about what species you’ll invent. Mysterious Extinction From: http://www.livescience.com/23711-history-mysterious-extinctions.html Holding a shark jaw inside a model of a megalodon jaw Megalodon Between 28 million and 1.5 million years ago, megalodon ruled Earth’s oceans. This terrifyingly large shark, which dined on giant whales with its seven-inch (18-cm)-long teeth, reached a maximum length of over 60 feet and weighed as much as 100 tons. For comparison, great white sharks — megalodon’s closest living relative — rarely reach the 20-foot (6-m) mark. So what could cause a monster at the top of the food chain to sputter out of existence? Theories abound. One idea posits that megalodon couldn’t handle the oceanic cooling and sea-level drops that came with the ice ages of the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene epochs. Another explanation ties the shark’s demise to the disappearance of the giant whales it fed on. BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) 6
  • Lifesaving Adaptations From: http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/adaptation/?ar_a=1 Koala mother with young Koala Koalas have adapted to eat only the leaves of eucalyptus trees. Eucalyptus trees are very low in protein and are toxic to many animal species. Being able to digest eucalyptus leaves is an adaptation that benefits the koala by providing it a food source for which there is little competition. What’s Next for Humans? From: http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2013-01/the-human-race-will-come-to-an-end An illustration of human evolution Can humans survive themselves? What does the future have in store for the human race? Evolution, as the past 4 billion years has repeatedly illustrated, holds an endless supply of tricks up its long and ancient sleeve. Anything is possible, given enough millennia. Inevitably the forces of natural selection will require us to branch out into differentiated versions of our current selves, like so many Galápagos finches — assuming, that is, that we have enough time to leave our evolution to our genes. BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) 7
  • Fibrobacter succinogenes LUCA Chlorobium tepidum Porphyromonas LAST UNIVERSAL COMMON ANCESTOR Bacteroides A single-celled organism living more than 3.5 BYA. gingivalis thetaiotaomic ron Chlamydi a muridaru m Chlamyd ia trachom atis Chlam ydophi la caviae Chlam ydophi Chlam THE TREE OF LIFE ae TW eumo ydop hila niae pneu 183 J138 monia m es r jejuni succinogen Campylobacte Wolinella Desulfovibrio vulgaris Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Geobacter sulfurreducens J99 ter hepaticus zekii Wolba Helicob ngen Can s dida tus Phy topl Myc asm opla a as sm teri am s ycoi des opla sm am obile My co pla sm ap ulm Ure on ap is las ma pa My rvu co m pla sm ap My en co etr pla an sm s ag My all co iss pla ep sm tic My ap um co ne pla um sm on Sta iae ag ph en ylo ita liu co Sta m cc ph us ylo ep co id er cc m us id is au re us M W 2 ium perf ri trid Clos tridi um Clos Clos trid ium teta ni acet obut ylicu m s sapien Ther tengcmoanae onge robacte nsis r Homo Pan tro glody tes s egicus Rattus norv Mus mu sculus Takifugu rubripes Myc ium is gen ital der mid 2 epi MW eus loc occ us aur loc occ us phy Sta loti tum C58 efac Cer iens eon m meli nicu ium stris obiu japo cter ii palu entus Rhiz um zobi onas conor r cresc yrhi ttsia udom prowa bacte Brad opse Ricke ttsia Caulo Rhod Ricke tum ium cter oba Agr oba Agr um Danio rerio aste ris s myc oide sma mob ile pulm onis m opla sma par vum Myc opla sma sma pen etra ns ept icu Myc liss apla Ure opla sma a gal pne ma las Myc My cop lasm cop ma My cop las My Sta phy cens Geobacter sulfurredu Bdellovibrio bacter s sui loti ium Rhi zob efac Wasiens hU All life on Earth shares one common ancestor, and is thought to include between 10 million and 30 million different species. 