Report in prof. ed 1
Paula Juliana I. Navarro
II – 2 BECED
Medieval educationis about educationthat was conductedin the
Childrenwere taughttheir basics, suchas how to read and write.
In medieval times, there were manyschools that operatedwithout the
use of books. Students were taughtby skilled masters, and were often
educatedfor dubious benefits. The rich or others that did provide
educationin medieval times did so for their personal gain. There were
very few that reallywanted to educate people in the true spirit of
enlightening more minds.
Educational Attitudes and
Practices of Jesus
Christianity came from Christ, the Greek word for Messiah.
It was founded on Judaism – also a monotheistic religion.
Offered a new ethical force – humanitarianism – that
provided the education for all.
Jesus – one of the three greatest teachers, the other two
being Socrates and Gautama.
“seek ye first the kingdom of God and His
righteousness and all these things shall be
added unto you.”
To renounce personal privileges and
advantages that come from riches and
selfishness of private ambition.
Religious training – the development of the
right relationship between man and his God.
s Highest type of ethical education.
Universal and democratic
By making everyone a child
of God, he removed all
distinctions of class and caste.
By teaching that God is
the father of mankind, He
removed education from the
clutches of national limits
and racial prejudice.
His life was his curriculum; He practiced what He
Dealt with fundamental truths
Development of individual and social behavior
based on human relationships.
Did not organize any school or social institution; used
s1. Conversational method - usually informal and intimate,
this method was direct, natural and familiar. Questions
were asked and answered and difficulties proposed were
2. Gnomic Method – Jesus frequently resorted to the use of
gnomes or proverbs. Jesus never delivered the analytical
addresses common today.
3. Parables – a kind of comparison or analogy. On the surface
the parable is a plain and simple description of life directed
to the imagination and, therefore, understood by literate
and illiterate alike; although a deeper spiritual significance
could only be understood by minds not blinded by
prejudice and religious formalism.
Jesus’ methods that are still being used today:
a) Adjusted lessons to the experiences of the students;
b) Used concrete everyday incidents for His examples;
c) Used the simplest language to teach the most profound
d) Recognized what Dewey later popularized – learn to do
e) Encouraged students to question;
f) Appealed to the imagination;
g) Stimulated thinking by power of suggestion; and
h) Recognized individual differences and adjusted his
teaching methods to the needs and capacities of the
The Early Christian Church
The first two centuries after Christ, the Christian congregation gained
followers but were regarded with suspicion and were considered dangerous.
A.D. 313, through the edict of Milan, emperor Constantine recognized
Christianity as the official state religion.
The Christian church (Roman Catholic) rose to power because of the force of
its high moral & ethical doctrines and the intensity of the faith of its
Moral regeneration of the individual.
Reform of the society
Moral and religious training. (given to prepare the child or convert for baptism.
Believed to be necessary to save individual souls and to convert their fellowmen)
No physical or aesthetic training, only musical training in
relation to church services.
Intellectual education. (none at first but converts on the
educated class were trained later on to meet opponents and
Basic instruction to fit candidates for
baptism, basic elements of church
doctrine, church rituals and moral
virtues of Christlike living.
Eliminated were: physical training,
art, science, literature, and rhetoric
because their origins were Pagan
and, therefore, full of vices and
(as sole agency for education)
impromptu exposition and exhortation
In home: method of example
In schools established: catechetical
(pertaining to teaching by question and answer.)
method and rote recitation (pupils
memorized to answer questions)
Monks were the regular clergy;
they lived solitary lives under
strict rules and regulations
emphasizing the three main
principles of monastic life –
obedience, simplicity and
Monasteries were completely self-
supported and became centers for
literacy and artistic and scholarly
aspects of life.
Salvation of individual souls.
(a kind of moral and physical discipline based
on bodily mortificationand worldly
renunciation for the sake of moral
Vowof chastity– giving up the
familyand all human
Vowof poverty– rejection of all
material interests in life.
Vowof obedience – renunciation
of ranks and distinction.
Literacy activities and
Rule of Benedict: seven
hours of manual work and
two hours of reading
sacred literature daily.
Early middle ages, from 6th to 10th
century – era of faith.
11th century; movement to rationalize the
doctrine of the church.
To support the doctrines of the
church by rational argument
Limited to theology and religious philosophy.
Scholastic realism; Anselm – Believed that ideas or
concepts were the only real entities, and objects known
through the senses were only copies of these ideas.
Scholastic conceptualism; Abelard – although a universal concept had
no objective existence, it was an expression of the sum total of
characteristics that a group of individual objects had in common. In
short, a universal was only a concept until it was expressed in the
individual; then it became real.
Lecture, repetition, disputation and
From9thto 16th Century
Feudalism ( complicatedsystem of political and
To get the young nobles ready to assume obligations, the
institute of chivalry became the basis for a set of ideals to
guide theireducation andconduct.
Patterns of chivalry were basedupon the usages in
warfare, religion andcourtesy for the upper class.
Teach the best ideals
To inculcate gallantry toward
women, protection of the weak,
honesty in everything, courage
at all times.
Form of social training
Emphasized military training and
Class education for entrance into
Physical, social, military and religious activities.
Training in reading and writing, health instruction, training in
etiquette, obedience to superiors, playing musical instruments,
riding and jousting, singing and playing chess.
Girls were educated in religious faithand ceremonies, dancing and
singing, courtesy, handicraft and management of the household
Imitation, example, and learning by
Guild Approach to Education
Crusaders increased trade and commerce which brought
about the growth of new cities and the rise of a new social
class – the burgher, bourgeoisie or middle class. This new
class began to be as important as the nobles and the clergy
and they demanded a different kind of education for their
Closely related to the development of commerce was the
strengthening of the guilds, an organization composed of
persons with common interests and mutual needs for
protection and welfare.
Vocational training to prepare children for
the requisites of commerce and industry.
Elementary instruction in reading and
writing in the vernacular and arithmetic.
Crafts on commerce and adequate
Much the same way as the monastic and parish
Example, imitation and practice.
Dictation, memorization, and catechetical method.
Discipline was severe and harsh.
Six hundred years after the birth of Christ, a new religion,
founded by Mohammed (Islam), took in root in Arabia
among the Arabs also known as Saracens.
The western world is indebted to them for the creation of
the scientific spirit of investigation and experimentation
and for the invention and improvement of the tools of
A searchfor knowledge andan applicationof scientific facts
to the affairs of dailylife.
Development of individual initiativeand social welfare-
liberal education in its truest sense.
Elementary educationwas opento all
boys ad girls.
Financial aid wasprovided to the
Elementary level: reading,
writing, arithmetic, religion,
grammar and science.
Higher level: algebra, geometry,
medicine, surgery, philology,
history, literature, logic,
metaphysics and law.
Koranwas taughtin all levels.
Scientific method(use of repetition
drills), catechetical method,
memorization and lecture.
Higher schools emphasizedtravel