CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF ECUADOR GABRIELA GUEVARA Q SIXTH SEMESTER OF LANGUAGES Chocolate Fun Facts
CHOCOLATE"Theres nothing better than a goodfriend, except a good friend withchocolate." - Linda Grayson
Chocolate is a raw or processed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobroma cacao tree. Cacao has been cultivated for at least three millennia in Mexico, Central and South America. Its earliest documented use is around 1100 BC. The majority of the Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Aztecs, who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl, a Nahuatl word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste, and must be fermented to develop the flavor.
After fermentation, the beans are dried, then cleaned, and then roasted, and the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs. The nibs are then ground to cocoa mass, pure chocolate in rough form. Because this cocoa mass usually is liquefied then molded with or without other ingredients, it is called chocolate liquor. The liquor also may be processed into two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Unsweetened baking chocolate (bitter chocolate) contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, combining cocoa solids, cocoa butter or other fat, and sugar.
Cocoa solids contain alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine, which have physiological effects on the body. It has been linked to serotonin levels in the brain. Some research found that chocolate, eaten in moderation, can lower blood pressure. The presence of theobromine renders chocolate toxic to some animals, especially dogs and cats. Chocolate has become one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes have become traditional on certain holidays
Chocolate Fun Facts Many believe that chocolate is an aphrodisiac, possibly because of the simple sensual pleasure of its consumption. Scientists suggest that theobromine and other chemicals do act as mild sexual stimulants. But we all know chocolate will win their heart. The word Chocolate comes from the Aztec word xocolatl, meaning, bitter water. 71% of American chocolate eaters prefer milk chocolate. Its true! Chocolate is The Food of the Gods. Cacao beans come from a tree that is a species of the genus the obroma, which translated is food of the gods. Chocolate is a great natural antidepressant. It contains tryptophan which helps you create serotonin, your bodys own antidepressant.
Chocolate Fun Facts Contrary to popular belief, chocolate does NOT contribute to acne. However the milk in milk chocolate might, so enjoy the benefits of dark chocolate. Chocolate is poisonous to dogs (and other domestic animals). The bromine found in chocolate is a stimulant, and can be too much for small animals. Chocolate contains high-quality anti oxidants that can protect you from developing cancer and heart disease. Chocolate is rich in magnesium and iron, which your body needs.
Chocolate Fun Facts Chocolate makers use 40% of the worlds almonds and 20% of the worlds peanuts. Chocolates melting point is just below your body temperature, so it melts in your mouth. Melting chocolate in your mouth raises brain activity and heart rate more intensely than passionate kissing, and lasts four times longer! Ancient Aztecs thought chocolate had magical powers; like the ability to give them strength. Chocolate was consumed by the ancient Aztecs as a frothy beverage, somewhat like hot chocolate we drink today.
Chocolate Fun Facts Chocolate contains over 300 mineral properties that are beneficial to your health. Chocolate comes from a plant, called Theobroma cacao, which translates "Food of the Gods". Dark chocolate has more antioxidants than green tea and just as many as blueberries. White chocolate really isnt chocolate. Its made from cocoa butter, the substance you get by pressing cocoa beans. Cocoa butter is absent of the cocoa solids used to make chocolate. Chocolate does contain chemical elements that really do boost your mood and produce a euphoric feeling.
Chocolate Fun Facts Eating chocolate gives you the same feeling as falling in love. This is probably why Valentines Day and chocolate go hand in hand. Chocolate comes from the Aztec word "xocolatl" which means "bitter water". Switzerland is one of the top countries for chocolate consumption. The Swiss consume about 22 lbs of chocolate, per person, per year. Cocoa beans were used as currency by the Mayan and Aztec cultures. Perhaps this is where they saying "Money grows on trees" came from.
Chocolate Fun Facts Allowing chocolate to melt in your mouth produces the same or even stronger reactions as passionately kissing. Hershey is the oldest and largest chocolate company in the US. Cadbury is the most popular chocolate in the UK. Most cocoa comes from West Africa. The most expensive chocolate in the world is $2,600 per pound. Its called Madeleine and is made by Fritz Knipschildt, a chocolatier in Connecticut. Craving chocolate when a woman is on her menstrual cycle may have more to do with the fact that chocolate is known for helping ease menstrual symptoms.
Chocolate Fun Facts Eating chocolate can also reduce the symptoms of stress. Chocolate is beneficial for proper blood flow to the lungs and other organs. The minerals in chocolate help to increase brain power and function. An English doctor prescribed chocolate to pregnant women as he believed it helped the fetus and embryos development.