1707 - 1778 BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION Swedish botanist Carl Scientists refer to a specific life form using its Genus and species classifications. This naming technique is called binomial nomenclature. Linnaeus publishes The ASIAN ELEPHANT Eukaryota Animalia Chordata Mammalia Proboscidea Elephas maximus nomenclature to classify us himuri Gallus gallu ns cum s opla sma s Phyt Cand sapie butyli aceto Mus musculus tetan i Homo idium Pan troglod ytes m perfr ingen Therm tengco oanae ngens robact er is Clostr ridiu Clost ridium Clost Anopheles gambiae Drosophila melanogaster Takifugu rubripes Danio rerio Gallus gallus Rattus norvegicus iovorus jejuni succinog enes acter hep aticus Campyloba cter Wolinella B idis git A nin idis me a git eri nin eum iss me lac Helicobac lla m Bru ce Bru ce lla os cte ri Ag rob ac Ne a ea vio eri m opa 26695 is eli on om su teri iss riu om me ona lite cte s eur nsi nes noge pylori ea pa as ten eu sis ro m riu cte Nit r Rh iz um oba s s osi rae cul lep ber m m atu icu par tam um m glu eri icu m act tam riu cob glu cte ns m My eba riu This phylogenetic tree of life uses genome sequencing data to map the relationships between 191 different species in the three domains of life: Eukaryota, Bacteria, and Archaea. itima s ethe Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species icie ryn eff Co coide um mar nomenclature to classify us as Homo sapiens. ria a cu no in te Lis GENUS SPECIES as Homo sapiens. cy mo ASIAN ELEPHANT e s ih is lu cil ba no ea ns ye L Oc -e GD sE ne e tog no ia r iste 65 23 sF ne ge to cy no mo ria te s leat ga placed humans among the primates and used binomial p Sta Lis losi icus nuc becoming the father of modern taxonomy. Linnaeus 0 u5 M us re co lo hy ist is rcu moto aeol Linnaeus publishes The System of Nature in 1735, species in 698 genera. size, habitat, and methods of reproduction. 15 au s u cc Sta This deadly bacteria infected hundreds of thousands of people and animals every year until a vaccine was developed by Louis Pasteur in 1881. N3 us re au us cc ylo ph s ulos ium tube Ther ifex Pitton de Tournefort classifies about 9,000 of then-known life forms in the 1550s. Aristotle launches the western tradition of species by name. Anthrax Bacillus anthracis itili ae erc cter ium von Gesner publishes a five-volume compendium taxonomy by classifying plants and animals by their and preserved scrolls classify different plant value. http://itol.embl.de/ Tw rm lor eri m cte eba 32 130 Ne s ave hth tub Aqu oba in the 1550s. Nung tests hundreds of herbs for medicinal All life on Earth shares one common ancestor, and is thought to include between 10 million and 30 million different species. 27 2000 Class modern taxonomy. Linnaeus Order Elephantidae Elephas Family placed humans among the Maximus Genus primates and used binomial Species BACTERIA These single-celled prokaryotic organisms were among the first life forms to appear on Earth. Often spherical, rod-like, or spiral in shape, these microorganisms function without a membrane-enclosed cell nucleus. 08/ 3 1707 - 1778 Swedish botanist Carl 7 TW dip riu la lon gum lei tus 1656 - 1708 French botanist Joseph /2 lico m cte ryn Co CC AT rom idum la m m 08 ipp lei yce riu eba la eri pall tico eriu a wh ipp coe cte ryn Ch 01 den act rym a wh yce 566 is ium Fus bov cter 1 cter oba Myc Rv H37 rium 712 s eus us elonga duran us violac ophil hococc s radio bacter therm coccu Synec 1516 - 1565 Swiss scholar Conrad Anopheles gambiae 695 lori 26 pylori J99 bacter Helico Helicob m eu Helic obac ter py Desulfovibrio vulgaris ema dob phe rym om 0 ns TW Great Apes L1−13 inter dorf um la co Scientists refer to a specific life form using its HOMINIDS Genus and species classifications. This naming technique is called binomial nomenclature. a ns burg pon ema Bifi Tro Co cte oba Myc 155 CDC oba ros 2 baltic roga Tre eriu cel J138 CWL0 AR39 bus roga relia act cel niae TW183 oniae oniae lon BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION caviae pneumo pneum uriglo llula phe Myc Nit muridarum ra inter Bor cob Bru gingivalis thetaiotaomicron trachomat oniae obsc lid co This phylogenetic tree of life uses genome sequencing data to map the relationships between 191 different species in the three domains of life: Eukaryota, Bacteria, and Archaea. pyogenes is ept Phylum becoming the father of species in 698 genera. 