6. WHAT ARE THE FACTORS THATINFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INFANT?
7. ALCOHOL AND DRUGS
8. PRENATAL CARE
11. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONTEXTMaulion, Jellene Joyce L.
12. Context:the set of circumstances or facts thatsurround a particular event or situation.
13. Social Context Social context contributes a great factor to the personality of an individual. It has great effect on the character of the person involve in the society
14. Economic Context the development of a person may be determined by the state of the economy he is involve with. When the economy is not stable and unable to sustain the needs of the community, the development may be at risk.
16. The Germinal Stage The germinal stage begins with conception, when the sperm and egg cell unite in one of the two fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg, known as a zygote, then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up to a week to complete. Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after conception.
17. Cell Division Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst. The blastocyst is made up of three laters: the ectoderm (which will become the skin and nervous system), the endoderm (which will become the digestive and respiratory systems), and the mesoderm (which will become the muscle and skeletal systems). Finally, the blastocyst arrives at the uterus and attached to the uterine wall, a process known as implantation.
18. The Embryonic Stage The mass of cells is now know as an embryo. The embryonic stage begins after implantation and continues until cell differentiation has been mostly completed. Structures important to the support of the embryo develop, including the placenta and umbilical cord. During this time, cells begin to differentiate into the various body systems. The basic outlines of the organ, body, and nervous systems are established. By the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings of features such as fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible.
19. The Fetal Stage Once cell differentiation is mostly complete, the embryo enters the next stage and becomes known as a fetus. The early body systems and structures established in the embryonic stage continue to develop. The neural tube develops into the brain and spinal cord and neurons form. Sex organs begin to appear during the third month of gestation. The fetus continues to grow in both weight and length, although the majority of the physical growth occurs in the later stages of pregnancy.
21. Newborn and infancy They have built-in reflexes, automatic behaviors that are very necessary for survival, such as see, hear, touch , smell, taste and even have rudimentary “ conversations ” with the adults who tend to them. Extends from birth to eighteen to twenty four months or two years. Infant for the first few days after birth is called neonate.
22. Early childhoodPresents the time from the end of infancy or babyhood to about five or six years. This period of time is also referred to as the “pre-school years”, “exploratory age” and “toy age”.The developmental tasks mastered are the ability to care oneself.
23. Late childhoodRecognized as extending from about six to twelve years of age.Physical, motor, social, emotional, moral and intellectual changes are sources of anxiety for the growing children.This is the critical period for the development of his achievement motivation or the need to achieve.
24. PubertyOnset of adolescence is marked by two significant changes in physical development --- the adolescent or the pubertal growth spurt and puberty.
25. Growth spurtsRefers to the rapid acceleration in height and weight that signals the beginning of adolescence.
26. pubertyIs the period in the development of man which the individual is physically capable of sexual reproduction.Extends to the time when the primary and secondary sex characteristics of the body emerge.Sexual maturation follows a predictable sequence for members of both sexes.
27. adolesccenceDevelopmental Psychologists regard this period as beginning – when children become sexually mature – and ending when they reach the age of maturity.
28. Early adolescenceExtends roughly from thirteen to sixteen or seventeen yearsLate adolescenceShort period from the age of 16 to 18 up to 21.
29. adulthoodPeriod that they move from a period of exploration to one stabilization.Improving the pattern of their lives which is done by accepting and accommodating to social normsThe two basic psychological needs of adulthood are :Affiliation and Achievement
30. Early adulthoodStage of development between nineteen and thirty-five years and is characterized by peak of physical performance and health.Growth in stature is completed and men attain their highest skill at tasks involving speed and agility in this period.
31. Middle adulthoodPhase of the life cycle from approximately thirty-five to sixty- five years.It is characterized by physical changes.
32. Late adulthood or oldageLast from approximately sixty-five to eighty years of age until death.It is a stage of adjustment to decreasing strength and health and to retirement and reducing income.
