Inb220 tt week 2 ch 3 leadership


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Inb220 tt week 2 ch 3 leadership

  1. 1. Week 2 Chapter 3
  2. 2. What is the difference between a manager and a leader? Are there specific traits, behaviours, and situations that affect how one leads? How does a leader lead with vision? Are there leadership roles for non- managers? What are some of the contemporary issues in leadership? Objectives
  3. 3. Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Source:
  4. 4. Source: R. N. Kanungo, “Leadership in Organizations: Looking Ahead to the 21st Century,” Canadian Psychology 39, no. 1-2 (1998), p. 77. Management • Engages in day-to-day caretaker activities: Maintains and allocates resources • Exhibits supervisory behaviour: Acts to make others maintain standard job behaviour • Administers subsystems within organizations • Asks how and when to engage in standard practice • Acts within established culture of the organization • Uses transactional influence: Induces compliance in manifest behaviour using rewards, sanctions, and formal authority • Relies on control strategies to get things done by subordinates • Status quo supporter and stabilizer Leadership • Formulates long-term objectives for reforming the system: Plans strategy and tactics • Exhibits leading behaviour: Acts to bring about change in others congruent with long-term objectives • Innovates for the entire organization • Asks what and why to change standard practice • Creates vision and meaning for the organization • Uses transformational influence: Induces change in values, attitudes, and behaviour using personal examples and expertise • Uses empowering strategies to make followers internalize values • Status quo challenger and change creator Exhibit 3-1 Distinguishing Leadership from Management
  5. 5. Leadership as Supervision – 3 General Questions 1. Is there a particular set of traits that all leaders have, making them different from nonleaders? 2. Are there particular behaviours that make for better leaders? 3. How much impact does the situation have on leaders?
  6. 6. Trait Theories of Leadership Traits consistently associated with leadership: Ambition and energy The desire to lead Honesty and integrity Self-confidence Intelligence Job-relevant knowledge Source:
  7. 7. Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the best predictor of who will emerge as a leader.
  8. 8. Behavioural Theories of Leadership Propose that specific behaviours differentiate leaders from nonleaders. • Attention to production: task orientation, work orientation, production orientation • Attention to people: employee needs and concerns • Examples • Ohio Studies, Michigan Studies, Blake & Mouton’s Leadership Grid
  9. 9. Ohio Studies – two dimensions of leadership behaviour Initiating structure • extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his/her role and the roles of employees in order to attain goals • behaviour to try to organize work, work relationships and goals Consideration • extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings Image source:
  10. 10. Michigan Studies – 2 dimensions of leadership behaviour Employee oriented • emphasize interpersonal relations • personal interest in the needs of their subordinates • accept individual differences Production oriented • emphasize technical or task aspects of the job • concerned with making sure the group accomplishes its tasks • group members are simply a means to that end Image source:
  11. 11. Exhibit 3-2 The Leadership Grid – Blake & Mouton Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership. 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Low High Concern for production Low High 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 Country club management 1,9 Thoughtful attention to the needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo. Team management 9,9 Work accomplishment is from committed people who have a “common stake” in the organization’s purpose. This leads to relationships of trust and respect. Impoverished management 1,1 Authority-obedience 9,1 Middle-of-the-road management 5,5 Adequate organizational performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level. Concernforpeople Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree. Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. Based on an exhibit from “Breakthrough in Organization Development,” by R. R. Blake, J. S. Mouton, L. B. Barnes, and L. E. Greiner (November- December 1964). Copyright © 1964 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College; all rights reserved.
  12. 12. Research Findings: Behavioural Theories of Leadership When should a leader be people-oriented? •Lots of pressure due to deadlines or unclear tasks •When it’s clear how to perform the task and what the goals are When should a leader be production-oriented •When the task is interesting or satisfying •When the goals or how to perform the task are not clear •When people do not know what to do or do not have the knowledge/skills to do the job
  13. 13. Research Findings: Behavioural Theories of Leadership Followers of people-oriented leaders were more satisfied with their jobs, more motivated and had more respect for their leader. Production-oriented leaders showed higher levels of productivity and more positive performance evaluations.
  14. 14. Contingency Theories: Does the Situational Matter? Stress the importance of considering the context when examining leadership. • Fiedler Contingency Model • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory • Path-Goal Theory • Substitutes for Leadership
  15. 15. Fiedler Contingency Model Effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader.
  16. 16. Fiedler’s contingency situations – if these are high, then the leader has more control. Leader-member relations Degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have for leader. Task structure Degree to which jobs are structured. Position power Degree to which leader has control over “power”: hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, salary. Fiedler assumed that an individual’s leadership style is fixed.
