Medieval education


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Medieval education

  1. 1. Medieva l Educatio n S t a r t ?
  2. 2. Report in prof. ed 1 Paula Juliana I. Navarro II – 2 BECED
  3. 3. Medieval educationis about educationthat was conductedin the medieval period. Childrenwere taughttheir basics, suchas how to read and write. In medieval times, there were manyschools that operatedwithout the use of books. Students were taughtby skilled masters, and were often educatedfor dubious benefits. The rich or others that did provide educationin medieval times did so for their personal gain. There were very few that reallywanted to educate people in the true spirit of enlightening more minds.
  4. 4. Educational Attitudes and Practices of Jesus Christianity came from Christ, the Greek word for Messiah. It was founded on Judaism – also a monotheistic religion. Offered a new ethical force – humanitarianism – that provided the education for all. Jesus – one of the three greatest teachers, the other two being Socrates and Gautama.
  5. 5. Aims “seek ye first the kingdom of God and His righteousness and all these things shall be added unto you.” To renounce personal privileges and advantages that come from riches and selfishness of private ambition. Religious training – the development of the right relationship between man and his God.
  6. 6. Type s Highest type of ethical education.  Universal and democratic By making everyone a child of God, he removed all distinctions of class and caste. By teaching that God is the father of mankind, He removed education from the clutches of national limits and racial prejudice.
  7. 7. Content His life was his curriculum; He practiced what He taught. Dealt with fundamental truths Development of individual and social behavior based on human relationships. Did not organize any school or social institution; used no textbooks
  8. 8. Method s1. Conversational method - usually informal and intimate, this method was direct, natural and familiar. Questions were asked and answered and difficulties proposed were removed. 2. Gnomic Method – Jesus frequently resorted to the use of gnomes or proverbs. Jesus never delivered the analytical addresses common today. 3. Parables – a kind of comparison or analogy. On the surface the parable is a plain and simple description of life directed to the imagination and, therefore, understood by literate and illiterate alike; although a deeper spiritual significance could only be understood by minds not blinded by prejudice and religious formalism.
  9. 9. Jesus’ methods that are still being used today: a) Adjusted lessons to the experiences of the students; b) Used concrete everyday incidents for His examples; c) Used the simplest language to teach the most profound truths; d) Recognized what Dewey later popularized – learn to do by doing; e) Encouraged students to question; f) Appealed to the imagination; g) Stimulated thinking by power of suggestion; and h) Recognized individual differences and adjusted his teaching methods to the needs and capacities of the learners.
  10. 10. The Early Christian Church The first two centuries after Christ, the Christian congregation gained followers but were regarded with suspicion and were considered dangerous. A.D. 313, through the edict of Milan, emperor Constantine recognized Christianity as the official state religion. The Christian church (Roman Catholic) rose to power because of the force of its high moral & ethical doctrines and the intensity of the faith of its adherents.
  11. 11. Aims Moral regeneration of the individual. Reform of the society Types Moral and religious training. (given to prepare the child or convert for baptism. Believed to be necessary to save individual souls and to convert their fellowmen) No physical or aesthetic training, only musical training in relation to church services. Intellectual education. (none at first but converts on the educated class were trained later on to meet opponents and heretics.)
  12. 12. Content Basic instruction to fit candidates for baptism, basic elements of church doctrine, church rituals and moral virtues of Christlike living. Eliminated were: physical training, art, science, literature, and rhetoric because their origins were Pagan and, therefore, full of vices and corruption.)
  13. 13. Method s (as sole agency for education) impromptu exposition and exhortation In home: method of example In schools established: catechetical (pertaining to teaching by question and answer.) method and rote recitation (pupils memorized to answer questions)
  14. 14. Monasticis m Monks were the regular clergy; they lived solitary lives under strict rules and regulations emphasizing the three main principles of monastic life – obedience, simplicity and industry. Monasteries were completely self- supported and became centers for literacy and artistic and scholarly aspects of life.