384 - 322 BCE Greek philosopher Drosophila melanogaster id en in m se ria m Ne is ia is se r Ne ob a Ag rob a um oni ae Chlamydia Str My Bru s ob ium loti um tum efa c Wa iens sh tum U C5 efaci 8 C en Rhi ere s zobi on um Bra mel dyrh iloti izob ium japo Rho nicu dops m eudo mon as palu stri Caul s obac ter cres cent us Rick etts ia co norii Rick ettsi a pr owaz ekii Wolba chia sp. wM el s laceu occu r vio s cerevisiae s ra occu oc Dein Saccharomyce c sp. pii ium gossy ngatus elo choc acte Syne be yces pom 712 accharom PCC ob Gloe Eremothec Bacteroides pal nti Our species, primates in the Animalia kingdom of the Eukaryota, is thought to have first evolved in Africa about 200,000 years ago. Genetically, our closest living relative is the chimpanzee. Fibrobacter succinogenes ospi System of Nature in 1735, Kingdom r e Streptococcus pyogenes SSI−1 Chlamydia −130 1 lo ia Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS315 Lept Domain 2000 1500 BCE on ia pes Gloeo system used today. Egyptian wall paintings Salm Yersin mus of then-known life forms of reproduction. ella enterica ella typ Deino as separate domain of life, introducing the three-domain classifies about1800 1900 9,000 1600 1700 1500 1000 3000 BCE ell lococ 2000 Chinese Emperor Shen lmon Ther 3000 a typ hi size, habitat, and methods Deha BCE plants and animals by their Sa s ran lus cil Ba u lod ha Eukaryota Animalia Chordata Mammalia Proboscidea Elephantidae Elephas Maximus s tili ub ss illu c Ba is rac nth sa cillu Ba Bac 79 145 CC AT us cere s illu 7 1098 CC AT reus ce illus Bac i soni illus john obac Lact is ecal us fa cc roco Ente tis s lac cu ococ Lact GENUS Stre R6 e monia pneu ccus ptoco Elephas maximus s s mutan ococcu Strept SPECIES iae II s agalact ococcu Strept KIM actiae occus agal Streptoc pestis Med ievalis Photorhabd cus pyogenes BHP Unit 5, The Tree of Life infographic us luminescen s Streptococ Buchnera aphidico la Sg Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS315 Streptococcus pyogenes SSI−1 Next, write five statements about this new species. You could include your thoughts about LUCA origin, evolution, skills, abilities, knowledge, society, technology, inventions, and culture. Buchnera aphidicola Bp Wigglesworthia brevipalpis Blochmannia floridanus Fibrobacter succinogenes Chlorobium tepidum Porphyromonas LAST UNIVERSAL COMMON ANCESTOR influenzae Bacteroides A single-celled organism living more than 3.5 BYA. ocida mult Pasteurella Chlamydia 1. s ducreyi hilu Haemop ydophi ydoph s lyticu aemo parah Chlam Chla 2. of Gem Rho ri as sy a onas putid udom Pse ospi Lept s ri pest ido ph ll ca op ep pe Str ep Co B ry is en a ae ro p yc es he m co eli co cens Desulfovibrio vulgaris Geobacter sulfurredu iovorus i s Bdellovibrio bacter succino genes 695 J99 pylori Campylob acter jejun 803 Wolinella bacter Helico bacter Helico lori 26 ter py nes noge ethe obac ima hepatic us riu m ma er m −130 01 pa llid nti lon um co la gu wh ipp wh s L1 566 lei lei Tw TW m 08 /2 7 ist itil is lo r dip hth er ia e This phylogenetic tree of life uses genome sequencing data to map the relationships between 191 different species in the three domains of life: Eukaryota, Bacteria, and Archaea. s Helic arit s PCC6 ngatu ans laceu odur radi ter vio s hilu mop ther obac ides tum C5 efac 8 C ien Rh ere s izo on biu mm Bra dyrh elil oti izob ium japo Rho nicu dops m eudo mon as palu stri Caul s obac ter cres cent us Rick etts ia co norii Rick etts ia pr owaz ekii Wolba chia sp. wM el riu m ac te acte am s licu otog mus occo Ag rob av m ans eri ma de ogan aeo aloc Ther Deh Gloe s elo occu 712 is sp. PCC hocyst c sp. choc inus inus cus mar mar occus roc Prochlo 78 CCMP13 Nosto Syne Ag ex uif Aq tum Rh izo efa c Wa iens sh U biu m loti ce lla su is ten am eli Br ma ipp es riu ery ry yc ma cte 39 ltica terr burg dorf ne ne ba L02 e AR bus la ba ra in inte e CW onia iglo All life on Earth shares one common ancestor, and is thought to include between 10 million and 30 million different species. 102 s sp. WH8 Synechococcu ococ Prochlor SS12 Solibacter usitatus Acidobacterium capsulatum marinu Prochlorococcus MIT9313 Synec cus ococ Dein rob riu m te na s ob ac m om o ro s sis en m ria se ro Ch Nit Bru m ria se is Ne is Ne m cte m rm The 5. to ba to riu ell lsto Ra ne ns ie ic eff um m ic m riu ta cte glu m ba m icu ne riu m ry ta cte Co sis glu ba 32 ulo m ne 30 rc riu ry 1 be Co TCC cte tu ra A ba pa ne m ry riu Co e cte ra ba lep co m My riu cte vis ba bo co m My sis riu ulo cte erc ba co tub m My sis riu ulo cte ba erc co 51 tub My C15 m riu CD m cte atu ba co cle nu My 7Rv m H3 riu acte sob Fu nia m ru ea ac lan so uc lla ete rd Bo Str is ss rtu ll ete rd a ap is ss rtu pe ra Bo Tr pti ise ch on br A lla ete is xie Co rd Tro e rn u ab id ti fas Bo 4. po Bif tii git Xy Tre 4 96 00 a7 m a lell 5c 9a s dio in sa dio sti a fa lell Xy lia po lac eu ax as on om Tre vio 3. nth Xa dis po o on ra 183 J138 rrog rre cam onas om th Xan Bo eu P ospi id onas om seud rellu Lept sa gino aeru monia eum scur niae pneu la pn a ob dopi on dom ophi mat ngae Pseu hila myd nsis eide niae TW eumo ydop la on anel Shew eumo hila pn Chlam m undu m pr teriu obac ila pn ydop e olera io ch Vibr Phot la caviae Chlam git Vibrio m atis Chlam 016 in Vib icron muridaru ia trachom CP6 icus YJ nif rio vul gingivalis thetaiotaom Chlamyd cus CM vulnifi Vibrio M1 s pyogenes Streptococcu MGAS8232 Buchnera aphidicola APS Haemophilus e monia s pneu occu toc Strep TIGR4 92 a pestis m taru plan illus obac Lact tis CO Yersini Yersinia American microbiologist Carl Woese defines the Archaea Pitton de Tournefort five-volume compendium L933 Salmon 1977 French botanist Joseph von Gesner publishes a 7 li ED marinus Swiss scholar Conrad O6 7:H eric taxonomy by classifying hia co marinus 2 is Chlorobium tepidum Porphyromonas s L1 5660 Humans Homo sapiens itil M1 http://itol.embl.de/ and medicinal or poisonous plants. The advent of writing enabled more detailed, recorded taxonomies. coli Streptococcus MGAS8232 Lept s m II pyogenes ila pneum om er oniae ila pneum ept er cus agalactiae ydoph Str hth mutans ccus agalactiae Streptococcus 01 457T 1656 A 1516 - 1565 BRIEF HISTORY OF TAXONOMY- 1708 co ist Streptococ a3 coli Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying different life forms. Oral traditions of taxonomy K12 predate writing and were first used when human ancestors described different food sources, predators, ic s sp. WH8102 hia 2a 1900 ccus marinus ri 2 ns 1800 sp. PCC680 eric 1700 eli lei Tw dip pneum occus dophila cystis Esch cher Esch 1600 oniae us pneum coccus dophila sp. PCC hi western tradition of a coli O15 ix co lei Streptoco ata eba rn s lactis ococc Chlamy Synecho Aristotle launches the Es pe h lis us faeca Strept R6 Chlamy Nostoc Greek philosopher aii es av Mouse coccu Lacto Chlam ryn Solibacter usitatus wall paintings erved scrolls od arum plant Chlam Co Acidobacterium capsulatum chia tok lus ococc Enter opire system used today. Prochlorococcus MIT9313 heri different plant by name. xne flex Esc sol i soni john bacil Lacto pon Synechococcu 384 - 322 BCE nia lsto ATC illus obac Tre ita fle neri ana us 7 C 1098 us cere llus Lact Gemm cea Bo 9 C 1457 ATC cere Baci Rhod rum tell rde ric rop qu a per rde Bo yc cte wh ipp wh ipp es ogan eri ma de bus gu Streptoc Tro Prochloroco SS12 gella ae tus tell ata an us illus Bac Strepto TIGR4 introducing the three-domain m sis a par Bor acis thr cillus Ba as separate domain of life, m coccus Prochloro8 CCMP137 Shi m olf tilis sub illus ra niu s ssi rtu ape ilu 1500m m e eu s lla ulu ha −1 Sh arc ige CE ac no lca a ptic ise nch bro ella Ra us m su ii net a bur iell det halo Bac ospi ilu 964 700 Cox ss ans dur illus Bac rio ph 9a5 sa fast ella Xyl lob ru RC Na 1000 .N lfo py ei fast idio ro az c la sa idio lla Xyle bu ano Oce Woese defines the Archaea nop s axo ona thom Xan olo sis ophila odis thom Xan yen Chlamyd pest sm The advent of writing enabled more detailed, recorded taxonomies. av Su lf o D-e EG s ihe illu bac ydoph cam onas es gen yto noc mo ia ter Lis American microbiologist Carl ris dom Ae am aeru onas fu sa gino Pseu rob us sp putid gen yto noc mo ia ter ns m a onas dom Pseu F23 es inn Lis 1977 ra domo Pseu Su cin gae syrin nas Py cc riu oneid 65 a ocu ia ter Lis A single-celled organism living more than 3.5 BYA. vo ensis anella eti cte ndum profu bacte Shew ac ba choler rium a lo ae Vibrio in Ha icus paraha Photo 50 Mu eus aur us occ loc phy Sta LAST UNIVERSAL COMMON ANCESTOR ar os s YJ016 emolyt Vibrio an CMCP6 vulnificu Vibrio th c ar os an vulnificus eth M STORY OF TAXONOMY s ducreyi m ba ma yc m Chimpanzee Schizos co multocida Haemophilu Vibrio Me Pasteurella 15 N3 s eu aur s cu coc ylo ph Sta LUCA co ro influenzae Haemophilus ro Py Py Blochmannia floridanus to m riu Red Junglefowl Pufferfish Roundworm This deadly bacteria infected hundreds of thousands of people and animals every year until a vaccine was developed by Louis Pasteur in 1881. a is thalian inus bidops occus mar Sg Buchnera aphidicola Bp Mosquito Anthrax Bacillus anthracis Syn luminescens Buchnera aphidicola Buchnera aphidicola APS Wigglesworthia brevipalpis This species of Archaea, found in extremely hot conditions near hydrothermal vents, thrives at temperatures between 158°F and 217°F (70°-100°C). In addition to Ar ch its unique habitat, P. furiosus is ae Th og er also different having enzymes lo bu and classifying unusual for life forms. Oral traditions of taxonomymop s las fu containing tungsten, a very rare m lg Th a id er ac us when human ancestors described different food sources, predators, m element in living organisms. id op o ne The creatures most familiar to us, animals, are members of the same kingdom. These single-celled prokaryotic organisms were among the first life forms to appear on Earth. Often spherical, rod-like, or spiral in shape, these microorganisms function without a membrane-enclosed cell nucleus. Nosto Photorhabdus Pyrococcus furiosus ry m oideum C6803 ium disc sp. PC Dictyostel echocystis pestis Medievalis Co ma ery to riu a a sativ inus Oryz mar Yersinia rium CO92 pestis KIM ph ep ma cte iae AR iglo ltica ans burg dorf ne ne ba ery Tro Str ep BACTERIA Ara chloroc Pro 78 CCMP13 a pestis Chimpanzee ococcus Prochlor ella enteric Salmon ella typhimu cerevisiae typhi Salmon Yersinia Caenorhabditis elegans Salmo nella Caenorhabditis briggsae 33 Saccharomyces O157 EDL9 Mouse SS12 rolae on me WH8102 chyz ccus sp. Syne idios choco Cyan rum lcipa s m fa rococcus marinu Prochloiu mod Plas MIT9313 inis hom ium Acidobacterium capsulatum orid tosp Cryp nana eudo a ps Solibacter usitatus osir assi or Thal maj ania hm Leis blia lam rdia Gia chii nnas s ja ccu di oco palu han ari Met sm cu coc leri no nd ka tha Me rus py m no riu m tha cte icu Me ba ph no tro si tha uto ys Me rma ab us the cc co hii ro os Py rik ho us cc coli m s :H7 richia sativa ia coli Esche pombe itan 301 7T Oryza ilum equ 2a 245 K12 gossypii aer oph um neri 2a O6 lium discoideu nix m hae flex eri ia coli ia coli sis thaliana Arabidop 1 C− per culu oarc ella erich haromyces NR ii erich Dictyoste sp. m s oda rum oba s ran Pyr Nan flexn Esch Esch erich Red Junglefowl Pufferfish HOMINIDS us hilu ium ricu tok opy Shig ella um bus Esch 2000 ph Great Apes gid dop can fata folo Shig ful aci a vol sol Sul Aer Eremothecium eri us a asm tivo act lob asm opl bus ace lob eog opl rm folo zei ma ina Ha cha erm The Sul ina Ar Th These single-celled prokaryotic organisms often live in extreme environmental conditions. Once considered to be Bacteria, these microorganisms are now recognized as a separate domain of life. arc arc nos tha nos tha Me Me This species of Archaea, found in extremely hot conditions near hydrothermal vents, thrives at temperatures between 158°F and 217°F (70°-100°C). In addition to its unique habitat, P. furiosus is also unusual for having enzymes containing tungsten, a very rare element in living organisms. Schizosacc Ch ro m Mosquito us cc co ro Py Pyrococcus furiosus Animalia Fungi Amoebozoa Plantae Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Excavata Roundworm e zon merola ioschy Cyanid rum falcipa odium Plasm is homin idium ospor Crypt na dona pseu ira ssios r Thala ia majo man Leish lia lamb dia Giar ii asch s jann occu udi anoc ipal Meth s mar i ccu oco dler han kan Met rus opy ium m han cterhicu Met oba han utotrop ssi Metrma s aby the ccu i oco shi Pyr iko s hor s ccu su oco rio Pyr fu These single-celled prokaryotic organisms often live in extreme environmental conditions. Once considered to be Bacteria, these microorganisms are now recognized as a separate domain of life. Yersinia po Tro Our species, primates in the Animalia kingdom of the Eukaryota, is thought to have first evolved in Africa about 200,000 years ago. Genetically, our closest living relative is the chimpanzee. The creatures most familiar to us, animals, are members of the same kingdom. Animalia Fungi Amoebozoa Plantae Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Excavata ARCHAEA ARCHAEA Tre mon 39 scur terr inte L02 rrog relia po Str ra pneu e CW la ba ra in ospi hila a ob ellu ospi Lept Bor Tre Humans Homo sapiens idatu B This domain includes all of the plants, animals, and fungi, and some single-celled organisms. Eukaryotes are distinguished by their complex cells, which contain a membrane-enclosed nucleus. is s Lept ns ie ic eff um m ic m riu ta cte glu m ba m icu ne riu m ry ta cte Co sis glu ba 32 ulo m ne 0 rc riu ry 13 be Co TCC cte tu ra A ba pa ne m ry riu Co e cte ra ba lep co m My riu cte vis ba bo co m My sis riu ulo cte erc ba co tub m My sis riu ulo cte ba erc co 51 tub My C15 m riu CD cte tum ba co clea nu My 7Rv m H3 riu acte sob Fu icus aeol ifex a Aqu itim mar oga nes mot noge Ther ethe ides occo Caenorhabditis briggsae aloc s Deh hilu mop ther mus Caenorhabditis elegans s Ther uran diod nia lsto Ra m ru ea ac n ola Myc opla p lla ete rd Bo mat opir ido This domain includes all of the plants, animals, and fungi, and some single-celled organisms. Eukaryotes are distinguished by their complex EUKARYOTA cells, which contain a membrane-enclosed nucleus. is ss tu er ydop Gem Rhod Bif THE TREE OF LIFE is ss rtu pe ra pa ete rd Bo lla git bro a tic ep his nc lla ete rd A x Co Bo Chlam EUKARYOTA TAXONOMY rn bu a iell is fa i eti vio lac lla yle 4 96 00 a7 cter pylori 5c 9a ios d sti en in git id sa dio sti acter ax Helicoba dis po sp. wMel ris chia sa a fa umoni hila pn Chlam Initial ideas Species are always adapting and evolving. Where is your new species on the tree of life? Add a branch that demonstrates what other species it’s related to and when it evolved. pest o on la pne ydop TAXONOMY http://itol.embl.de/ BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) A BRIEF HISTORY OF TAXONOMY Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying different life forms. Oral traditions of taxonomy predate writing and were first used when human ancestors described different food sources, predators, and medicinal or poisonous plants. The advent of writing enabled more detailed, recorded taxonomies. 1977 American microbiologist Carl Woese defines the Archaea as separate domain of life, introducing the three-domain 8 BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION Scientists refer to a specific life form using its Genus and species classifications. This naming technique is called binomial nomenclature.
  • PBL: INVENT A SPECIES Project Checklist Project Component Notes Score Possible Score Checkpoint: Group decisions about the species and its key features Checkpoint: Draft model plan Checkpoint: Draft of Wikipedia page Wikipedia Entry Note: Evaluated with Writing Rubric Built Model of Species Presentation Score Collaboration Score Note: to be adjusted down if peer-review requirements are not met. Total Score BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) 9
