Education and Learning in Museums 2.0 PhD Thesis "Art Museums in Web 2.0" by Bianca Bocatius Institute of Information Science, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf
Outline Lifelong Learning in Museums Digital Educational Museum Service Overview Outlook
1. Lifelong Learning in Museums Reasonsforincreasingimportanceoflifelonglearning (LINDE & STOCK, 2009: 205f): Modificationofknowledge Knowledge as most important economic resource Lifelong learning is essential for success and development of a knowledge-based society.
"Museums provide unique educational opportunities; their displays of objects and their informal atmosphere not only invite learning, but also make possible the enjoyment of learning, often for the first time […]"(AAM, 1969).
"Museums all over Europe have been reviewing their rôle, adding a new facet to their mission in terms of their relationship with society and the local community and have undertaken significant actions to become agents of social change and social integration, bringing more people back into the learning cycle. Nowadays it is largely recognized that most of what we learn is acquired in informal contexts and that museums are ideal places for learning throughout life, as they offer free choice learning and can address all age ranges" (EUROPEAN MUSEUM FORUM (ed.), 2005: 1).
1. Lifelong Learning in Museums Ramifications for museums: Nowadayseducation and learning are the biggest challenges for museums (DMB & BVMP (ed.), 2008: 6). Museums as informative and communicative systems Information and Communication Technologies enlarge the educational support ICT in museums: e.g. smartphones, computer-based terminals and the Internet.
2. Digital Educational Museum Service ASTLEITNER (1997) points out four basic developments for learning online: Self-directed learning Local distance Cooperative knowledge acquisition Diversity for pluralistic thinking (ASTLEITNER 1997: 13f)
2. Digital Educational Museum Service The Internet is part of everyday life of most of European citizens. Figure 1 Howoften do youusethe Internet in yourleisuretime? Source: EUROPEAN COMMISSON (ed.), 2007: WWW, 16).
2. Digital Educational Museum Service The World Wide Web developed from a static and one-way platform to an interactive and two-way communicative service (O'REILLY 30.09.2005: WWW). The Internet can now be used to grasp information but also as a platform for self-expression (O'REILLY 30.09.2005: WWW). Now in the time of Web 2.0 the Internet user is a consumer and producer of content as well (prosumer) (WEIBEL, 2007: 23).
2. Digital Educational Museum Service The digital educational museum service in Germany can be separated into three categories: General information, such as address, contact person and other contact details; Specialized information about the educational service as well as an on-line registration form, download center, information about projects or educational programs; Educational service and learning opportunities such as mentioned in the second category plus information about the collection or exhibitions, online games, databases, online exhibitions, detailed explanations (PREHN, 2002: WWW, 5).
2. Digital Educational Museum Service Figure 2 Digital Educational Museum Service of the Jewish Museum Berlin (Jewish Museum Berlin, WWW. Last access: 02.09.10.)
2. Digital Educational Museum Service Figure 3 Rafael Roth Learning Center of the Jewish Museum Berlin (Jewish Museum Berlin, WWW. Last access: 02.09.10.)
2. Digital Educational Museum Service A fourth category of the Digital Educational Museum Service: Brooklyn Museum, New York = unit of building and virtual counterpart with the Project "Click! A Crowd-Curated Exhibition" Web 2.0 functions and focus on communication, interaction and participation
2. Digital Educational Museum Service Participation & Exchange Information & Communication Personalization Participation Participation & Exchange Personalization & Participation Information & Communication & Participation Figure 4 Click! A Crowd-Curated Exhibition, Most Discussed. (Brooklyn Museum, WWW. Last access: 08.08.10.)
2. Digital Educational Museum Service So what did the Brooklyn Museum provide that can be defined as a Web 2.0 tool? Participation: open to any photographer who had produced work with a Brooklyn theme, participation via rating, selection, comparison & tagging Communication: blog or comment function on the photos Personalization: MySite concept, embedding the blog in personal sites, e.g. igoogle, social bookmarking Information: RSS function on the blog Combination of on-line and on-site activities
Web 2.0 in museums can be divided into four functional areas which represent different purposes of Web 2.0: Personalization: MySite concepts, download center, databases, social bookmarks Information and Communication: RSS newsfeeds, podcast, weblogs, microblogging Participation: wikis, social tagging, comment functions, participatory projects Network and Exchange: Flickr, YouTube, MySpace, Facebook, social bookmarks, mashups (LILL & SCHWEIBENZ, 2009: WWW, 22)
2. Digital Educational Museum Service Figure 5 Click! A Crowd-Curated Exhibition, Real Exhibition in Online-Archive. (Brooklyn Museum, WWW. Last access: 08.08.10.)
3. Overview Benefits of the Digital Educational Museum Service on the Internet: To guarantee public access to cultural heritage To enable visitors to prepare and review their visits individually (connection of museum and virtual counterpart) To offer participatory opportunities To communicate and activate dialogues To connect and expand educational work by combining on-site and on-line activities Toguarantee a communicativeandparticipatoryrelationship between the museum and its visitors on-siteand on-line
4. Outlook The Museum 2.0: Desire for a discoursive, communicative and participatory relationship between museums and their visitors The entire Museum 2.0 is "open-minded, communicative, it opens its doors – at least virtually – to the whole world, it cooperates, it knows its visitors, it learns, it interacts directly and remains open to criticism, it wins" (HAHN, 2002: 92). Web 2.0 is a cultural and social phenomenon, not only a technical development. Museums are part of society and have to fulfill their required role to be accepted and valuable for society.
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