  17. 17. Fiedler Contingency Model Level of Control Leadership Orientation Explanation High or Low Task High-control – relationship is good so leader can get away with task orientation. Low- control – task orientation may be only way to get things done Moderate Relationship Leader’s relationship may make it easier to get things done.
  18. 18. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory – leader/follower relationship similar to parent/child Follower: able but unwilling • Leader: needs to use a supportive and participative style. Follower: both able and willing • Leader: a laissez-faire approach will work.
  19. 19. Able and willing Able and unwilling/ apprehensive R3R4 Unable and willing Unable and willing Unable and unwilling/ insecure Unable and unwilling/ insecure ModerateHigh Low Task behaviour Leader Behaviours (Low) (High) S4 S3 S2 S1 (High) Follower Readiness R2 R1 RelationshipBehaviour Exhibit 3-3 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory
  20. 20. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership A theory that says it’s the leader’s job to assist followers in reaching their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their individual goals are compatible with the overall goals.
  21. 21. Path-Goal Theory: 3 Guidelines to Be an Effective Leader Determine the outcomes subordinates want. •e.g., good pay, job security, interesting work, and autonomy to do one’s job, etc. Be clear with expectations. •Let individuals know what they need to do to receive rewards (the path to the goal). •Remove barriers that prevent high performance. •Express confidence that individuals have the ability to perform well. Reward individuals with their desired outcomes when they perform well.
  22. 22. Path-Goal: 4 leadership behaviours that might be used in different situations Directive • Lets followers know what is expected of them, schedules work to be done and gives specific guidance Supportive • Friendly and shows concern for the needs of followers Participative • Consults with followers before making a decision Achievement oriented • Sets challenging goals, expects followers to perform at their highest level Source:
  23. 23. Exhibit 3-4 Path-Goal Theory – Contingency factors that determine the appropriate leader behaviour.
  24. 24. Exhibit 3-5 Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership – a leader is not always necessary Characteristics of Individual Experience/training Professionalism Indifference to rewards Characteristcs of Job Highly structured task Provides its own feedback Intrinsically satisfying Characteristics of organization Explicit formalized goals Rigid rules and procedures Cohesive work groups Effect on Leadership Substitutes for task-oriented leadership Substitutes for relationship-oriented & task-oriented leadership Neutralizes relationship-oriented and task-oriented leadership Substitutes for task-oriented leadership Substitutes for task-oriented leadership Substitutes for relationship-oriented leadership Substitutes for task-oriented leadership Substitutes for task-oriented leadership Substitutes for relationship-oriented & task-oriented leadership Source: Based on S. Kerr and J. M. Jermier, “Substitutes for Leadership: Their Meaning and Measurement,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, December 1978, p. 378.
  25. 25. From Transactional to Transformational Leadership Transactional leaders • Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. • Performance meets expectations Transformational leaders • Leaders who inspire followers to go beyond their own self- interests for the good of the organization, and have a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers.
  26. 26. Exhibit 3-6 Full Range of Leadership Model
  27. 27. Charismatic and Transformational leaders articulate a vision Clear and compelling imagery that offers an innovative way to improve, which recognizes and draws on traditions, and connects to actions that people can take to realize change. Vision taps people’s emotions and energy.
  28. 28. Research Findings: Charismatic Leadership Transformational leadership usually results in lower turnover rates, higher productivity, and higher employee satisfaction when compared to transactional leaders Charismatic leadership had a greater impact on team performance than individual performance Image source:
  29. 29. Charismatic leaders can be good if organizations need great change • After the change is completed, charismatic leaders can be a liability • Charismatic leaders too often believe that they are correct • Charismatic leaders can silence criticism So…is Charismatic Leaderships necessary? • Recent study showed that companies went from good to great because they had charismatic leaders who were not ego-driven • These leaders have been called level 5 leaders. Charismatic Leadership
  30. 30. Mentoring often a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee (a protégé). The mentoring role includes: coaching; counselling; sponsorship - longer term relationship and emotional attachment
  31. 31. Coaching – task oriented/shorter term than mentoring Good coaches • Emphasizes self-development and self-discovery of the person being coached • Offers the person being coached constructive feedback on how to improve • Meets regularly with the person being coached • Is a good listener • Challenges the person being coached to perform • Sets realistic standards for the person being coached to achieve
  32. 32. Factors Calling for Self-Leadership (or Self-Management) With self-leadership, individuals and teams: Set goals Plan and implement tasks Evaluate performance Solve their own problems Motivate themselves
  33. 33. How Do Leaders Create Self-Leaders? Model self-leadership. Encourage employees to create self-set goals. Encourage the use of self- rewards to strengthen and increase desirable behaviors. Create positive thought patterns. Create a climate of self- leadership. Encourage self-criticism. Source:
  34. 34. Providing Team Leadership Leading teams requires new skills. patience to share information, trust others, give up authority, and knowing when to intervene Leading teams requires new roles. Liaisons with external constituencies Troubleshooters Conflict managers Coaches Image source:
  35. 35. Online Leadership telecommuting contracting out globalization communication is key – tone and words used
  36. 36. Benefits of Leading Without Authority Sources: ;; Latitude for creative deviance • Easier to raise harder questions and look for less traditional solutions. Issue focus • Freedom to focus on single issue, rather than many issues. Frontline information • Often closer to the people who have the information.