33. Theories ofHuman Development
34. Piagetian’s CognitiveDevelopmentJean Piaget presents the intellectual development into four major periods:Sensorimotor stage (Birth – Two years)Intuitive or Pre- Operational stage (Two –Seven years)Concrete Operational Stage (Seven – Eleven years)Formal Operational Stage (Eleven and above)
35. Freud’s Psychosexual StagesFreud believes that all human beings pass through a series of psychosexual stages.Psychosexual stages :Oral Stage (first year of life)Anal Stage (second to third year of life)Phallic Stage (fourth to fifth year of life)Latency Stage (sixth year of life to puberty)Genital Stage (from puberty onwards)
36. Erickson’s Psychosocial StageTrust vs. Mistrust (birth to one year)Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-3 yrs)Initiative vs. Guilt (4 – 5 years)Industry vs. Inferiority (6 – 11 years)Identity vs. role of confusion (12 -18 yrs)Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)Generativity vs. Stagnation (Midddle Adulthood Integrity vs. Despair (Old Age)
37. Kohlberg’s MoralDevelopment TheoryMoral character happens in a particular developmental sequence, and each stage is distinctly different.He developed the description of the three levels and six stages of moral development.Preconventional : Stages I and IIConventional : Stages III and IVPost Conventional : Stages V and VI
38. The Life Freud’s Erikson’s Piaget’s Kohlberg’sCycle Psychosexual Psychosexual cognitive Level of Moral Development Stages Structured Development StagesLate Adulthood Ego Integrity Vd. DespairMiddle Generativity Level3- postAdulthood Vs. conventional Stagnation Stage6-univer sal ethical principle orientationEarly Intimacy vs. Stage 5-socialAdulthood Isolation Contract orientationPuberty and Genital Identity vs. Formal – level2Adolescence Role confusion Operational Conyventional Stage4 – law And order orientation Stage3 – Good boy - nice girl orientation
39. Late Latency Industry vs. Concrete Level1Childhood Inferiority Operational Stage2- instrumental relativist OrientationEarly Phallic Initiative vs. Pre- Stage1-Childhood Guilt operational preconventio Autonomy nal vs. punishment Shame and Obedience doubt OrientationInfancy Anal Trust vs. Sensorimotor --------- Mistrust Oral
40. Attachment theoryOriginally develop by John BowlbyFocuses on open, intimate, emotionally meaningful relationship.Attachment is described as a biological system or powerful survival, impulses that evolved is ensure the survival of the infant.
41. Nature vs. nurture Innateness or Environment
42. Jessica Matibag II – 2 BECEd
43.  Height is increased by 25-30 cm bytheir first birthday and nearly 50% of theirheight is reached by the age of two. Weight is increased three times fromthe birth to one year. The brain is the fastest organ in thebody at this stage.
44. The bones are developing andhardening. The muscles are changing in sizeand gaining more strength. The lung capacity increasesalthough sensitive to irritation. Teeth begin growing between 6months and three years.
45. Gross motor development-Refers mainly to the development ofcontrol over large body movements likecrawling, walking and standing.- Related to locomotor development(ability to move)
46. 1.Control of the head and neck muscles2. Sit with head, trunk and arm control3. Crawl and creep4. Stand and support their weight on their legs without over-balancing5. Walk unassisted by themselves by the age of 14.5 months6. Most infants can run by the age of 18 months but they fall frequently
47. Fine motor development -Refers to the development of control over smaller body movements like grasping.
48. 1.Grasping for the first 2-3 months is a reflex reaction.2. Voluntary grasping begins from 3 moths but the infant’s hands are usually open and guided by their sight.3. At 5 months of age the baby touches an object before trying to grasp it.
49. - Defined as the intellectualgrowth that begins at birth andcontinues through adulthood(Gleitman,98).
50. Close relationships with people arevital for the infant’s personality andsocial growth.
52. CONCERNS ANDPROBLEMS IN INFANCY Jhundis Amper II – 2 BECEd
53. Teething Instruct the parents that infants may be resistant to chewing for a day because of teething. Educate the parents that the following manifestations are not normal during tooth eruption and any of these symptoms signifies an underlying infection or disease process requiring evaluation.1. High fever2. Seizures3. Vomiting4. Diarrhea
54.  Encourage parents to always check their infant’s health with a health care provider before administering OTC drugs. Check articles within baby’s reach to be sure that they are safe to chew or edible as teething infants tend to place almost any object in the mouth.
55. Thumb Sucking Parents should be educated that thumb sucking is normal and does not cause any jaw malformations on the jaw line as long as it stops by school age period. Thumb sucking peaks at about 18 months where it may begin as early as 3 months of age. Educate the parents that making an out of thumb sucking does not cause a child to stop the habit. It usually intensifies and prolongs the habit of thumb sucking. The best approach is to be certain an infant has adequate sucking pleasure and then ignore thumb sucking.
56. Head Banging Educate parents that head banging is a normal mechanism of relief of infants for tension. Head banging begins during the second half of the first year of life and continuing through to the preschool period. It is associated with naptime or bedtime which lasts for about 15 minutes. This habit is normal as children use this measure to relax and fall asleep.
57.  Investigate stress factors in the house. Excessive head banging suggests a pathologic condition and children with this condition needs counseling and further evaluation.
58. Sleep Problems Educate mother that breast-fed infants tend to wake up more often than formula fed infants because breast milk is easily digested thus, infants fed in breast milk gets hungry sooner. Remaining awake for long periods of time and waking at night is common during the late infancy period.
