History of educational technology


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  • >Techne - translated as craftsmanship, craft, or art. It is the rational method involved in producing an object or accomplishing a goal or objective.
    >abelard – conceptualism. scholastic manner of philosophizing, with the object of giving a formally rational expression to received ecclesiastical doctrine
    >Comenius' major contribution to instructional technology was his instructional method - used in science to analyze and improve the instructional process. He is considered the first true forrunner of instructional technology. Pestalozzi  by Jean Jacques Rousseau and developed a system of instruction that focused on allowing the student to learn through multiple senses. He believed that by teaching through the objects around the learner, the learner would be able to comprehend the concepts easier than just being told the information. Froebel Should give importance to Religious instruction, Nature study, Arithmetic, Language, arts, Handicrafts. Self activity. Herbart by emphasizing a psychological and scientific, if not experimental, approach to instruction and learning. Montessori designed a structural environment in which children could choose freely from a number of developmentally appropriate activities. Thorndike reward and punishment. Dewey only scientific method could reliably increase human good.
    >Sidney Pressey originated programmed learning, B. F. Skinner (1958) popularized it. Learners are exposed to small amounts of information and proceed from one frame or one item of information, to the next in an orderly fashion (this is what is meant by linear)
    Learners respond overtly so that their correct responses can be rewarded and their incorrect responses can be corrected
    Learners are informed immediately about whether or not their response is correct (feedback)
    Learners proceed at their own pace (self-pacing)
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  • History of educational technology

    1. 1. WINTERTemplateHISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Marife Garcia Paula Navarro Kreanne Pagdanganan II - 2 BECEd
    2. 2. “Technology is commonly thought of in terms of gadgets, instruments, machines and devices … most (educators) will defer to technology as computers.” (Muffoletto, 1994)
    3. 3. The history of “Educational technology … can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systemized bodies of knowledge, and early cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information.” (Paul Saettler, 1990)
    4. 4. Comenius, Pestalozzi,Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbart and MontessoriFroebel, Herbart and Montessori contributed their own concept oncontributed their own concept on educational technology improvingeducational technology improving educative process.educative process. John Amos Comenius wasJohn Amos Comenius was recognized as the pioneerrecognized as the pioneer of modern instructionalof modern instructional technology by reason of histechnology by reason of his book Orbis Pictus (Thebook Orbis Pictus (The World in Picture) whichWorld in Picture) which was illustrated textbookswas illustrated textbooks for children studying Latinfor children studying Latin & Sciences.& Sciences. Edward Thorndike and John DeweyEdward Thorndike and John Dewey formulated scientific theory offormulated scientific theory of learning and the scientific method,learning and the scientific method, respectively. Thorndike gaverespectively. Thorndike gave emphasis to the use of empiricalemphasis to the use of empirical investigation as a basis for aninvestigation as a basis for an organized process of learning. Onorganized process of learning. On his part, Dewey introduced ahis part, Dewey introduced a method of instruction in termsmethod of instruction in terms scientific method in broad termsscientific method in broad terms The 19The 19thth century paved in thecentury paved in the advent of effectiveadvent of effective technological developmenttechnological development including the production ofincluding the production of textbooks, use of blackboardstextbooks, use of blackboards and improvements in writingand improvements in writing implements like pen and ink.implements like pen and ink. Photography was invented,Photography was invented, giving a way to a movementgiving a way to a movement called “Visual Instruction”.called “Visual Instruction”. In 1932, the first instructionalIn 1932, the first instructional television program was aired attelevision program was aired at the State University of Iowa.the State University of Iowa. About the same time, the 16About the same time, the 16 mm sound motion picture wasmm sound motion picture was developed and this served asdeveloped and this served as the educational workhorsethe educational workhorse during the audio-visualduring the audio-visual movement of the time.movement of the time. During World War II,During World War II, the U.S. government encouragedthe U.S. government encouraged the implementation of technologythe implementation of technology of instruction for military trainingof instruction for military training programs. This gave impetus to aprograms. This gave impetus to a system approach to instruction tosystem approach to instruction to include: micro-teaching,include: micro-teaching, individualized instruction,individualized instruction, Language laboratories, behavioralLanguage laboratories, behavioral laboratories, behaviorallaboratories, behavioral objectives, computer assistedobjectives, computer assisted instruction and among othersinstruction and among others
    5. 5. History of Computers 3000 BC 1600s 1800s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s AbacusAbacus PunchedPunched Card DevicesCard Devices MainframesMainframes MicrocomputersMicrocomputers InternetInternet CalculatorsCalculators First ElectronicFirst Electronic ComputersComputers MinicomputersMinicomputers MicrocomputerMicrocomputer SystemsSystems
    6. 6. Ancient Computing HistoryAncient Computing History The AbacusThe Abacus Mechanical aid used for counting and making quick calculations. Still in use around the world.
    7. 7. Early Computing HistoryEarly Computing History Invented the first mechanical calculator. The Pascaline used cogs and gears to solve math equations. Pascaline Blaise Pascal
    8. 8. Mechanical CalculatorsMechanical Calculators Jacquard’s Loom Joseph Jacquard • First “programmable” machine. • Used punched cards (binary instructions) to automate weaving loom. • Punched cards were a staple of early and modern computer programming.
    9. 9. Electronic Computer SystemsElectronic Computer Systems  Used vacuum tubes in electronic circuits.  Used punch cards to input and externally store data.  Up to 4K of memory.  Programming in machine language and assembly language.  Required a compiler. First Generation:1943- 1956
    10. 10. First Generation:First Generation: 1943-19561943-1956 World’s first electronic digital computer. Used to produce WWII ballistic firing tables for the U.S. Defense Department. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC)
    11. 11. 1956 IBM 350 RAMAC Second Generation: 1957-1964Second Generation: 1957-1964 • Used transistors, developed by Bell Labs. • Up to 32K of memory. • Programming in computer languages, such as FORTRAN and COBOL.
    12. 12. Third Generation: 1965-1971Third Generation: 1965-1971 • Used integrated circuits. • Up to 3 million bytes of memory. • Lower cost, smaller size, and increasing processor speed.
    13. 13. • Personal computers or PCs. • Usually cost about $2,000 or less. • Process over 1 billion operations per second. • “Stand-alone” or connected to other computers as a network system. Fourth Generation: 1972-Fourth Generation: 1972- NowNow Microcomputers TEA
    14. 14. Tim Berners-Lee  Developed HTML and the World Wide Web (WWW) was born. 1990’s1990’s Connecting the WorldConnecting the World
    15. 15. Marc Andreessen  An original developer of Mosaic, the first browser software able to read HTML.  Co-founder of Netscape Communications.
    16. 16. • Technologies of the Future • Advanced robotics commonplace • Smart houses • Wearable computers • Holodeck virtual reality • Truly individualized education The 21The 21stst CenturyCentury • Only recently focused on computers. • Internet current primary trend. – Communication with colleagues. – Lesson plan preparation. – Student resources. – Access research and best practices for teaching.
    17. 17. Source information: NCES 2000 Summer Issue
    18. 18. Our Definition: “A combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies.” (M. D. Roblyer, 2000)
    19. 19. Modern Educational Technology HistoryModern Educational Technology History • First instructional use of computers was as a flight simulator used to train pilots at MIT in 1950. Mainframe Computer Systems  First use in public schools taught New York elementary students binary arithmetic in 1959.
    20. 20.  Federal funds supported many large-scale projects in mainframe computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in schools, colleges, and universities through the middle of 1970’s.  Stanford University – first multimedia learning station, Course writer  Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations (PLATO)  BYU – Time-shared Interactive Computer- Controlled Information Television (TICCIT) Mainframe Computer Systems
    21. 21. Mainframe Computer Systems Designed to support personalized mastery learning:  Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) - University of Pittsburgh  Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN) - American Institutes of Research
    22. 22. National Education Computing Conference (NECC) •Created by mainframe programming enthusiasts from universities nationwide. •First conference held in1979. •Today is the largest educational technology conference in U.S. with attendance of 10,000+ people.
    23. 23. • Introduced in late 1970’s. • Adopted by public school systems during 1980’s. – Apple II – Commodore PET – Radio Shack TRS - 80 Microcomputers in Education Software!
    24. 24. Software • Early courseware developed for mainframes were provided by: – Large hardware manufacturers – Software systems companies – University development projects • New microcomputer software market driven primarily by educators. •Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC) -Initially largest provider of educational software. -Funded by National Science Foundation. •MicroSift, EPIE -Provided courseware evaluations.
    25. 25.  Authoring systems  Response to educators quest for input into design of educational software.  Allowed educators to develop their own courseware. Software  Authoring systems  Required extensive expertise.  Extended time commitment.  Expanded work investment.
    26. 26. Computer Literacy •Originally defined as programming skills and tools such as word processing. •Today’s world can only agree that the term refers to skills that are constantly changing.
    27. 27. Seymour Papert Educational theorist mentored by Jean Piaget. Developed programming language for young children based on constructivist theory of education. Raised national consciousness about potential of technology to change the educational system.
    28. 28. The Internet and the WWW Biggest challenge for the public educational system has been how to prepare schools physically and train teachers effectively for its use in the classroom.
    29. 29. Four Different ViewsFour Different Views • Audiovisual Media Communications. • Begun in 1923. • Initially centered on radio. • Quickly extended focus to include instructional film strips and educational television. • Today, it includes global satellite broadcasting, two-way audio, and visual communications. 1. AECT • “Branch of educational theory and practice concerned primarily with the design and use of messages which control the learning process.” (Saettler, 1990, p. 9) • Publications: – TechTrends – Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology
    30. 30. 2. ISPI • Instructional systems approach based on Behaviorist theories • “Systematic approach to designing, developing, and delivering instruction matched to carefully identified needs.” (Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 1997) •Publications: -Performance Improvement Journal -Performance Improvement Quarterly
    31. 31. 3. ITEA • Industry trainers and vocational teachers. • Schools should prepare students for work force Learning about technology as used in the “real world” is essential. •Includes robotics, manufacturing systems, computer-assisted design (CAD). •Publications: -The Technology Teacher -Technology and Children -The Journal of Technology Education
    32. 32. 4. ISTE • Primary focus encompassed both instructional and support applications of computers. • Begun by trainers and educators who predicted that computers would revolutionize education. • Influenced by technical personnel, such as programmers and systems analysts. •National Educational Technology Standards for Students and Teachers (NETS) •Publications: -Learning and Leading with Technology (formerly The Computing Teacher) -Journal of Research on Computing in Education
    33. 33. WINTERTemplate References “EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY” by Dr. Paz I. Lucido & Dr. Milagros L. Borabo http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=rNDFZo4zHaMC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false http://www.slideshare.net/fvsandoval/history-of-educational-technology http://www.myplick.com/view/1PsTtfSckr_/HISTORY-OF-EDUCATIONAL-TECHNOLOGY-TIMELINE Thanks for Listening (^ - ^)Y