Objectives of Study Assisting GoN through MPPW for the Construction of Railway line in a cost effective, efficient and sustainable manner by means of Selection of alignment and preliminary engineering designs for the Railway System Traffic survey and determining the existing and future transportation demand Formulation of train operation plan, requirements of rolling stock, electrification, signaling and telecom system
Objectives of Study (contd..) Cost estimates for track, bridges, power supply arrangement, overhead electrical lines, rolling stock, signaling and telecommunication, stations etc. Specifications of the Project Assessment of technical and economic feasibility Assessment of environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendation of impact management plans Project implementation and operation modalities
Structure of Presentation Alignment Geological Studies Tunnels Environmental & Social Impact Design Parameters Transport Demand Forecast Signaling, Train Control and Telecommunication Electric Traction Selection of Wagons, Coaches, and Shunting (Diesel) Locomotives
Structure of Presentation Train Operations Plan Maintenance and Operation Organisation Abstract Cost Estimates Institutional Frame Work for Construction and Schedule Financial and Economic Appraisal Conclusions and Recommendations
Length of Railway AlignmentLength of Mechi-Mahakali Route (km) 945.244Length of Kathmandu-Pokhara Route (km) 187.083Length of Link (Tamsariya-Abukhaireni) (km) 71.729Length of Connections to India at six 113.419locations(km)Grand Total (Km) 1317.475
Summary of Important FeaturesTerminal Stations (Kathmandu, Pokhara, Gaddachowki, 4Lumbini, )Junction Stations (Kohalpur, Manikapur, Butwal, Tamsariya, 9Simara, Madhawaliya, Bardibas, Itahari, AbuKhairani)Intermediate Stations 123No. of Tunnels 56Length of Tunnels (km) 154.4Major Bridges 401Minor Bridges 1469Road Under Bridge (RUB) 327Road Over Bridge (ROB) 19Level Crossings 340 Note:Nepalganj, Bhairawah, Birganj, Janakpur, Biratnagar, Kakarbitta are already plannedstations on the planned connections with India, hence not included in this list.
Alignments of Section-1 To KakarbitaTanakpur not connected being flood prone area & space for Terminal Station not availableRecommended alignment between Guleriya Krishanpur and Tikapur shorter by 2.3km and runs close to East-West HighwayRecommended alignment between Sukhkhad and Baidi shorter by 11.5km.Chisapani on Alternate Alignment not connected due to difficult topogrpahy, longer length, longer bridging length over Karnali RiverRecommended alignment between Machad and Mahadevpuri shorter by 1.8km & runs close to East-West Highway.
Salient Features of Section -1Description RemarksTotal Length (km) 202.665Major towns en-route Gaddachowki, Mahendernagar,Attariya, Tikapur, KohalpurMajor water bodies crossed Chaudar, Doda, Shivganga, Karnali, Geruwa, BabaiNo. of Major bridges 70Longest bridge (m)/Name 1067 / Geruwa NadiNo. of terminal stations/Junction 1/1/25Stations/Intermediate Stations
Alignments of Section-2 To KakarbitaDue to the topographic constraints like hilly terrain , presence of Rapti River andEast-West Highway only one alignment shown above is feasible in this section.
Salient Features of Section -2Description RemarksTotal Length (km) 139.163Major towns en-route Mahadevpuri, Lamahi, Bahlubang, ShivapurMajor water bodies crossed Muguwa, Gabar, Arjun, RaptiNo. of Major bridges 55Longest bridge (m)/Name 671 / Rapti RiverNo. of tunnels/Length of tunnels (km) 3 / 17.742No. of terminal stations/Junction 0 / 0 / 18Stations/Intermediate Stations
Alignments of Section-3 To Gaddachowki To KakarbitaRecommended alignment between Shiwapur and Tilakpur shorter by 1.5km & 1.3km from alternate alignment -6 & alternate alignment -7 respectively.Recommended alignment runs closer to East-West Highway
Salient Features of Section -3Description RemarksTotal Length (km) 123.5Major towns en-route Gorusinge, Butwal, Dumkibas, KusundeMajor water bodies crossed Banganga, Tinou, Binai, ArunNo. of Major bridges 37Longest bridge (m)/Name 427/Arun KholaNo. of tunnels/Length of tunnels 2 / 6.22(km)No. of terminal stations/Junction 0 / 1 / 14Stations/Intermediate Stations
Alignments of Section-4Recommended alignment between Tamrariya and Simara shorter by 5.4km even after considering 42 km long Tamsariya -Bharatpur line of section -7.Tunneling requirements on recommended alignment would be 2.75 km against 35km on alternate alignment.Recommended alignment travels on south of Royal Chitwan Park while alternate alignment runs along East-West Highway.