59.  To eliminate night waking or cope with this situation the following should be done:1. Delaying bed time for 1 hour.2. Shortening the afternoon sleep period.3. Do not responding immediately to infants so that they can have time to sleep on their own.4. Providing soft toys and music to allow infant to play quietly alone. Educate mother that breast-fed infants tend to wake up more often than formula fed infants because breast milk is easily digested thus, infants fed in breast milk gets hungry sooner.
60. MULTIPLE BIRTHS One out of every 35 live born babies is a multiple birth. Each year more known multiple births are occurring.Why do you think this is so? Multiple births are occurring in a dramatic increase. There were nearly 6000 triplets, quadruplets, and even higher sets born in 1996. Since 1975, numbers have increased by 50%. Since 1980, the numbers of triplets and higher increased by 312%. More than 100,000 were twins, 5,298 were triplets , 560 were quadruplets, and 81 quintuplets were born.
61.  There is a lot of risk to carrying multiples. The more babies, the earlier they are born. Multiple birth babies not only suffer from prematurity, but they also suffer from low birth weights and there tends to be more complications involved. The rate of complications when a woman is pregnant with twins is eight times that of a single birth, so for triplets and quadruplets, the problems go up dramatically.
62. Twins 33% of the time twins come from a single egg that divides into smaller structures. The frequency of identical twins occurs 1 in every 250 births world wide. It is not influenced by age, hereditary, race, number of pregnancies, or medications taken for infertility. Fraternal twins are however influenced by race, hereditary, maternal age, # of previous pregnancies and the use of fertility drugs.
63.  Slightly less than half of all twins are premature. The difference between a single birth and a double birth is that the first is usually born head first, and the second baby is breech or transverse.
64. TRIPLETS Triplets occur once in every 8000 births. The average gestation of 35 weeks. The average weight is 3 1/4 lbs. Complications of pregnancy is 2-3 times more than a single birth. Delivery is more complicated and cesarean will more than likely be done.
65. Critical Issues in Infancy Feeding: Breast vs.Premature Infants Multiple Births BottleStaying Home or Fetal Alcohol Infant Daycare Going to Work Syndrome
66. What is a premature baby?Premature baby or also known as a preemie - a baby born earlier than 37 weeks. As a full term baby is born at 38 to 42 weeks after they are conceived.
67. Healthy neonate vs. PrematureinfantHealthy infants are born 38-42 weeks after being conceived and weigh at around 2,500 grams or more ( 5- 7lbs).Premature infants are born sooner than 37 weeks from conception and weigh in at about 500-2,500 grams ( 3-5lbs).
68. What causes prematurelabor?  There are many factors that can contribute to premature labors. Some are caused by the mothers lifestyle choices during her pregnancy, such as: smoking, drinking, using drugs, poor eating, not gaining enough weight, physical stress, and poor prenatal care.  Other factors are sometimes out of the mothers control. The mother could have a hormonal imbalance, structural abnormality of the uterus, a chronic illness, or infection.  Premature labor can also be caused by age women over the age of 35 are more likely to deliver a premature baby. Women under the age of 19 are also likely to deliver prematurely.
69. Why do premature infants spend time in theNICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit)?When babies are born premature they are not fully developed. It depends on how premature your preemie is. For example preemies lungs may not be fully developed to breathe on his or her own or may not produce enough surfactant. The baby would be put on machines that can breath for them. The NICU also provides a stress free atmosphere to help the baby adjust to their new world.
70. Ways that you could interactwith them: Talk to them with a soft voice, preemies have very sensitive hearing Touch and hold your baby close to you Draw a picture for them on a white sheet of paper and a black marker they like the contrast of the colors to look at.
71. ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT (TODDLERHOOD)Paula Juliana I. NavarroII – 2 BECEd
72. Cognitive Development Persistent use of own language. Telegraphic speech refers to a childs tendency to use only the two or three most important words to express meaning. Realizes that the world exists even if he/she cannot see it (object permanence) Unable to see the perspective of other
73. Easily confused by surfaceappearancesUneven attentionLimited memoryConfused about causal relationshipsAcquires basic concepts of color,shape, size, number, days etc.
74. Believes that all things (living and non-living) possess life and feelings.Indulges in fantasy and make-believeplayHigh level of curiosityLanguage changes from two wordutterances to full sentences andgrammatical usage
75. PhysicalDevelopment is 38-40 pounds in weight and 40-41 inches in height Extremely active; good control of oneself. Clumsy because of tiny/small muscles are not fully developed. Pincer grip refines. Gait becomes smoother.
76. Can stand on one leg, jump up anddown, draw a circle and a crossetc.use their hands skillfully to moveand arrange objects includingdropping things on the floor andlooking to see where they are.