  • T  akes an informal tone and shows limited or inconsistent awareness of topic-specific vocabulary. •  ontains multiple grammatical C errors. Language and Conventions BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) • C  ontains few, if any, words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text. •  oes not connect topic and D examples and/or facts. • Cohesion • • L  acks an awareness of the audience’s knowledge level and needs. C  ontains limited facts and examples related to the topic. •  oes not include a conclusion. D Development & Support Audience D  oes not have an identifiable topic. •  resents minimal ideas P and concepts. Focus • Below Standard (1) Description Informational Writing Rubric H  as an unclear topic. P  resents some ideas and concepts. S  hows an inconsistent awareness of the audience’s knowledge level and needs. T  akes a formal tone but shows limited awareness of topicspecific vocabulary. • ncludes some grammatical I errors. • C  ontains limited words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text. •  ttempts to connect topic and A examples and/or facts. • • P  rovides facts, definitions, details, quotations, and examples that attempt to develop and explain the topic. •  onclusion restats the C development. • • • Approaching Standard (2) F  ocuses on a topic to inform a reader with ideas and concepts. 10 T  akes a formal, objective tone and uses precise language and topic-specific vocabulary. • ncludes proper grammar and I follows preferred formatting (e.g., MLA, APA). • U  ses words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text. •  onnects topic and examples C and/or facts. • C  onsiders the audience’s knowledge level and concerns about the claim. •  ddresses the needs of the A audience. • P  rovides relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, and examples that develop and explain the topic. •  onclusion ties to and C supports the information. • • At Standard (3) F  ocuses on an interesting topic that informs the reader with ideas and concepts. • T  akes an appropriately formal, objective tone and uses relevant language and topic-specific vocabulary. Uses proper grammar and follows preferred formatting (e.g., MLA, APA). S  killfully uses words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text. • dentifies the relationship I between topic and examples and/or facts. • A  nticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns about the topic. •  ddresses the specific needs A of the audience. • P  rovides effective facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, and examples that sufficiently develop and explain the topic. •  onclusion lays out the C implications, significance, and future relevance of the topic. • • Above Standard (4)
  • D  oes not present information, arguments, ideas, or findings clearly, concisely, or logically. •  acks supporting evidence. L •  as a line of reasoning that is H difficult to follow. •  ses information that is not in U line with the overall purpose. •  oes not consider alternate D perspectives. D  oes not meet the presentation guidelines. •  oes not have a proper D introduction or conclusion. •  oes not use time allotted D (i.e., too long or too short). D  oes not look at the audience or make eye contact. •  acks poise (appears nervous, L fidgety, slouchy). •  peaks in a way that is hard S to understand. D  oes not directly address the questions, goes off topic. Explanation of Ideas & Information Organization Eyes, Body, and Voice Response to Audience Questions • A  nswers audience questions, but not always completely and clearly. M  akes infrequent eye contact with the audience. •  hows some poise (limited fidgeting, S nervousness, etc.). •  peaks clearly most of the time, S but may be difficult to understand or hear at times. • M  eets most requirements for the presentation guidelines. •  as a proper introduction and H conclusion, but they are not clear or interesting. •  ses the time allotted, but does U not divide up that time logically (i.e., uses too little or too much time on a topic or idea). • P  resents information, arguments, ideas, or findings in ways that are not always clear, concise, or logical. •  rgument is supported by partial A evidence. •  as a line of reasoning that is H sometimes difficult to follow. •  ses information that is only U sometimes in line with the overall purpose. •  ttempts to consider and address A alternative perspectives but does not do so completely. • Approaching Standard (2) BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) • • • • Below Standard (1) Description Presentation Rubric 11 A  nswers questions clearly and completely. •  reely admits not knowing the F answer to a question. • K  eeps eye contact with the audience most of the time — only glances at notes or slides. •  hows poise and confidence. S •  peaks clearly and is easy to S understand. • M  eets all presentation guidelines. •  ad a proper introduction H that is clear and logical. •  ses the time allotted well U and has organized the time appropriately. • P  resents information, arguments, ideas, or findings clearly, concisely, or logically. • s well-supported by I evidence. •  as a line of reasoning that H is easy to follow. •  learly and completely C addresses alternative or opposing perspectives. • At Standard (3) A  nswers clearly and completely and provides relevant details. •  dmits not knowing the answer A to a question, and provides ideas for finding answers. • K  eeps eye contact with the audience throughout. •  how exceptional poise and S confidence. •  peaks clearly, and is interesting S to listen to. • M  eets all presentation guidelines and is particularly interesting and thoughtfully organized. •  as an introduction that hooks H the audience and a conclusion that incites questions and further interest. •  rganizes and uses times O effectively. • D  oes an exceptional job presenting information, arguments, ideas, or findings clearly, concisely, and logically. • s well-supported with relevant, I and interesting evidence. •  he line of reasoning is logical, easy T to follow, well crafted, and uses information that is in line with the overall purpose. •  learly and completely addresses C relevant alternative or opposing perspectives. • Above Standard (4)
  • BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) Adapted from the Buck Institute Collaboration Rubric. Group Member’s Name: Group Member’s Name: Group Member’s Name: Your Name: Score This group member completes tasks without being reminded and uses feedback from others. He/she helps the group solve problems and stay organized, and listens carefully to group mates. This person is polite and kind. At Standard (3) 12 Why did you choose this score? This group member is sometimes prepared to work with the group. This group member does project tasks when reminded and sometimes completes tasks on time. He/she sometimes offers to help others, sometimes shares ideas, and is usually polite and kind to group mates. This group member does not complete project tasks or does not complete tasks on time. He/she does not help the group solve problems, give useful feedback, or use feedback from others. The group member does not show respect for group mates (e.g., interrupting, ignoring ideas, being unkind). Name Approaching Standard (2) Below Standard (1) This group member does more than what is required and asks for feedback to improve his/her work. He/she steps in to help other group members when they are absent or need help, and he/ she encourages group mates to share ideas by recognizing and promoting everyone’s strengths. Above Standard (4) Directions: Give yourself and each member of your group a score from the Collaboration Rubric. Your teacher will use these scores as part of each group member’s individual score for the project. If you need more rows for additional group members, use the back of this sheet. Collaboration Rubric
  • PBL: FEEDBACK TABLE What did you like? What do you think could be improved? What questions came up? What ideas did you have? BIG HISTORY PROJECT / PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL) 13