  15. 15. Aims Salvation of individual souls. (a kind of moral and physical discipline based on bodily mortificationand worldly renunciation for the sake of moral improvement.) Vowof chastity– giving up the familyand all human relationships. Vowof poverty– rejection of all material interests in life. Vowof obedience – renunciation of ranks and distinction.
  16. 16. Type s Literacy activities and manual training. Rule of Benedict: seven hours of manual work and two hours of reading sacred literature daily.
  17. 17. Content
  18. 18. Method
  19. 19. Scholasticis m Early middle ages, from 6th to 10th century – era of faith. 11th century; movement to rationalize the doctrine of the church.
  20. 20. Method To support the doctrines of the church by rational argument Intellectual discipline
  21. 21. Type s Limited to theology and religious philosophy. Scholastic realism; Anselm – Believed that ideas or concepts were the only real entities, and objects known through the senses were only copies of these ideas. Scholastic conceptualism; Abelard – although a universal concept had no objective existence, it was an expression of the sum total of characteristics that a group of individual objects had in common. In short, a universal was only a concept until it was expressed in the individual; then it became real.
  22. 22. Metho d Lecture, repetition, disputation and examination. Logical analysis Syllogism
  23. 23. Chivalric Education From9thto 16th Century Feudalism ( complicatedsystem of political and personal relationships. To get the young nobles ready to assume obligations, the institute of chivalry became the basis for a set of ideals to guide theireducation andconduct. Patterns of chivalry were basedupon the usages in warfare, religion andcourtesy for the upper class.
  24. 24. Aims Teach the best ideals To inculcate gallantry toward women, protection of the weak, honesty in everything, courage at all times. Type s Form of social training Emphasized military training and social etiquette. Class education for entrance into aristocracy.
  25. 25. Conte nt Physical, social, military and religious activities. Training in reading and writing, health instruction, training in etiquette, obedience to superiors, playing musical instruments, riding and jousting, singing and playing chess. Girls were educated in religious faithand ceremonies, dancing and singing, courtesy, handicraft and management of the household servants.
  26. 26. Method s Imitation, example, and learning by doing. Motivation Discipline
  27. 27. Guild Approach to Education Crusaders increased trade and commerce which brought about the growth of new cities and the rise of a new social class – the burgher, bourgeoisie or middle class. This new class began to be as important as the nobles and the clergy and they demanded a different kind of education for their children. Closely related to the development of commerce was the strengthening of the guilds, an organization composed of persons with common interests and mutual needs for protection and welfare.
  28. 28. Aims Vocational training to prepare children for the requisites of commerce and industry. Content Elementary instruction in reading and writing in the vernacular and arithmetic. Crafts on commerce and adequate religious instruction.
  29. 29. Method s Much the same way as the monastic and parish schools. Example, imitation and practice. Dictation, memorization, and catechetical method. Discipline was severe and harsh.
  30. 30. Saracenic Approach to Education Six hundred years after the birth of Christ, a new religion, founded by Mohammed (Islam), took in root in Arabia among the Arabs also known as Saracens. The western world is indebted to them for the creation of the scientific spirit of investigation and experimentation and for the invention and improvement of the tools of science.
  31. 31. Method s A searchfor knowledge andan applicationof scientific facts to the affairs of dailylife. Development of individual initiativeand social welfare- liberal education in its truest sense. Types Vocational education. Intellectual training. Elementary educationwas opento all boys ad girls. Financial aid wasprovided to the needy students.
  32. 32. Conten t Elementary level: reading, writing, arithmetic, religion, grammar and science. Higher level: algebra, geometry, trigonometry, physics, chemistry, geography, astronomy, pharmacy, medicine, surgery, philology, history, literature, logic, metaphysics and law. Koranwas taughtin all levels. Metho d Scientific method(use of repetition drills), catechetical method, memorization and lecture. Higher schools emphasizedtravel and explanation.
  33. 33. END