77. Social Development Friendship with the same sex. Desire for Independence. learns to share has cooperative play with other children may enter nursery school
78. begins to identify with same‘sex parent’.imaginary friends.interest in human body.practices sex role activities.know who their main carersare and cry if they are leftwith someone they do not know.
79. EmotionalDevelopmentEmotions are fully expressed.Jealousy occurs – seeks attention.displays affection towards parent
80. Moral Development Morality is influenced by adults surrounding them. Will remind adults of rules set. fear authority and try to
81. • 16-24 ounces of whole cows milk each day, although this isnt necessary if your toddler is still nursing 2-3 times a day. Avoid low fat milk until your toddler is at least two years old.• no more than 4-6 ounces of 100% fruit juice each day.• on average, 6 servings of grains, 2-3 servings of vegetables, 2-3 servings of fruits, and 2 servings of protein foods, like meat, fish, chicken, or legumes (beans, peas, lentils).
82. • the typical serving size for a toddler is about 1/4 of what an adult size serving would be, so you would only expect a toddler to eat 1/4 of a slice of bread, 1-2 tablespoons of vegetables, or 1 ounce of meat.• if your toddler is drinking too much milk and/or juice, she may be too full to eat, so follow the typical recommendations of 16-24 ounces of milk and 4-6 ounces of juice.• most toddlers like to feed themselves, so give them lots of chances.• toddlers will often want to try what their parents are eating and that is a good opportunity to get them to try some new foods, although you may have to offer it several times before they even think of trying it.
83. • according to the latest car seat guidelines, toddlers should ride in a rear-facing car seat (infant-only rear facing car seat or rear- facing convertible car seat).• remove climbing hazards from your home. It is also a good idea to use wall anchors to keep large appliances and furniture• from tipping over if your child climbs on them. And place childproof covers on door knobs to make sure that your toddler cant get out of the house on his own or into rooms that arent childproofed.
84. Most toddler who arent talking well arentreally delayed.They may not be talking as much as their parentswant or expectthem too, but that can still be normal. Beforelabeling your childsspeech as delayed, consider that most toddlers:• begin to say Mama and Dada between 7 and 15 months• say 4-6 words between 11 and 22 months• say 50 or more words between 18 and 27 months
85. • Follow up with logical consequences - Toddlers dont possess the cognitive maturity to be able to imagine themselves in another childs place or to change their behavior based on verbal reasoning. But they can understand consequences.• Keep your cool - Yelling, hitting, or telling your child hes bad wont get him to curtail his behavior. In fact, watching you control your temper may be the first step in his learning to control his.• Set clear limits - Try to respond immediately whenever your toddler is aggressive
86. • Demonstrate futility - If you ignore your toddlers hair pulling, it will "work" (in that whoevers hair is pulled will most likely do what your toddler wants), and it will get worse as your toddler learns over time that pulling hair gets her what she wants• Suppress the behavior - Gently grasp your toddlers hand and hold it while you say something like, "No, no; we dont pull hair, pulling hair hurts.“• Dont pull back - Dont decide to pull your toddlers hair to "teach her how it feels"
87. • Fasten her toys to her seat - When shes in her strolleror car seat, try attaching a few playthings within easyreach (tie the toys with short pieces of string and trimthe ends so they cant get wrapped around her neck)• Clean up together - Dont ask your toddler to pick upeverything she throws• Set a good example - use the items younormally toss around your home to showher whats good to throw and whats not
88. • Stay close to him - if youre in a crowded areaor around cars. "You have to keep up with your toddler“.• Show him where he can run - Let your toddlerexplore a safe area (like a park, where hessafe from cars and you can see him froma distance) freely and at his own pace
108. IMPLICATIONS TO TEACHING AND LEARNINGKreanne C. PagdangananII- 2 BECED
109. Historical Background of TeachingToddlers and Childcareo Childcare is a fairly new phenomenon in the history of the world as its practice expanded in the 1970s, 1980s o The first early years settings aimed to simply provide care for toddlers and other young children.
110. o Early years standards of care and education are increasingly important and this has had major implications in teaching toddlers. o Todays early years settings have arequirement to meet minimum standards of care and education
112. Implications in teaching andlearning Become well acquainted with theories and empirical research about growth and development among infants and toddlers Assess infants and toddlers in the context of their environment, culture included. Promote continued use of formal and informal social support networks for parents with infants and toddlers. Continue to promote the elimination of poverty and the advancement of social justice
114.  Advocate for compulsory health insurance and quality health care. Advocate for more affordable, quality child care. Collaborate with news media and other organizations to educate the public about the impact of poverty and inequality on early child development Learn intervention methods to prevent and reduce substance abuse.
115.  Help parents understand the potential effects of inadequate care giving on their infants, including the effects on brain development Provide support and appropriate intervention to parents to facilitate effective caregiving for infants and toddlers.