Chocolate is available in many types. Different forms and flavors of chocolate are produced by varying the quantities of the different ingredients. Other flavors can be obtained by varying the time and temperature when roasting the beans. "Unsweetened chocolate", also known as "bitter", "baking chocolate" or "cooking chocolate" is pure chocolate liquor mixed with some form of fat to produce a solid substance. The pure, ground, roasted cocoa beans impart a strong, deep chocolate flavor. With the addition of sugar, however, it is used as the base for cakes, brownies, confections, and cookies. Swiss dark chocolate
"Dark chocolate", also called "plain chocolate" or "black chocolate", is produced by adding fat and sugar to cocoa. It is chocolate with no or much less milk than milk chocolate. The U.S. has no official definition for dark chocolate but European rules specify a minimum of 35% cocoa solids. Dark chocolate can be eaten as is, or used in cooking, for which thicker, more expensive baking bars with higher cocoa percentages ranging from 70% to 99% are sold. Dark is synonymous with semisweet, and extra dark with bittersweet, although the ratio of cocoa butter to solids may vary. "Semisweet chocolate" is frequently used for cooking purposes. It is a dark chocolate with (by definition in Swiss usage) half as much sugar as cocoa, beyond which it is "sweet chocolate." "Bittersweet chocolate" is chocolate liquor (or unsweetened chocolate) to which some sugar (less than a third), more cocoa butter, vanilla and sometimes lecithin has been added. It has less sugar and more liquor than semisweet chocolate, but the two are interchangeable when baking. Bittersweet and semisweet chocolates are sometimes referred to as couverture. Many brands now print on the package the percentage of cocoa in the chocolate (as chocolate liquor and added cocoa butter). The higher the percentage of cocoa, the less sweet the chocolate is.
"Couverture" is a term used for chocolates rich in cocoa butter. Popular brands of couverture used by professional pastry chefs and often sold in gourmet and specialty food stores include: Valrhona, Felchlin, Lindt & Sprüngli, Scharffen Berger, Cacao Barry, Callebaut, and Guittard. These chocolates contain a high percentage of cocoa. Swiss milk chocolate "Milk chocolate" is solid chocolate made with milk in the form of milk powder, liquid milk, or condensed milk added. In the 1870s, Swiss confectioner Daniel Peter had developed solid milk chocolate using condensed milk; hitherto it had only been available as a drink. The U.S. Government requires a 10% concentration of chocolate liquor. EU regulations specify a minimum of 25% cocoa solids, however an agreement was reached in 2003 that allows milk chocolate in the UK and Ireland to contain only 20% cocoa solids. This type of chocolate must be called "family milk chocolate" elsewhere in the European Union.
"Hershey process" milk chocolate is popular in North America. It was invented by Milton S. Hershey, founder of The Hershey Company, and can be produced more cheaply than other processes since it is less sensitive to the freshness of the milk. The process is a trade secret, but experts speculate that the milk is partially lipolyzed, producing butyric acid, which stabilizes the milk from further fermentation. This compound gives the product a particular sour, "tangy" taste, to which the American public has become accustomed, to the point that other manufacturers now simply add butyric acid to their milk chocolates. Swiss White chocolate "White chocolate" is a confection based on sugar, milk, and cocoa butter without the cocoa solids. "Cocoa powder" is used for baking, and for drinking with added milk and sugar.
There are two types of unsweetened cocoa powder: natural cocoa (like the sort produced by the Broma process), and Dutch-process cocoa. Both are made by pulverising partially defatted chocolate liquor and removing nearly all the cocoa butter; Dutch-process cocoa is additionally processed with alkali to neutralise its natural acidity. Natural cocoa is light in colour and somewhat acidic with a strong chocolate flavour. Natural cocoa is commonly used in recipes that also use baking soda; as baking soda is an alkali, combining it with natural cocoa creates a leavening action that allows the batter to rise during baking. Dutch cocoa is slightly milder in taste, with a deeper and warmer colour than natural cocoa. Dutch-process cocoa is frequently used for chocolate drinks such as hot chocolate due to its ease in blending with liquids. However, Dutch processing destroys most of the flavonoids present in cocoa. In 2005 Hershey discontinued their pure Dutch-process European Style cocoa and replaced it with Special Dark, a blend of natural and Dutch-process cocoa.
Swiss White chocolate "White chocolate" is a confection based on sugar, milk, and cocoa butter without the cocoa solids. "Cocoa powder" is used for baking, and for drinking with added milk and sugar. There are two types of unsweetened cocoa powder: natural cocoa (like the sort produced by the Broma process), and Dutch-process cocoa. Both are made by pulverising partially defatted chocolate liquor and removing nearly all the cocoa butter; Dutch-process cocoa is additionally processed with alkali to neutralise its natural acidity. Natural cocoa is light in colour and somewhat acidic with a strong chocolate flavour. Natural cocoa is commonly used in recipes that also use baking soda; as baking soda is an alkali, combining it with natural cocoa creates a leavening action that allows the batter to rise during baking. Dutch cocoa is slightly milder in taste, with a deeper and warmer colour than natural cocoa. Dutch-process cocoa is frequently used for chocolate drinks such as hot chocolate due to its ease in blending with liquids. However, Dutch processing destroys most of the flavonoids present in cocoa. In 2005 Hershey discontinued their pure Dutch-process European Style cocoa and replaced it with Special Dark, a blend of natural and Dutch-process cocoa.
"Compound chocolate" is the technical term for a confection combining cocoa with vegetable fat, usually tropical fats and/or hydrogenated fats, as a replacement for cocoa butter. It is often used for candy bar coatings. In many countries it may not legally be called "chocolate". "Raw chocolate" is chocolate that has not been processed, heated, or mixed with other ingredients. It is sold in chocolate-growing countries, and to a much lesser extent in other countries, often promoted as healthy. Flavors such as mint, vanilla, coffee, orange, or strawberry are sometimes added to chocolate in a creamy form or in very small pieces. Chocolate bars frequently contain added ingredients such as peanuts, nuts, fruit, caramel, and crisped rice. Pieces of chocolate, in various flavours, are sometimes added to cereals and ice cream.