Salient Features of Section -4Description RemarksTotal Length (km) 176.937Major towns en-route Tamsariya, Simara, Kanchanpur, ChandranighapurMajor water bodies crossed Gadar, Narayani, Rewa, Amuwa, JoroyoNo. of Major bridges 64Longest bridge (m)/Name 488 / NarayaniNo. of tunnels/Length of tunnels (km) 5 / 2.747No. of terminal stations/JunctionStations/Intermediate Stations 0 / 2 / 16
Alignments of Section-5 To KakarbitaRecommended Alignment shorter by 10km.Recommended Alignment runs closer to East-West Highway.Both the alignments pass through similar topography and cross the same Waterbodies
Salient Features of Section -5Description RemarksTotal Length (km) 119.129Major towns en-route Chandranigahapur, Bardibas, LahanMajor water bodies crossed Bagmati, Rato, KamlaNo. of Major bridges 43Longest bridge (m)/Name 793 / BagmatiNo. of terminal stations/Junction 0 / 1 /10Stations/Intermediate Stations
Alignments of Section-6Recommended Alignment shorter by 10km.Recommended Alignment passes through plain area while Alternative Alignment- 10 passes through undulating/hilly terrain necessitating higher embankments, deeper cuttings and a tunnel of about 1.25km.In addition to bridge over Saptkoshi river, lot of other bridges would be required over tributaries of Saptkosi in alternative alignment.Speed potential in parts of Alternative Alignment-10 via Chatara 75 km/h, against 160 km/h via barrage.
Salient Features of Section -6Description RemarksTotal Length (km) 183.850Major towns en-route Rajbiraj, Itahari, Biratmod, KakarbitaMajor water bodies crossed Saptkosi, Kankaimai, RatuwaNo. of Major bridges 65Longest bridge (m)/Name 1171 / SaptkosiNo. of terminal stations/JunctionStations/Intermediate Stations 0 / 1 / 16
Saptkosi RiverTo Lahan Length of Bridge = 1171m
Alignments of Section-7Connection betweenMechi-Mahakali Railwayline and Pokhara- MuglingKathmandu Railway line To Kathmandu Suitable locations forconnecting at these lineswere Tamsariya and Abu-khairani .Important to connect totwin towns namelyBharatpur andNarayangadh .Only one alignment isfound feasible
Salient Features of Section -7Description RemarksTotal Length (km) 71.729Major towns en-route Tamsariya, Bharatpur, Abu Khaireni,Major water bodies crossed Marahi, KaligandkiNo. of major bridges 9Longest bridge (m)/Name 1250 / KaligandkiNo. of tunnels/Length of tunnels 2 / 20.416No. of terminal stations/Junction 0/0/6Stations/Intermediate Stations
Alignments of Section-8Recommended alignment shorter by 2.7km than Alternate Alignment -1.Recommended alignment shorter by 8.5km than Alternate Alignment -2.Recommended alignment shorter by 10.5km than Alternate Alignment -3.Alternate Alignment-1, 2 & 3 passes through remote area and more difficult topography.Alternate Alignment 2 passes through submergence area of proposed Upper Seti Dam.
Salient Features of Section -8Description RemarksTotal Length (km) 187.083Major towns en-route Pokhara, Damauli, Abukhaireni, KathmanduMajor water bodies crossed Madi, Marsyandi, Budhigandki, TrishuliNo. of major bridges 42Longest bridge (m)/Name 1295 / Madi NadiNo. of tunnels/Length of tunnels 44 / 107.277 (57.34%)No. of terminal stations/JunctionStations/Intermediate Stations 2 / 1 / 12
Pokhara StationPokhara Proposed International Airport
Madi River Crossing Length of Bridge = 1295m Height of bridge 77m (Lowest point)
Trishuliganga River Length of Bridge = 1143m Height of bridge 172m (Lowest point)To Pokhara
Kathmandu Station Proposed Kathmandu Station 7km Airport
Geological StudiesMechi-Mahakali – Loose fluvial sediments of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (Terai) and sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group (mudstone, sandstone, pebbly sandstone and conglomerate) Through the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). Strike of bedding plane extends nearly northeast to southwest direction and dips toward north direction. Soil erosion in the Indo-Gangetic Plain may affect the alignment during the flood disaster because of presence of loose sediments. Tunnel alignment through the rocks of the Lower Middle and Upper Siwaliks 10 to 30% very poor rock 10- 40% poor rock 20-30% fair rock.
Geological Studies (contd..)Tamsariya – Abu-khairani Rocks of the Siwalik and Lesser Himalaya as well as the sediments of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Rocks of Lower Siwalik and comprise of thick mudstone and sandstone. At Bharatpur, the Dun valley sediment found Dip direction of the foliation plane and direction of the tunnel alignment are nearly perpendicular.Kathmandu-Pokhara Low- to high-grade metamorphic and sedimentary rocks of the Lesser Himalaya, Central and Western Nepal Himalaya. Dip direction of the foliation plane and direction of the tunnel alignment are nearly perpendicularConnection to Indian Border Through Indo-Gangetic Plain Loose as well as thick silty sand
Pokhara – Kathmandu Tunnels Total Route length - 187Km Length of Tunnelling - 107Km Length of Longest tunnel - 14.525km Maxm Overburden - 1050m
Mechi – Mahakali Tunnels Total Route length - 945 Km Length of Tunnelling - 27 Km Length of Longest tunnel - 14.2 km Maxm Overburden - 573 m
Tamsariya – Abukhaireni Tunnels Total Route length - 72Km Length of Tunnelling - 20Km Length of Longest tunnel - 11.7Km Maxm Overburden - 1587m
EXCAVATION LINE SHOTCRETE LINING 3560 INNER LINING MAINTENANCE RESERVATION6695 R3560 O 2585 1188 3660 1188 1676 Proposed Tunnel Cross 5911 MAIN DRAIN section tunnel ≤ 1000m
O F TUNNEL O F TRACK EXCAVATION LINE SHOTCRETE LINING 3800 00 INNER LINING Ø 14 MAINTENANCE RESERVATION 3006385 R3800 O 700 3474 R6 2585 1856 3450 1256 1676 Proposed Tunnel Cross section tunnel > 1000m
A O OB Parallel safety tunnel with cross passage @ 500m in tunnel >1000m
Construction MethodologyDrill & Blast Conventional Suitable for non-varying Geology NATM (New Austrian Tunnelling Method) Excellent adaptability to varying geology Can be used in drill and ballast, excavator and road header excavation No special equipment required except 3-D and geotechnical monitoring
Machines for Tunneling Tunnel Excavators (can be used in conjunction with NATM) Road Header Machines (can be used in conjunction with NATM) Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM ) • not likely in PKR-KTM section due to high probability of various geotechnical problems e.g. squeezing, water inrush, rock burst etc. • Transport and Installation Logistics is a big challenge in hilly terrain.
Environmental & Social Impact The elevation ranges from 80m to 120m in Mechi- Mahakali alignment and 260m to 1300m Pokhara -Kathmandu alignment respectively Mechi Mahakali alignment - tea garden, mango garden. Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Chitawan National Park, Parsa Wildlife Reserve, Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve These ecologically sensitive areas are rich in floral and faunal diversity. Tamsaria-Abukhaireni Alignment consists of sal forest, nearby Abukhaireni a patch of Scima-Castenopsis forest also exists.
Environmental & Social Impact (Contd..) Kathmandu- Pokhara – hill sal forest, subtropical deciduous hill forest and subtropical conifer forest. Forest is the prime source of fuel-wood, fodder, timber, medicinal herbs and even agriculture manure Passes through many community forests Protected species - Sal, Khayar, Chanp, and Okhar
Environmental & Social Impact (Contd..) Requirement of Land Forest Area – 2661 ha Agriculture – 4527 ha River – 222 ha Barren – 56 ha Settlement – 239 ha Tunnel – 312 ha Others – 9 ha Total – 8027 ha
Environmental & Social Impact (Contd..)Details of settlements falling in (1km wide influence area) Mechi-Mahakali Population-3,40,113 Households-58,327. Tamsaria-Abukhaireni Population-24,380 Households-4160 Pokhara- Kathmandu Population-58,036 Households-10,104 Connections to Indian border town Population-8,508 Households-1,418
Environmental & Social Impact (Contd..) Main occupation of Mechi-Mahakali area is agriculture. Also, people are involved in cash crop production, commercial livestock, poultry farming, horticulture, business, cottage industry etc. Similar occupation profile in Pokhara- Kathmandu alignment also. Majority of the people in the Mechi-Mahakali corridor are local inhabitants. Only a few households constitute the immigrants from the distant area or neighbouring districts. In Pokhara- Kathmandu area only a few households constitute the immigrants from the distant area or neighbouring area.
Environmental & Social Impact (Contd..) The proposed railway alignment will change the land use pattern of the project area. Both adverse and beneficial impacts are expected Mechi-Mahakali alignment - 2247 ha. of forest Tamsaria-Abukhaireni - 187 ha. of forest Pokhara -Kathmandu -151 ha of forest In Connections to Indian border towns-75.15 ha. of forest
Environmental & Social Impact (Contd..) Positive impacts Creation of employment opportunity. May check out migration of the area. Better connectivity will improve industry competitiveness reduce cost of production and reduce pollution Approximate cost of land and mitigation - NPR 2682Crore
Design Parameters Broad gauge (1676 mm) has been proposed – Railways connected to IR at 6 locations Axle load - 25t for bridges and 22.9t for track Ruling gradient: 1 in 150, generally & exceptionally upto 1 in 80 in Mechi- Mahakali 1 in 110 in Tamsariya-Abu-khairani 1 in 80, generally & exceptionally upto 1 in 65 Pokhara- Kathmandu Yard gradient – 1 in 1200, and 1 in 260 in hilly sections
Design Parameters (Contd..) Group D routes – Hilly sections Mahadevpur – Bhalubang – Mahuwa (Section-2), Tamsariya – Simara (Section-4), Tamsariya – Bharatpur – Muglin (Section-7) Pokhara – Kathmandu (Section-8) Max speed 100 km/h, booked speed 90 km/h Balance all routes are Group A Max speed 160 km/h, booked speed 145 km/h
Preliminary Design of Civil Engg.Structures Ballasted track – 60 Kg 90 UTS rail with long welded Rails (LWR). Prestressed concrete sleepers (PSC monoblock) Elastic type of fastenings Ballast hard stone (65mm size) 350 mm (main line) and 250 mm (loop line) Points and crossing 60 kg rail, 1 in 12 thick web curved switches and CMS crossings on fan shaped layout PSC sleepers. For loop lines and non- running lines, 1 in 8 ½ turnouts
Switches/points are moved by point machines as per direction of Train Signals will be off for the direction in which switches/points have been set
Preliminary Design of Civil Engg.Structures Ballastless track will be provided in Tunnels. Rheda-2000 type with vossloh fastenings Formation width 6.85 m Blanket - average thickness of 600 mm
Bridges On straight and where height of Piers is less, simply supported PSC girders planned. On Hilly area & deep Valleys, Steel and composite super structure planned. Bridge design to IRS MBG loading Standards, maximum axle load taken as 25t
Intersection Arrangements-Railway Lines and Roads Road over Bridges- On highway, 18.0 m standard T- Beam superstructure Road Under Bridges On un-metalled road, RCC box of 1x5x5 m On metalled roads, 1x6.25x5.5 or 2x6.25x5.5 m RCC box as per requirement Manned level crossings
Project Influence Area* 24 Districts in Mechi – Mahakali section 6 Districts in Kathmandu – Pokhara section Project influence area covers 40% districts and 66% population of Nepal. * Project Influence area is taken 50km on either side of the proposed alignment.
Study Approach• Review of Secondary data and previous reports.• Field surveys at strategic points.• Meetings with different Government, Non-Government and Private Agencies.• Opinion surveys among different segments of the potential rail users, both in respect of freight and passenger.• Assessing and quantifying divertability of freight and passenger traffic from other modes of transport to rail.
Primary SurveysPrimary survey was conducted to: Understand the existing traffic on the corridor Passengers likelihood to use the new mode viz. Rail To assess the journey time/costs To use the proper statistical hypothesis to estimate the likely demand for the new mode.Primary surveys were conducted at 15 locations.
Primary SurveysMAJOR POTENTIAL PASSENGERS ORIGINATING POINTS PER DAY
Industrial Survey Most of industries contacted welcomed the new mode of transport. Qualified their inclination for quantum shift with: Assured transit time; Freight handling facilities; and Integration with other modes of transport for smooth transfer of freight.
Passenger Opinion Survey Around 90% of the bus travellers & 75% of the car travellers were in the favour of new rail connectivity in view of: • Better & safe mode • Avoid traffic congestion and • Result in development of country. Cost of travel, comfort level and time savings are the reasons behind selecting a particular mode of transport.
Base Year Traffic : 2009-10 Freight (Million tonne) 38.850 Passenger („000) Bus 37574 Car/Taxi 9410 Air 1428 Total 48412
Origin - Destination Flows not Considered Following O-D flows not considered for shift to rail: Origin – Destination not falling in the Project Influence Zone. Commodities not amenable to rail transport such as perishables, milk & milk products, confectionery, glassware etc. Commodities moving less than 100 kms distance left for road sector . Origin – Destination not expected to run on Railways due to higher time & cost.
Traffic Projections Factors Determining Growth : The past trends of population, Sectoral Composition of Gross Domestic Product, Openness Ratio Vehicle Growth, Fuel Consumption
Sectoral GDP Growth (2000/01-2008/09) Compounded Annual Sectors Growth Rate (CAGR)Agriculture 3.0%Non-Agriculture 3.9%Industry 2.5%Construction 3.7%Services 4.3%Transport, Storage and 6.2%CommunicationsGDP at producers price 3.6%
Growth Rates for Traffic Projections• 2.25% for projecting Passengers traffic and Consumption based commodities like Foodgrains, Sugar, Salt etc. till 2019-20 as per the decadal growth and, thereafter, 2 % as per the forecasts made by CBS.• 3% for Manufacturing goods based on Industrial Growth rate of 2.5%• 8% for Automobiles based on the elasticity of automobiles to GDP till 2019-20, thereafter, 7% till 2024-25 and6% till 2034-35• 4% for Construction related Commodities like Cement , iron & steel etc. synonymous with growth of Construction sector of GDP at 3.7%• 10% based on the past trend of POL imports of NOC till 2019-20, thereafter, 8% till 2024-25 and 7% till 2034-35
Rail ShareThe traffic diversion from road to rail has been based on Cost of movement to Users The following factors mainly influence the choice of mode in transport » Freight / fare Charges » Transit Time » Reliability » Inventory / value of time Opinion surveys conducted from the users (passengers and industries).
Passenger Opinion Survey The rail mode was found to be economical for the passengers by bus as they had both time and cost savings. Though not much of savings in journey time was observed to personalised vehicle passengers, but there was substantial cost savings by switching over to new mode.
Signalling, Train Control &,Telecommunication Signalling Multi aspect colour light signals (MACLS) AC LED signal lighting units for Multi Aspect Colour Electronic interlocking system Control Communication, Trunk Circuits, Emergency communication and administrative & commercial communication Optical Fibre communication system
Signalling, Train Control &,Telecommunication (contd..) Exchanges at different administrative offices, important stations and maintenance depot GSM-R system for Emergency Communication Point to point voice calls, Broad cast voice calls, Group Voice calls, Multi party voice calls, Emergency voice calls, Data Communication Train control office at each Divisional HQ office Train control, Dy. Control, Traction Power Control, Traction Loco Control Engineering Control, S&T control and Remote Control
Signalling, Train Control &,Telecommunication (contd..) Absolute block system Single line tokenless block instruments along with Single Section Digital Axle Counters at each station. Last stop signals of each station shall be interlocked Voice data recorder in control office
Electric Traction Mast implantation – 2.6m from the centre of the track Portal upright implantation – 3m OHE and PSI depots at an interval of 120km Tower Wagon – 8 wheeler
Electric Traction (contd..) Power Supply Installation (PSI) Parameters : Traction supply through Traction sub-station (TSS). 25 Nos TSSs at regular interval of 50-60km approx. Length of transmission lines-250 kms Every TSS with two Traction transformers of 13.5/21.6MVA. SCADA - Traction Power Control Room at each Divisional HQs 59 power line crossings to be modified
Selection of Electric Locomotives Passenger and freight locos : Passenger locos - WAP 7, HP 6350, max. speed 160kmph – 3 phase - Single loco is adequate for hauling the load.Freight locos - WAG 9, HP 6120, max speed 100 kmph – 3 phase - For hauling 58 Box-N freight load double headed engines - For other loads, single loco. - In graded sections, sometimes banker loco may be required to push the train and overcome the incident of train parting
Power Requirement Power requirement – 2019-20 Traffic projection for the year 2019-20 -No. of Freight trains -45 -No. of Passenger trains -32 -Total traction power requirement with electrical general services at stations and Tunnel Illumination & Ventilation-180 MW (app)
Selection of Wagons, Coaches andShunting (Diesel)Locomotives
Wagons Rolling Stock design considerations include Axle Load, Length of rake, Payload to Tare Ratio and Maximum Speed The choice of rolling stock (freight cars) is largely driven by the type of commodities and volume to be carried, operational and technical requirements of the system Proposed rolling stock -5 car consist container wagon (A car/B car), Covered wagon, Open gondola wagon, Tank wagons, Bogie Tank Wagon for LPG, Bogie rail wagon flat Maximum moving dimension (3250mm/4265mm) Kinetic envelope (3850mm/4565mm)
Open Wagon 10.1 metre long Cubic capacity – 57 cubic metre Wheel diameter – 1000 mm Pay load – 65 tonnes Height – 3450 mm Max speed – 100 Kmph Suitable for tippling Used for carrying coal, iron ore, minerals etc.
Covered Wagon 14.5 metre long Cubic capacity – 104 cubic metre Wheel diameter – 1000 mm Pay load – 65 tonnes Height – 4015 mm Max speed – 100 Kmph Used for carrying bagged commodities e.g cement
Tank Wagon 12.5 metre long Cubic capacity – 71 cubic metre Wheel diameter – 1000 mm Height – 4265 mm Max speed – 100 Kmph Used for carrying POL
Passenger cars Proven coach with long life and excellent maintainability features shall be provided. Comfort, aesthetics, safety and maintenance-friendliness shall be the guiding principles Maximum operating speed of 160 Km/h• Car body shall be of stainless steel, provided with flexi-coil springs, H type tight lock centre buffer couplers, crash worthy features and bogie mounted disc type brakes actuated by air pressure.• Types of coach proposed to be used are AC Upper Class Coach, AC 2 Tier Sleeper Coach, AC Chair Car, 3 tier Sleeper Coach, Sitting ordinary coach, Sitting cum Luggage & Brake van.
General Features of Passenger Vehicles AC Coach Non AC Coach Interior Stainless steel shell
Shunting locomotives It is proposed to have Diesel engine type shunting locomotives and also for emergency services in case of breakdown, accident etc. Two types of diesel engines are proposed – Low HP locomotive designated as WDS6 on IR. It develops 1400 HP using 6 cylinder 251D diesel engine, DLW make. Maximum speed 60 km/h High HP locomotive designated as WDG2 on IR. It develops 3100 HP using 16 cylinder, V-type 251B diesel engine, DLW make. Maximum speed 100 km/h
Accident Relief Train To keep the railway system moving, it is necessary to plan for handling accidents and emergencies Relief train shall be equipped with crane, mechanical jacks and rerailing equipment, emergency track supply, emergency lighting equipment, traction emergency equipment, emergency communication equipment and medical van. 140 t capacity Gottwald crane with A frame, being manufactured by Jamalpur workshop of Indian Railways is proposed
The Network Physical features of Net work : Broad Gauge, Single Line, Electric Traction, Electronic Interlocking, Multiple Aspects Colour Light Signaling, Machine Operated Points, Points and signals operated from the central panel, Absolute Block System, Tokenless Block Working
Operating System The Absolute Block System- Main features: Section divided into convenient segments Each segment known as a „Block Section‟; „Block Station‟ shall have a number of lines and shall be demarcated by a number of signals; Each Block Section shall have only one train in it at a time.
Requirement of Locomotives Requirement of Electric locomotives in 2019-20: 81 Requirement of Diesel Shunting Locomotives: 27
Passenger Services The following services have been planned to cover the entire network. i. Long Distance over night service ii. Intercity service iii. Feeder cum medium distance service
Type and Capacity of Coaches S. No. Type of Coach Capacity Seating Sleeping 1 Upper Class Sleeper Coach - AC 24 24 2 2 – Tier Sleeper Coach - AC 54 54 3 Chair Car 83 - 4 3 – Tier Sleeper Coach 80 80 5 Seating Ordinary Coach 99 - 6 SLR 40 -
Number of Coaches Required Coaches required 2019 2024 2029 2034 Upper first class 26 27 30 33 AC Sleeper 60 69 77 85 AC chair car 55 59 69 69 Non AC Sleeper 129 159 192 226 Ordinary sitting car 101 112 139 139 Sitting cum luggage & brake 46 51 58 62 van Total 417 477 565 614
Line Capacity Issues Line capacity calculations are based upon the universally adopted Scott‟s Formula for planning purposes. a) Ruling Block section, b) Ruling gradients, c) slowest train on the section and d) its running time for the Ruling block section, e) 70% efficiency factor etc are the salient elements constituting the formula
Transit Time of Passenger Trains Transit time in Hrs. Sl. No. Section and Mts 1 Gaddhachowki-Tamsariya-Kathmandu 10.32 2 Kakarbita-Tamsariya-Kathmandu 9.53 3 Birgunj -Simara-Tamsariya-Kathmandu 5.36 4 Gaddhachowki-Tamsariya 7.05 5 Kakarbita-Tamsariya 6.18 6 Tamsariya-Pokhara 3.25 7 Kathmandu-Pokhara 3.54 8 Nepalgunj-Kohalpur-Gaddhachowki 5.59 9 Lumbini-Butwal-Kohalpur 7.21 10 Bhairahawa-Butwal-Simara-Birgunj 6.05 11 Birgunj-Simara-Bardibas-Janakpur 4.31 12 Kakarbita-Itahari-Biratnagar-Janakpur 7.52
Line Capacity Issues• Calculations for both scenarios i. without maintenance block and ii. with maintenance block of 4 hours per day,• These show utilisation more than 100% on Kathmandu-Pokhara and Abukharenei-Tamsariya section.• Steps to increase line capacity should be taken based on experience of first 5 years i.e. from 2019- 20 to -2024-25.
Maintenance and OperationOrganisation Three tier organisation One central organisation for overall control of Railway system – at Kathmandu-headed by DG. Divisions responsible for day to day management operation of trains in their jurisdiction Sub-divisions, depots, sick lines -to carry out routine maintenance of infrastructure & rolling stock If Mechi-Mahakali Railway constructed in first phase, HQ of Central Organisation can be kept at Simara
Departments Infrastructure (Civil Engineering, S & T Engineering) Operations (Operations, Commercial, Rolling Stock including locomotives, Electrical Engineering General services, Safety) Human Resources (Man power Management, Health Services, Training) Finance ‘Commissioner for Railway Safety who shall be the watch dog of safety issues.
Workshops All Major workshops located at Simara Electric loco shed Freight wagon workshop Passenger car workshop Diesel loco shed Track Machine workshop
Divisional Structure Division HQ - Mugling, Kohalpur and Bardibas. Each division headed by Divisional Railway Manager. Divisional heads of all the branches located at the Divisional HQ Sub division for infrastructure maintenance Pokhara, Kathmandu & Mugling under Mugling division Attariya, Kohalpur & Butwal under Kohalpur division Simara, Bardibas & Itahari under Bardibas division Base units at distance of about 60 kms
Track Maintenance Structure Three tier system Top tier (on track heavy machines)-at HQ, Middle tier (Duomatic tamping machines & mobile maintenance units)-at Sub division Base tiers (sectional gangs supervised by sectional engineers) Monitoring of track parameters by computerised track recording car, Ultrasonic testing of rails to detect cracks Regular inspection by supervisors and engineers – footplate and trolley
Track Parameters Track Gauge Track Alignment Longitudinal unevenness Cross levels TwistTolerances very small and very regular watch required
S&T and OHE Maintenance Signalling, Telecommunication & Train control systems maintained periodically as per OEM technical parameters, maintenance practices. Maintenance leased to OEMs for specialised equipment Every alternate OHE base depot provided with self propelled vehicle named as „Tower Wagon‟
Electric Locomotive Maintenance Locomotives maintenance Quarterly, half yearly, nine monthly, one and half yearly, maintenance at Electric Loco Shed, Simara. Intermediate OverHaul POH after Nine year (Passenger Locomotive) & Twelve years (Goods Locomotive) For trip inspections of locomotives, four trips sheds at terminal stations -Pokhara, Kathmandu, Gaddachowki and Kakarvitta and one at Simara.
Freight Car (Wagon) Repair &Maintenance Freight car (Wagon) repair & maintenance carried out at 3 stages. Train yard attention and running repair, Depot repair (Routine Overhaul) Heavy repair (Periodic overhaul). In addition, repair has also to be carried out for out-of-course failures, accident damaged wagons etc. Facilities for train yard examination in the yards and sickline at: Kakarvitta, Birganj, Bhairawaha, Biratnagar, Pokhara, Kathmandu, Nepalgunj
Freight Car (Wagon) Repair &Maintenance Wayside monitors for freight cars - to analyze component conditions as the trains pass. Types of rolling stock defects proposed to be monitored are Dragging Equipment, Derailment, Flat wheel/impact, Hot bearing, Acoustic bearing, Hot wheel, Wheel profile and Hunting and skewed truck. Installation of wayside monitoring equipment at: Simra, Butwal, Mugling
Passenger Car (Coaches) Repair &Maintenance Passenger Car (Coaches) maintenance - 3 stages: Train yard attention including running repair and cleaning/washing, Depot repair (Intermediate Overhaul), Heavy repair (Periodic overhaul) Facilities for washing, train examination in the yards and repairs including IOH maintenance at Gaddachowki, Nepalgunj, Bhairawaha, Lumbini, Tamsariya, Kathmandu, Pokhra, Birganj, Kakarvitta
Diesel Locomotive (Shunting)Maintenance Diesel locomotive maintenance (Shunting locomotives) schedules Trip inspection, monthly inspection, Quarterly inspection, half-yearly inspection, yearly inspection, three yearly inspection and six yearly schedule (POH) For carrying out fuelling, trip inspection and monthly scheduled maintenance, facilities provided at Gaddachowki, Butwal, Kakarvitta, Pokhara, Kathmandu, Chandranigahpur, Itahari, lahan and Tamsariya.
Capital Cost of Fixed Infrastructure for Various Systems COST per Km of COSTS. No. SYSTEM project length (Crore of NPR) (Crore of NPR ) 1 Land & Associated Activities 2,682.29 2.04 2 Earthwork 8,213.38 6.23 3 Protection Works (Retaining Walls) 210.16 0.16 4 Blanketing 1,350.62 1.03 5 Bridges 13,463.41 10.22 Permanent Way (Track items including 6 6,271.98 4.76 ballast & P. Way Machinery) 7 Station, Buildings, Sheds, Offices etc. 696.46 0.53 8 Tunnels 19,326.59 14.67 9 Electrical Engineering Works 1,605.20 1.22 Signaling, Train Control & 10 2,114.76 1.61 Telecommunication Works 11 Maintenance Facilities for rolling stock 947.00 0.72 Preliminary Expenditure like DPR, 12 5,688.18 4.32 Detailed Engineering & Supervision etc. 13 Contingencies 2,844.09 2.16 TOTAL 65,414.12 49.65
System Wise Cost Break-up 9% Earthwork 12% Bridges Permanent Way 29% 21% Others Tunnels 10% Preliminary 19% Expenditure
Cost of Rolling Stocks Cost of Rolling Stock has been calculated for 4 components Cost of Wagons Cost of Coaches Cost of Shunting (Diesel) Locomotives & accident relief crane and Cost of Electrical Locomotives
Capital Cost of Rolling Stock Cost of Rolling Stock for different Horizon YearsS. No. Type of Rolling Stock (Crore of NPR ) 2034- 2019-2020 2024-25 2029-30 35 1. Wagons 672 991 1408 1982 2. Coaches 1609 1836 2169 2355 3. Diesel Locos & Accident 505 505 505 505 Relief Crane 4. Electric Locos 2540 3418 4610 6115 Total 5326 6750 8692 10958
Operation and Maintenance Cost HORIZON YEAR (NPR Crore)S. No. Name of Activity 2019-20 2024-25 2029-30 2034-35 1 Operation & Commercial Activities 62 65 69 74 Operation & Maintenance Cost of 2 Electrical Locomotives 130 147 212 279 Maintenance Cost of Civil Engg. 3 Structures 125 154 183 213 Maintenance Cost of Signalling, 4 Train Control & Telecommunication Works 49 59 81 81 Maintenance Cost of Electrical Engg. 5 Works 29 37 45 45 6 Maintenance Cost of Wagon 35 50 84 116 7 Maintenance Cost of Coaches 59 73 92 99 Operation & Maintenance Cost of 8 Shunting (Diesel) Locomotives 38 40 41 42 Total 527 626 807 949
Institutional Frame Work for Construction and Schedule
Main Activities Involved Preparation of Detailed Project Report Tendering & Award for Civil Engineering Works Land Acquisition Construction of Civil Engg. Infrastructure i.e. formation, bridges, tunnel, tracks, buildings etc. Tendering & Award of Overhead Electrification and Other Electrical Works Execution of OHE Works Tendering & Award of Signalling, Telecommunication and Train Control Works
Main Activities Involved (contd..) Execution of Signalling, Telecommunication and Train Control Works Finalisation of Rolling Stock Specification & placements of Orders Supply & Testing of Rolling Stock Preparation of Manuals, Training of Staff, etc. Testing, Commissioning of the Whole System
Construction Schedule Project divided into three parts for construction planning. Pokhara-Kathmandu & Tamsariya-Abukhaireni Gaddachowki-Simara (including connection to Indian border falling in this reach) Simara-Kakatvitta (including connection to Indian border falling in this reach)
Construction Schedule(Pokhara - Kathmandu & Tamsariya – Abukhairani)
Preparation of DPR Project execution in phases as: The requirement of funds is huge There is no trained manpower in Nepal for construction of Railway line Prioritisation of sections Work of DPR to be outsourced Dedicated team of Engineers for overseeing DPR
Components of DPR Marking the centre line of alignment on the ground. Detailed Geological mapping of the tunnel portion Detailed hydrological investigation of the major bridges including model analysis Geotechnical investigation at the location of major bridges, tunnels, deep cuttings and high embankments. Detailed design criteria for various systems and structures.
Components of DPR Preliminary design of tunnels, bridges, track, signalling and electrification system etc. Environmental Impact Assessment Detailed operation plan. Detailed Yard Plans Recommendations regarding specification of rolling stock & other components. Detailed cost of the project. Recommendation regarding constitutional and legal provision to be made. Recommendation regarding packaging of contracts. Financing arrangements of the project.
Broad Assumptions• Base Year : 2009-10• Construction Period : 9 years• Start of Rail Operations : 2019-20• Traffic Projection upto : 2034-35• Project Life : 30 Years• New Rail Connections with India to be in Place by 2019-20
Traffic Projections - GoodsItem Unit 2019-20 2034-35Tons Million 14.22 40.39Ton-Km Billion 4.57 12.77Av. Lead Km 321.5 316.2
Traffic Projections – Diverted Passengers (Million) From From From Year Total Air Bus Car 2019- 0.20 18.78 2.94 21.91 20 2034- 0.51 34.74 6.33 41.58 35
Financial AppraisalInfrastructure Development Cost S Item of Cost Cost (Million NR) Contribution (%) # Civil 1 522148.9 79.82% Engineering 2 Electrical 16052.0 2.45% 3 S&T 21147.6 3.23% Maintenance 4 9470.0 1.45% Facilities 5 Preliminary Exp. 85322.8 13.04% 6 Grand Total 654,141.0 100.00%
Financial Appraisal (Contd.)Rolling Stock Cost (NPR Million) Year Wagons Coaches Electric Diesel Total Cost Locos Loco 2019-20 6719.7 16089.0 25401.6 5048 53258.3 2024-25 3187.9 2273.2 8780.8 0 14241.9 2029-30 4177.2 3326.6 11916.8 0 19420.6 2034-35 5740 1863.6 15052.8 0 22656.4 Total 19824.8 23552.4 61152.0 5048 109577.2
Financial Appraisal (Contd.)Residual Value (NPR Million) Item Rate of Residual Value (NPR Million) Residual Value (% Range)Infrastructure 20%-80% 263,138.50DevelopmentRolling Stock 10% - 61% 35808.61 Total 298,947.11
Financial – Rail Fare ChargesS. # Class of Travel Fare (NR /P-KM) 1 Ordinary (Seating + Sleeper) 0.89 AC - Chair, AC 2/3-Tier 2 2.57 Sleeper 3 AC - First 9.00 4 Overall Average Fare (2019-20) 1.28
Financial Appraisal (NPR Million) Year Expenditure Earnings Net BenefitCapital 763,718.2 - -763,718.22019-20 5,274.2 18,191.2 12,917.02024-25 20,499.0 26084.6 5,585.62029-30 27,486.8 36364.0 8,877.22034-35 32,145.1 49830.5 17,685.32049-50 -289,458.3 49830.5 339,288.8 FIRR NA
Economic Appraisal Carried out “With” and “Without” the Project Approach With the Project - Covers Year to Year Entire Capital and Operation Costs by Proposed Rail services Without the Project- Relates to Costs involved in Handling Estimated traffic by Alternative mode (Road) Gap Between the Two Costs Brings out Net Margin to the Economy Due to the Project.
Economic Appraisal (Contd.) With The Project : (On Rail Services) Direct Costs: Construction, Rolling Stock, Operation & Maintenance, Road VOC- Feeder services, Transshipment & Inventory Without the Project : (On Road Movement) Direct Costs: Road Augmentation, Highway, Road VOC, Transshipment & Inventory. Indirect Costs for Both : Environment & Accident
Economic Appraisal (NR Million) Year With Project Without Project Net Benefit Capital 648,865.3 46,095.0 -602,770.3 2019-20 11,351.1 30,130.2 18,779.2 2024-25 28,028.5 42,894.1 14,865.6 2029-30 37,901.8 59,406.9 21,505.1 2034-35 46,710.0 80,713.5 34,003.5 2049-50 -249,165.2 62,275.5 311,440.7 EIRR 4.45%
Sensitivity Analysis - FinancialS# Sensitivity Criteria FIRR 1 Base Case NA With 10% Financial Support in 2 NA Capital Cost With 20% Financial Support in 3 NA Capital Cost With 30% Financial Support in 4 NA Capital Cost With 40% Financial Support in 5 4.48% Capital Cost With 50% Financial Support in 6 5.38% Capital Cost
Sensitivity Analysis - EconomicS# Sensitivity Criteria EIRR1 Base Case 4.45% With 10% Financial Support in2 5.06% Capital Cost With 20% Financial Support in Capital3 5.77% Cost With 30% Financial Support in Capital4 6.62% Cost With 40% Financial Support in Capital5 7.65% Cost With 50% Financial Support in Capital6 8.97% Cost
Conclusions•Project feasible on ERR basis•Further, additional advantages • Induced Traffic • Trans Asian Railways (TAR) : Southern Corridor (Europe to Southeast Asia) • Nepal is a Member • No Rail System • Services Can Directly be Extended to Nepal With the Proposed Rail Links. • India and China for Transiting Traffic • Carbon Credit
Recommendations• Project Should Not be Assessed in Isolation.• Project is of International Importance, Financial Support/Contribution From Other Benefiting Economies may be Drawn• With 50% capital support - 5.38% FIRR on Balance Investment• Further Increase due to additional advantages not Quantified in the study
Previous StudiesDevelopment of East-West Electric Railway in Nepal:Pre-feasibility Study concluded by Promotion of Renewable Energy,Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Abatement (PREGA) in May-2006.•Length : 1027 km, Single Track, Broad Gauge (1.676m)•Station inter-distance : 50 KM (19 Stations)•Land : To be located in the land available with Mahendra Rajmarg•Phases of construction : 3 Phase I - from Kakkrbita to Narayangadh (473km) Phase II – from Narayangadh to Kohalpur (351km) Phase III- from Kahalpur to Gaddachowki (203km)•Total cost of System : US $ 2.07 billion (about US $ 20 lakhs per km)•Fare: Passenger NRs 0.9 per passenger-km, Freight NRs 5 per tonkm•FIRR : 6.9% over a period of 27 (including 6 years of construction)•EIRR : 10.62% without carbon credits
Previous StudiesKathmandu-Birgunj Electrified Railway Project:Report concluded by M/s Benchmark, Nepal in February 2007•Length : 160 km, Single Track, Broad Gauge (1.676m)•Stations : 13•Designed Speed : 100km/h (Max degree of curvature 4-deg)•Ruling Gradient : 1 in 100•Number of Tunnels : 53 (length 46km)•Construction Period : 5 years•Total cost of System : NPR 2320 Crores without land (about NRs 14.5 croreper km)•Project IRR : 10.56% (Diesel)•Project IRR : 8.69% ( Electrical)Above data is based on review of report and technical report on theproject is not available
Comparison Bharatpur-Mugling andSimara-Kathmandu Bharatpur- Item Simara-Kathmandu MuglingLength of alignment 30km 130kmLevel Difference 50m 1180mbetween end pointsLength of tunnels 20km 70km Multiple thrusts zone including plenty of Faults, Crossing highGeology of the area Sensitive grade metamorphic rocks of Lesser Himalaya for greater length