  37. 37. Contemporary Issues in Leadership Authentic leadership Is there a moral dimension to leadership Do men and women lead differently Source:
  38. 38. Authentic leaders: Know who they are, know what they believe in and value and act upon those values and beliefs openly and candidly Followers consider them ethical and allow for trust to be developed Because the concept is new, there has been little research on this topic Image source:
  39. 39. Ethics deals with leadership in a number of ways… Transformational leaders are described as encouraging moral virtue when they change attitudes and behaviour Unethical leaders are likely to use charisma to increase power over others Top executives set the moral tone for an organization Image source:
  40. 40. The Moral Foundation of Leadership •Telling the truth as you see it, because it allows for a mutual, fair exchange to occur. Truth telling •Leaders need to be careful of the commitments they make, and then careful of keeping those promises. Promise keeping •This ensures that followers get their fair share for their contributions to the organization. Fairness •Telling the truth, keeping promises, and being fair all show respect for the individual. Respect means treating people with dignity. Respect for the individual Source:
  41. 41. Gender and Leadership: Do Men and Women Lead Differently? Similarities between male and female leaders outweigh the differences Women tend to be more democratic while men or more directive Now, flexibility, teamwork, trust, and information sharing are replacing rigid structures, competitive individualism, control, and secrecy Source:
  42. 42. Men’s and Women’s Leadership Styles In general, women fall back on a democratic leadership style: Encourage participation. Share power and information. Attempt to enhance followers’ self-worth. Prefer to lead through inclusion. Men feel more comfortable with a directive command- and-control style: Rely on formal authority. Source:
  43. 43. None of the five studies set out to find gender differences. They stumbled on them while compiling and analyzing performance evaluations. Skill (Each check mark denotes which group scored higher on the respective studies) * In one study, women’s and men’s scores in these categories were statistically even. MEN WOMEN Motivating Others Fostering Communication Producing High-Quality Work Strategic Planning Listening to Others Analyzing Issues * * * Data: Hagberg Consulting Group, Management Research Group, Lawrence A. Pfaff, Personnel Decisions International Inc., Advanced Teamware Inc. Source: R. Sharpe, “As Leaders, Women Rule,” BusinessWeek, November 20, 2000, p. 75. Reprinted by permission of Business Week. Exhibit 3-8 Where Female Managers Do Better: A Scorecard
  44. 44. Summary and Implications •managers promote stability while leaders press for change. What is the difference between a manager and a leader? •The research on this topic has been mixed. Contingency theories suggest that leaders need to adjust their behaviours, depending on the situation and employee needs. Are there specific traits, behaviours, and situations that affect how one leads? •Leaders that lead with vision are known as transformational or charismatic leaders. They inspire followers to go beyond their own self-interests for the good of the organization. How does a leader lead with vision. •A person can be an informal leader. Such leadership can take the form of mentoring, coaching, self-leadership, providing team leadership, online leadership and leading without authority. Are there leadership roles for nonmanagers? •Three major issues of leadership today are authentic leadership, moral leadership, gender differences in leadership. What are some of the contemporary issues in leadership?
  45. 45. For Review Trace the development of leadership research. What traits predict leadership? What is the Managerial Grid? Contrast its approach to leadership with the approaches of the Ohio State and Michigan studies. What are the contingency variables in the path-goal theory? When might leaders be irrelevant? What characteristics define an effective follower? What are the differences between transactional and transformational leaders? Describe the strengths and weaknesses of a charismatic leader. What is moral leadership? Why do you think effective female and male managers often exhibit similar traits and behaviours?
  46. 46. 51 Homework
  47. 47. Image source: