Enterprise Management system
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Enterprise Management Systems provide Enterprise software, also known as enterprise software application (ESA), ... billing systems, security, enterprise content management, IT service management.....

Enterprise Management Systems provide Enterprise software, also known as enterprise software application (ESA), ... billing systems, security, enterprise content management, IT service management.....

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Enterprise Management system Document Transcript

  • 1. MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Bheemesh Chowdary.Kacharagadla ENTERPRISE
  • 2. Copy Right @ 2013 Kacharagadla Media Corp
  • 3. INDEX Enterprise Information Management Business Intelligence Enterprise Content Management Business Process Management Business Performance Management Executive Information System Enterprise Resource Planning
  • 4. ENTERPRISE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Enterprise Information Management (EIM) is a particular field of interest within information technology area. It specializes in finding solutions for optimal use of information within organizations, for instance to support decision-making processes or day-to-day operations that require the availability of knowledge. It tries to overcome traditional IT-related barriers to managing information on an enterprise level. Definition: Enterprise information management combines business intelligence (BI) and enterprise content management (ECM). Enterprise information management takes these two approaches to managing information one step further, in that it approaches information management from an enterprise perspective. Where BI and ECM respectively manage structured and unstructured information, EIM does not make this "technical" distinction. It approaches the management of information from the perspective of enterprise information strategy, based on the needs of information workers. ECM and BI in a sense choose a denominationalised approach, since they only cover part of the information within an organization. This results in a lack of available information during decision-making processes, market analysis or procedure definition. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE Business intelligence (BI) is the ability of an organization to collect, maintain, and organize data. This produces large amounts of information that can help develop new opportunities. Identifying these opportunities, and implementing an effective strategy, can provide a competitive market advantage and long-term stability.[1] BI technologies provide historical, current and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of business intelligence technologies are reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, data mining, process mining, complex event processing, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining, predictive analytics and prescriptive analytics. The goal of modern business intelligence deployments is to support better business decision- making. Thus a BI system can be called a decision support system (DSS).[2] Though the term business intelligence is sometimes a synonym for competitive intelligence (because they both support decision making), BI uses technologies, processes, and applications to analyze mostly internal, structured data and business processes while competitive intelligence gathers, analyzes and disseminates information with a topical focus on company competitors. If understood broadly, business intelligence can include the subset of competitive intelligence.
  • 5. ENTERPRISE CONTENT MANAGEMENT Enterprise content management (ECM) is a formalized means of organizing and storing an organization's documents, and other content, that relate to the organization's processes. The term encompasses strategies, methods, and tools used throughout the lifecycle of the content Definition: The Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) International, the worldwide association for enterprise content management, defined the term Enterprise Content Management in 2000. AIIM has refined the abbreviation ECM several times to reflect the expanding scope and importance of information management: Late 2005 Enterprise content management is the technologies used to Capture, Manage, Store, Preserve, and Deliver content and documents related to organizational processes. Early 2006 Enterprise content management is the technologies used to Capture, Manage, Store, Preserve, and Deliver content and documents related to organizational processes. ECM tools and strategies allow the management of an organization's unstructured information, wherever that information exists. Early 2008 Enterprise Content Management (ECM) is the strategies, methods and tools used to capture, manage, store, preserve, and deliver content and documents related to organizational processes. ECM tools and strategies allow the management of an organization's unstructured information, wherever that information exists.[1] Early 2010 Enterprise Content Management (ECM) is the strategies, methods and tools used to capture, manage, store, preserve, and deliver content and documents related to organizational processes. ECM covers the management of information within the entire scope of an enterprise whether that information is in the form of a paper document, an electronic file, a database print stream, or even an email. The latest definition encompasses areas that have traditionally been addressed by records management and document management systems. It also includes the conversion of data between various digital and traditional forms, including paper and microfilm. ECM is an umbrella term covering document management, web content management, search, collaboration, records management, digital asset management (DAM), work-flow management, capture and scanning. ECM is primarily aimed at managing the life-cycle of information from initial publication or creation all the way through archival and eventually disposal. ECM applications are delivered in three ways: on-premise software (installed on the organization’s own network), software as a service (SaaS) (web access to information that is stored on the software manufacturer’s system), or a hybrid solution composed of both on-premise and SaaS components. ECM aims to make the management of corporate information easier through simplifying storage, security, version control, process routing, and retention. The benefits to an organization include improved efficiency, better control, and reduced costs. For example, many banks have converted to storing copies of old checks within ECM systems versus the older method of keeping physical checks in massive paper warehouses. Under the old system a customer request for a copy of a check might take
  • 6. weeks, as the bank employees had to contact the warehouse to have someone locate the right box, file and check, pull the check, make a copy and then mail it to the bank who would eventually mail it to the customer. With an ECM system in place, the bank employee simply searches the system for the customer’s account number and the number of the requested check. When the image of the check appears on screen, they are able to immediately mail it to the customer—usually while the customer is still on the phone.
  • 7. BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT Business process management (BPM) has been referred to as a "holistic management" approach[1] to aligning an organization's business processes with the wants and needs of clients. It promotes business effectiveness and efficiency while striving for innovation, flexibility, and integration with technology. BPM attempts to improve processes continuously. It can therefore be described as a "process optimization process." It is argued that BPM enables organizations to be more efficient, more effective and more capable of change than a functionally focused, traditional hierarchical management approach. An empirical study by Kohlbacher (2009) indicates that BPM helps organizations to gain higher customer satisfaction, product quality, delivery speed and time-to-market speed.[2] An empirical study by Vera & Kuntz (2007) conducted in the German hospital sector indicates that BPM has a positive impact on organizational efficiency A business process comprises a "series or network of value-added activities, performed by their relevant roles or collaborators, to purposefully achieve the common business goal."[4] These processes are critical to any organization as they can generate revenue and often represent a significant proportion of costs. As a managerial approach, BPM sees processes as strategic assets of an organization that must be understood, managed, and improved to deliver value-added products and services to clients. This foundation closely resembles other Total Quality Management or Continuous Improvement Process methodologies or approaches. BPM goes a step further by stating that this approach can be supported, or enabled, through technology to ensure the viability of the managerial approach in times of stress and change. In fact, BPM offers an approach to integrate an organizational "change capability" that is both human and technological. As such, many BPM articles and pundits often discuss BPM from one of two viewpoints: people and/or technology. BPM or Business Process Management is often referred to as 'Management by Business Processes'. The term "business" can be confusing as it is often linked with a hierarchical view (by function) of a company. It is therefore preferable to define BPM as "corporate management through processes". By adding BPM the second meaning of 'Business Performance Management' used by Pr Scheer in his article "Advanced BPM Assessment",[6] BPM can therefore be defined as "company performance management through processes". And it's this resolutely performance-oriented definition which is chosen here. Dominique Thiault, in Managing Performance through Business Processes defines BPM as a management-through-processes method which helps to improve the company's performance in a more and more complex and ever-changing environment. Management through processes is a management method based on two logical levels: process governance and process management:  Process governance is all of the company's governance activities which, by way of allocating on the processes, work towards reaching its objectives, which are both operational and progress- related.  Process management is all the management activities of a given process which work towards reaching the objectives allocated for this process. Roughly speaking, the idea of business process is as traditional as concepts of tasks, department, production, and outputs. The management and improvement approach as of 2010, with formal definitions and technical modeling, has been around since the early 1990s (see business process modeling). Note that the IT community often uses the term "business process" as synonymous with the management of middleware processes; or as synonymous with integrating application software tasks. This viewpoint may be overly restrictive - a limitation to keep in
  • 8. mind when reading software engineering papers that refer to "business processes" or to "business process modeling". Although BPM initially focused on the automation of business processes with the use of information technology, it has since been extended to integrate human-driven processes in which human interaction takes place in series or parallel with the use of technology. For example (in workflow systems), when individual steps in the business process require deploying human intuition or judgment, these steps are assigned to appropriate members within the organization. More advanced forms such as human interaction management are in the complex interaction between human workers in performing a workgroup task. In this case, many people and systems interact in structured, ad-hoc, and sometimes completely dynamic ways to complete one to many transactions. BPM can be used to understand organizations through expanded views that would not otherwise be available to organize and present, such as relationships between processes. When included in a process model, these relationships provide for advanced reporting and analysis. BPM is regarded by some[who?] as the backbone of enterprise content management. Because BPM allows organizations to abstract business process from technology infrastructure, it goes far beyond automating business processes (software) or solving business problems (suite). BPM enables business to respond to changing consumer, market, and regulatory demands faster than competitors creating competitive advantage. As of 2010 technology has allowed the coupling of BPM to other methodologies, such as Six Sigma. BPM tools allow users to:  vision - strategize functions and processes  define - baseline the process or the process improvement  model - simulate the change to the process  analyze - compare the various simulations to determine an optimal improvement  improve - select and implement the improvement  control - deploy this implementation and by use of user-defined dashboards monitor the improvement in real time and feed the performance information back into the simulation model in preparation for the next improvement iteration  re-engineer - revamp the processes from scratch for better results This brings with it the benefit of being able to simulate changes to business processes based on real- life data (not just on assumed knowledge). Also, the coupling of BPM to industry methodologies allows users to continually streamline and optimize the process to ensure that it is tuned to its market need.[8] As of 2012 research on BPM has paid increasing attention to the compliance of business processes. Although a key aspect of business processes is flexibility, as business processes continuously need to adapt to changes in the environment, compliance with business strategy, policies and government regulations should also be ensured.[9] The compliance aspect in BPM is highly important for governmental organizations. As of 2010 BPM approaches in a governmental context largely focus on operational processes and knowledge representation.[10] Although there have been many technical studies on operational business processes both in the public and in the private sector, researchers have rarely taken legal compliance activities into account, for instance the legal implementation processes in public-administration bodies. BPM Life Cycle Business process management activities can be grouped into six categories: vision, design, modeling, execution, monitoring, and optimization.
  • 9. Functions are designed around the strategic vision and goals of an organization. Each function is attached with a list of processes. Each functional head in an organization is responsible for certain sets of processes made up of tasks which are to be executed and reported as planned. Multiple processes are aggregated to function accomplishments and multiple functions are aggregated to achieve organizational goals. Design Process Design encompasses both the identification of existing processes and the design of "to-be" processes. Areas of focus include representation of the process flow, the factors within it, alerts & notifications, escalations, Standard Operating Procedures, Service Level Agreements, and task hand-over mechanisms. Good design reduces the number of problems over the lifetime of the process. Whether or not existing processes are considered, the aim of this step is to ensure that a correct and efficient theoretical design is prepared. The proposed improvement could be in human-to-human, human-to-system, and system-to-system workflows, and might target regulatory, market, or competitive challenges faced by the businesses. Modeling Modeling takes the theoretical design and introduces combinations of variables (e.g., changes in rent or materials costs, which determine how the process might operate under different circumstances). It also involves running "what-if analysis" on the processes: "What if I have 75% of resources to do the same task?" "What if I want to do the same job for 80% of the current cost?". Execution One of the ways to automate processes is to develop or purchase an application that executes the required steps of the process; however, in practice, these applications rarely execute all the steps of the process accurately or completely. Another approach is to use a combination of software and human intervention; however this approach is more complex, making the documentation process difficult. As a response to these problems, software has been developed that enables the full business process (as developed in the process design activity) to be defined in a computer language which can be directly executed by the computer. The system will either use services in connected applications to perform business operations (e.g. calculating a repayment plan for a loan) or, when a step is too complex to automate, will ask for human input. Compared to either of the previous approaches, directly executing a process definition can be more straightforward and therefore easier to improve. However, automating a process definition requires flexible and comprehensive infrastructure, which typically rules out implementing these systems in a legacy IT environment. Business rules have been used by systems to provide definitions for governing behavior, and a business rule engine can be used to drive process execution and resolution. Monitoring Monitoring encompasses the tracking of individual processes, so that information on their state can be easily seen, and statistics on the performance of one or more processes can be provided. An example of the tracking is being able to determine the state of a customer order (e.g. order arrived, awaiting delivery, invoice paid) so that problems in its operation can be identified and corrected. In addition, this information can be used to work with customers and suppliers to improve their connected processes. Examples of the statistics are the generation of measures on how quickly a customer order is processed or how many orders were processed in the last month. These measures tend to fit into three categories: cycle time, defect rate and productivity.
  • 10. The degree of monitoring depends on what information the business wants to evaluate and analyze and how business wants it to be monitored, in real-time, near real-time or ad-hoc. Here, business activity monitoring (BAM) extends and expands the monitoring tools generally provided by BPMS. Process mining is a collection of methods and tools related to process monitoring. The aim of process mining is to analyze event logs extracted through process monitoring and to compare them with an a priori process model. Process mining allows process analysts to detect discrepancies between the actual process execution and the a priori model as well as to analyze bottlenecks. Optimization Process optimization includes retrieving process performance information from modeling or monitoring phase; identifying the potential or actual bottlenecks and the potential opportunities for cost savings or other improvements; and then, applying those enhancements in the design of the process. Overall, this creates greater business value.[11] Re-engineering When the process becomes too noisy and optimization is not fetching the desired output, it is recommended to re-engineer the entire process cycle. BPR has become an integral part of organizations to achieve efficiency and productivity at work. Practice: While the steps can be viewed as a cycle, economic or time constraints are likely to limit the process to only a few iterations. This is often the case when an organization uses the approach for short to medium term objectives rather than trying to transform the organizational culture. True iterations are only possible through the collaborative efforts of process participants. In a majority of organizations, complexity will require enabling technology (see below) to support the process participants in these daily process management challenges. To date, many organizations often start a BPM project or program with the objective to optimize an area that has been identified as an area for improvement. In the financial sector, BPM is critical to make sure the system delivers a quality service while maintaining regulatory compliance. Currently, the international standards for the task have limited BPM to the application in the IT sector, and ISO/IEC 15944 covers the operational aspects of the business. However, some corporations with the culture of best practices do use standard operating procedures to regulate their operational process.[15] Other standards are currently being worked upon to assist in BPM implementation (BPMN, Enterprise Architecture, and Business Motivation Model). BPM technology Some define the BPM System or Suite (BPMS) as "the whole of BPM." Others relate the important concept of information moving between enterprise software packages and immediately think of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Still others limit the definition to "modeling" (see Business modeling). BPM is now considered a critical component of Operational Intelligence (OI) solutions to deliver real- time, actionable information. This real-time information can be acted upon in a variety of ways - alerts can be sent or executive decisions can be made using real-time dashboards. OI solutions use real-time information to take automated action based on pre-defined rules so that security measures and or exception management processes can be initiated. These are partial answers and the technological offerings continue to evolve. The BPMS term may not survive. Today it encompasses the concept of supporting the managerial approach through enabling technology. The BPMS should enable all stakeholders to have a firm understanding of an organization and its performance. The BPMS should facilitate business process change throughout the life cycle
  • 11. stated above. This assists in the automation of activities, collaboration, integration with other systems, integrating partners through the value chain, etc. For instance, the size and complexity of daily tasks often requires the use of technology to model efficiently. These models facilitate automation and solutions to business problems. These models can also become executable to assist in monitoring and controlling business processes. As such, some people view BPM as "the bridge between Information Technology (IT) and Business.". In fact, an argument can be made that this "holistic approach" bridges organizational and technological silos. There are four critical components of a BPM Suite:  Process Engine – a robust platform for modeling and executing process-based applications, including business rules  Business Analytics — enable managers to identify business issues, trends, and opportunities with reports and dashboards and react accordingly  Content Management — provides a system for storing and securing electronic documents, images, and other files  Collaboration Tools — remove intra- and interdepartmental communication barriers through discussion forums, dynamic workspaces, and message boards BPM also addresses many of the critical IT issues underpinning these business drivers, including:  Managing end-to-end, customer-facing processes  Consolidating data and increasing visibility into and access to associated data and information  Increasing the flexibility and functionality of current infrastructure and data  Integrating with existing systems and leveraging emerging service oriented architecture (SOAs)  Establishing a common language for business-IT alignment Validation of BPMS is another technical issue that vendors and users need to be aware of, if regulatory compliance is mandatory. The validation task could be performed either by an authenticated third party or by the users themselves. Either way, validation documentation will need to be generated. The validation document usually can either be published officially or retained by users.
  • 12. BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Business performance management is a set of management and analytic processes that enable the management of an organization's performance to achieve one or more pre-selected goals. Synonyms for "business performance management" include "corporate performance management (CPM)"[1] and "enterprise performance management". Business performance management is contained within approaches to business process management.[4] Business performance management has three main activities:  selection of goals,  consolidation of measurement information relevant to an organization’s progress against these goals, and  Interventions made by managers in light of this information with a view to improving future performance against these goals. Although presented here sequentially, typically all three activities will run concurrently, with interventions by managers affecting the choice of goals, the measurement information monitored, and the activities being undertaken by the organization. Because business performance management activities in large organizations often involve the collation and reporting of large volumes of data, many software vendors, particularly those offering business intelligence tools, market products intended to assist in this process. As a result of this marketing effort, business performance management is often incorrectly understood as an activity that necessarily relies on software systems to work, and many definitions of business performance management explicitly suggest software as being a definitive component of the approach. This interest in business performance management from the software community is sales-driven. "The biggest growth area in operational BI analysis is in the area of business performance management." Since 1992, business performance management has been strongly influenced by the rise of the balanced scorecard framework. It is common for managers to use the balanced scorecard framework to clarify the goals of an organization, to identify how to track them, and to structure the mechanisms by which interventions will be triggered. These steps are the same as those that are found in BPM, and as a result balanced scorecard is often used as the basis for business performance management activity with organizations. In the past, owners have sought to drive strategy down and across their organizations, transform these strategies into actionable metrics and use analytics to expose the cause-and-effect relationships that, if understood, could give insight into decision-making. Definition Business performance management consists of a set of management and analytic processes, supported by technology, that enable businesses to define strategic goals and then measure and manage performance against those goals. Core business performance management processes include financial planning, operational planning, business modeling, consolidation and reporting, analysis, and monitoring of key performance indicators linked to strategy. Business performance management involves consolidation of data from various sources, querying, and analysis of the data, and putting the results into practice. Methodologies Various methodologies for implementing business performance management exist. The discipline gives companies a top-down framework by which to align planning and execution, strategy and tactics,
  • 13. and business-unit and enterprise objectives. Reactions may include the Six Sigma strategy, balanced scorecard, activity-based costing (ABC), Total Quality Management, add, integrated and Theory of Constraints. The balanced scorecard is the most widely adopted performance management methodology. Methodologies on their own cannot deliver a full solution to an enterprise's CPM needs. Many pure- methodology implementations fail to deliver the anticipated benefits due to lack of integration with fundamental CPM processes Metrics & Key Performance Indicators Some of the areas from which bank management may gain knowledge by using business performance management include:  customer-related numbers:  new customers acquired  status of existing customers  attrition of customers (including breakup by reason for attrition)  turnover generated by segments of the customers - possibly using demographic filters  outstanding balances held by segments of customers and terms of payment - possibly using demographic filters  collection of bad debts within customer relationships  demographic analysis of individuals (potential customers) applying to become customers, and the levels of approval, rejections and pending numbers  delinquency analysis of customers behind on payments  profitability of customers by demographic segments and segmentation of customers by profitability  campaign management  real-time dashboard on key operational metrics  overall equipment effectiveness  click stream analysis on a website  key product portfolio trackers  marketing-channel analysis  sales-data analysis by product segments  call center metrics Though the above list describes what a bank might monitor, it could refer to a telephone company or to a similar service-sector company. Items of generic importance include:  consistent and correct KPI-related data providing insights into operational aspects of a company  timely availability of KPI-related data  KPIs designed to directly reflect the efficiency and effectiveness of a business  information presented in a format which aids decision-making for management and decision- makers  ability to discern patterns or trends from organized information Business performance management integrates the company's processes with CRM or[ ERP. Companies should become better able to gauge customer satisfaction, control customer trends and influence shareholder value
  • 14. Application Software Types People working in business intelligence have developed tools that ease the work of business performance management, especially when the business-intelligence task involves gathering and analyzing large amounts of unstructured data. Tool categories commonly used for business performance management include:  OLAP — online analytical processing, sometimes simply called "analytics" (based on dimensional analysis and the so-called "hypercube" or "cube")  score carding, dash boarding and data visualization  data warehouses  document warehouses  text mining  DM — data mining  BPO — business performance optimization  EPM — enterprise performance management  EIS — executive information systems  DSS — decision support systems  MIS — management information systems  SEMS — strategic enterprise management software Design & Implementation Questions asked when implementing a business performance management program include:  Goal-alignment queries Determine the short- and medium-term purpose of the program. What strategic goal(s) of the organization will the program address? What organizational mission/vision does it relate to? A hypothesis needs to be crafted that details how this initiative will eventually improve results / performance (i.e. a strategy map).  Baseline queries Assess current information-gathering competency. Does the organization have the capability to monitor important sources of information? What data is being collected and how is it being stored? What are the statistical parameters of this data, e.g., how much random variation does it contain? Is this being measured?  Cost and risk queries Estimate the financial consequences of a new BI initiative. Assess the cost of the present operations and the increase in costs associated with the BPM initiative. What is the risk that the initiative will fail? This risk assessment should be converted into a financial metric and included in the planning.  Customer and stakeholder queries Determine who will benefit from the initiative and who will pay. Who has a stake in the current procedure? What kinds of customers / stakeholders will benefit directly from this initiative? Who will benefit indirectly? What quantitative / qualitative benefits follow? Is the specified initiative the best or only way to increase satisfaction for all kinds of customers? How will customer benefits be monitored? What about employees, shareholders, and distribution channel members?
  • 15.  Metrics-related queries Information requirements need operationalization into clearly defined metrics. Decide which metrics to use for each piece of information being gathered. Are these the best metrics and why? How many metrics need to be tracked? If this is a large number (it usually is), what kind of system can track them? Are the metrics standardized, so they can be benchmarked against performance in other organizations? What are the industry standard metrics available?  Measurement methodology-related queries Establish a methodology or a procedure to determine the best (or acceptable) way of measuring the required metrics. How frequently will data be collected? Are there any industry standards for this? Is this the best way to do the measurements? How do we know that?  Results-related queries Monitor the BPM program to ensure that it meets objectives. The program itself may require adjusting. The program should be tested for accuracy, reliability, and validity. How can it be demonstrated that the BI initiative, and not something else, contributed to a change in results? How much of the change was probably random?
  • 16. EXECUTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEM An executive information system (EIS) is a type of management information system that facilitates and supports senior executive information and decision-making needs. It provides easy access to internal and external information relevant to organizational goals. It is commonly considered a specialized form of decision support system (DSS). EIS emphasizes graphical displays and easy-to-use user interfaces. They offer strong reporting and drill-down capabilities. In general, EIS are enterprise-wide DSS that help top-level executives analyze, compare, and highlight trends in important variables so that they can monitor performance and identify opportunities and problems. EIS and data warehousing technologies are converging in the marketplace. In recent years, the term EIS has lost popularity in favor of business intelligence (with the sub areas of reporting, analytics, and digital dashboards). Traditionally, executive information systems were mainframe computer-based programs. The purpose was to package a company’s data and to provide sales performance or market research statistics for decision makers, such as financial officers, marketing directors, andchief executive officers, who were not necessarily well acquainted with computers. The objective was to develop computer applications that highlighted information to satisfy senior executives’ needs. Typically, an EIS provides only data that supported executive level decisions, not all company data. Today, the application of EIS is not only in typical corporate hierarchies, but also at personal computers on a local area network. EIS now cross computer hardware platforms and integrate information stored on mainframes, personal computer systems, and minicomputers. As some client service companies adopt the latest enterprise information systems, employees can use their personal computers to get access to the company’s data and identify information relevant to their decision making. This arrangement lets all users customize their access to company data, and provides relevant information to upper and lower corporate levels. Components EIS components can typically be classified as:  Hardware  Software  User interface  Telecommunications Hardware When talking about computer hardware for an EIS environment, we should focus on the hardware that meet the executive’s needs. The executive must be put first and the executive’s needs must be defined before the hardware can be selected. The basic hardware needed for a typical EIS includes four components:  Input data-entry devices. These devices allow the executive to enter, verify, and update data immediately  The central processing unit (CPU), which is the kernel because it controls the other computer system components  Data storage files. The executive can use this part to save useful business information, and this part also help the executive to search historical business information easily  Output devices, which provide a visual or permanent record for the executive to save or read. This device refers to the visual output device such as monitor or printer
  • 17. In addition, with the advent of local area networks (LAN), several EIS products for networked workstations became available. These systems require less support and less expensive computer hardware. They also increase EIS information access to more company users. Software Choosing the appropriate software is vital to an effective EIS. Therefore, the software components and how they integrate the data into one system are important. A typical EIS includes four software components:  Text-handling software—documents are typically text-based  Database—heterogeneous databases on a range of vendor-specific and open computer platforms help executives access both internal and external data  Graphic base—graphics can turn volumes of text and statistics into visual information for executives. Typical graphic types are: time series charts, scatter diagrams, maps, motion graphics, sequence charts, and comparison-oriented graphs (i.e., bar charts)  Model base—EIS models contain routine and special statistical, financial, and other quantitative analysis User interface An EIS must be efficient to retrieve relevant data for decision makers, so the user interface is very important. Several types of interfaces can be available to the EIS structure, such as scheduled reports, questions/answers, menu driven, command language, natural language, and input/output. Telecommunication As decentralizing is becoming the current trend in companies, telecommunications will play a pivotal role in networked information systems. Transmitting data from one place to another has become crucial for establishing a reliable network. In addition, telecommunications within an EIS can accelerate the need for access to distributed data. APPLICATION: EIS helps executives find those data according to user-defined criteria and promote information- based insight and understanding. Unlike a traditional management information system presentation, EIS can distinguish between vital and seldom-used data, and track different key critical activities for executives, both which are helpful in evaluating if the company is meeting its corporate objectives. After realizing its advantages, people have applied EIS in many areas, especially, in manufacturing, marketing, and finance areas. Manufacturing Basically, manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. It is a large branch of industry and of secondary production. Manufacturing operational control focuses on day-to-day operations, and the central idea of this process is effectiveness and efficiency. Marketing In an organization, marketing executives’ role is to create the future. Their main duty is managing available marketing resources to create a more effective future. For this, they need make judgments about risk and uncertainty of a project and its impact on the company in short term and long term. To assist marketing executives in making effective marketing decisions, an EIS can be applied. EIS provides an approach to sales forecasting, which can allow the market executive to compare sales forecast with past sales. EIS also offers an approach to product price, which is found in venture analysis. The market executive can evaluate pricing as related to competition along with the relationship of product quality
  • 18. with price charged. In summary, EIS software package enables marketing executives to manipulate the data by looking for trends, performing audits of the sales data, and calculating totals, averages, changes, variances, or ratios. Financial A financial analysis is one of the most important steps to companies today. The executive needs to use financial ratios and cash flow analysis to estimate the trends and make capital investment decisions. An EIS is a responsibility-oriented approach that integrates planning or budgeting with control of performance reporting, and it can be extremely helpful to finance executives. EIS focuses on financial performance accountability, and recognizes the importance of cost standards and flexible budgeting in developing the quality of information provided for all executive levels. Advantages of EIS  Easy for upper-level executives to use, extensive computer experience is not required in operations  Provides timely delivery of company summary information  Information that is provided is better understood  EIS provides timely delivery of information. Management can make  Decisions made promptly.  Improves tracking information  Offers efficiency to decision makers Future Trends The future of executive info systems is not bound by mainframe computer systems. This trend free executives from learning different computer operating systems, and substantially decreases implementation costs. Because this trend includes using existing software applications, executives don't need to learn a new or special language for the EIS package.
  • 19. ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems integrate internal and external management information across an entire organization—embracing finance/accounting, manufacturing, sales and service, customer relationship management, etc. ERP systems automate this activity with an integrated software application. The purpose of ERP is to facilitate the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders.[1] ERP systems can run on a variety of computer hardware and network configurations, typically employing a database as a repository for information Functional Areas: The following are common functional areas covered in an ERP System. In many ERP Systems these are called and grouped together as ERP Modules: Financial Accounting General Ledger, Fixed Asset, Payables, Receivables, Cash Management, Financial Consolidation Management Accounting Budgeting, Costing, Cost Management, Activity Based Costing Human Resources Recruiting, Training, Payroll, Benefits, 401K, Diversity Management, Retirement, Separation Manufacturing Engineering, Bill of Materials, Work Orders, Scheduling, Capacity, Workflow Management, Quality Control, Manufacturing Process, Manufacturing Projects, Manufacturing Flow, Product Life Cycle Management Supply Chain Management Supply Chain Planning, Supplier Scheduling, Order to Cash, Purchasing, Inventory, Product Configurator, Claim Processing Project Management Project Planning, Resource Planning, Project Costing, Work Break Down Structure, Billing, Time and Expense, Performance Units, Activity Management Customer Relationship Management Sales and Marketing, Commissions, Service, Customer Contact, Call Center Support - CRM systems are not always considered part of ERP systems but rather BSS systems . Specifically in Telecom scenario Data Services Various "self–service" interfaces for customers, suppliers and/or employees Access Control Management of user privileges for various processes COMPONENTS:
  • 20.  Transactional database  Management portal/dashboard  Business intelligence system  Customizable reporting  External access via technology such as web services  Search  Document management  Messaging/chat/wiki  Workflow management Advantages The fundamental advantage of ERP is that integrating myriad businesses processes saves time and expense. Management can make decisions faster, and with fewer errors. Data becomes visible across the organization. Tasks that benefit from this integration include:  Sales forecasting, which allows inventory optimization  Chronological history of every transaction through relevant data compilation in every area of operation.  Order tracking, from acceptance through fulfillment  Revenue tracking, from invoice through cash receipt  Matching purchase orders (what was ordered), inventory receipts (what arrived), and costing (what the vendor invoiced)  ERP systems centralize business data, bringing the following benefits:  They eliminate the need to synchronize changes between multiple systems—consolidation of finance, marketing and sales, human resource, and manufacturing applications  They bring legitimacy and transparency in each bit of statistical data.  They enable standard product naming/coding.  They provide a comprehensive enterprise view (no "islands of information"). They make real–time information available to management anywhere, any time to make proper decisions.  They protect sensitive data by consolidating multiple security systems into a single structure. Benefits  ERP can greatly improve the quality and efficiency of a business. By keeping a company's internal business process running smoothly, ERP can lead to better outputs that benefit the company such as customer service, and manufacturing.  ERP provides support to upper level management to provide them with critical decision making information. This decision support allows the upper level management to make managerial choices that enhance the business down the road.  ERP also creates a more agile company that can better adapt to situations and changes. ERP makes the company more flexible and less rigidly structured in an effort to allow the different parts of an organization to become more cohesive, in turn, enhancing the business both internally and externally ERP Extension…
  • 21.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
  • 22.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
  • 23.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
  • 24.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
  • 25.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
  • 26.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
  • 27.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
  • 28.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
  • 29.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
  • 30.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
  • 31.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
  • 32. KACHARAGADLA MEDIA CORP