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SLIDE REPRESENTATION BY BHAWNA BHARDWAJ.

SLIDE REPRESENTATION BY BHAWNA BHARDWAJ.

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English grammar English grammar Document Transcript

  • SENTENCE:- A SENTENCE IS A GROUP OF WORDS THAT MAKES COMPLETE SENSE.FOR EXAMPLE:-1.THESE ORANGES ARE SWEET AND JUICY.2.BRIGHT MOONLIGHT DISPELLED ALL MY SORROW. KINDS OF SENTENCES DECLARATIVE INTEROGATIVE OR ASSERTIVE SENTENCES SENTENCES IMPERATIVE EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES SENTENCESDECLARATIVE SENTENCES:- A SENTENCE THAT MAKES A STATEMENT IS CALLED A DECLARATIVE ORASSERTIVE SENTENCE. FOR EXAMPLE:-1. SELF-CONFIDENCE IS KEY TO SUCCESS.2.A THANKFUL HEART ISA PEACEFUL HEART.1. SELF-CONFIDENCE IS KEY TO SUCCESS.2.A THANKFUL HEART IS A PEACEFULHEART.INTEROGATIVE SENTENCES:-A SENTENCE THAT ENQUIRES ABOUT SOMETHING IS CALLED ANINTEROGATIVE SENTENCE.FOR EXAMPLE:-1. WHAT KIND OF STORIES DO YOU LIKE?2. DO YOU LIKEMYSTERIES?INTEROGATIVE SENTENCES MAY BE OF SIX KINDS:-1.YES/NO QUESTIONS:-QUESTIONS THAT CAN BEANSWERED IN YES OR NO. THESE QUESTIONS BEGIN WITH AUXILIARY VERBS LIKE IS,ARE,AM,WAS,WERE,WILL,HAVE,HAD,DO,DID,CAN,MAY,SHOULD,ETC.1.DID YOU RECEIVE MY MESSAGE IN TIME?2.WILL YOU BE ABLE TO COME?2.QUESTION-WORD QUESTIONS:-QUESTIONS THAT BEGIN WITH WORDS LIKE WHO,WHICH,WHAT,WHEN,WHERE,HOW,HOWMUCH,ETC.WHEN DID YOU BUY THIS CAR? HOW MUCH DID IT COST YOU?3.ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS:-IN ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS,THERE IS MORE THAN ONE QUESTIONJOINED BY OR:WOULD YOU LIKE TO HAVE TEA OR COFFEE?WILL YOU PAY THE DUES BY CHEQUE OR IN CASH?
  • 4. RHETORICAL QUESTIONS:-A RHETORICAL QUESTION IS A QUESTION ONLY IN FORM ; IT ACTUALLYCARRIES THE SENSE OF A STATEMENT :ISN’T IT HOT TODAY? DIDN’T I GIVE YOU MY FULL SUPPORT?5. EMPHATIC QUESTIONS:- EMPHATIC QUESTIONS ARE USED TO EXPRESS STRONG FEELINGS LIKEANGER,SURPRISE,ETC.:WHO THE HELL IS HE TO INTERFERE IN MY AFFAIRS? WHAT ON THE EARTH WERE YOU DOING THERE?6. QUESTIONS TAGS:- A QUESTION TAG IN A SHORT QUESTION TAGGED TO A STATEMENT . IT IS MEANTTO SEEK CONFIRMATION OF WHAT THE STATEMENT CONVEYS:-YOU ARE WILLING TO WORK FOR US, AREN’T YOU? SHE DID NOT INFORM YOU, DID SHE?7. IMPERATIVE SENTENCES:- AN IMPERATIVE SENTENCE EXPRESSES A COMMAND , REQUEST ORADVICE. FOR EXAMPLE:-LEAVE THE ROOM IMMEDIATELY. OPEN THE WINDOW,PLEASE.8.EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES:- EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES EXPRESS SUDDEN EMOTION LIKE SURPRISE,DELIGHT,PAIN,GRIEF,ANGER,DISGUST,ETC.WISHES CAN ALSO BE CLASSIFIED AS EXCLAMATIONS.1.WHAT A WITTY ANSWER SHE GAVE! 2.WHAT A FALL IT WAS!3.HOW HUMANE HER RESPONSE WAS! 4.HOW EARNESTLY SHE PLEADED! 5. O THAT I WERE A BIRD!5.ALAS,SHE DIED SO YOUNG! 6. WOULD THAT I HAD NEVER LEFT INDIA! 7. IF ONLY I HAD A STRONGFINANCIAL SUPPORT!8.MAY YOU BE BLESSED WITH SUCCESS!9.MARVELLOUS! SUPERB! FINE!PARTS OF SPEECH:-DIFFERENT CLASSES OR CATEGORIES INTO WHICH WORDS ARE DIVIDED TOSTUDY LANGUAGE ARE CALLED PARTS OF SPEECH. THERE ARE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH:1.NOUN 2.PRONOUN 3.ADJECTIVE 4.VERB 5.ADVERB 6.PREPOSITION 7.CONJUNCTION8.INTERJECTION.
  • NOUN:-A NOUN IS USED FOR NAME,PERSON,PLACE OR THING,QUALITY,STATE,IDEA ETC.FOREXAMPLE:-BOY,GIRL,ABHINAV,SHABNAM,ARMY,RABBIT,TELEPHONE ETC. KINDS OF NOUNS COMMON PROPER NOUN NOUN COLLECTIVE ABSTRACT NOUN NOUNNOUNS ARE OF FOUR KINDS:-1.COMMON NOUNS:-A COMMON NOUN IS A NAME SHARED BY EVERY PERSON OR THING OF THESAME CLASS.IT DOES NOT REFER TO ANY PARTICULAR PERSON OR THING.FOR EXAMPLE:-MAN,WOMAN,TIGER,TREE,RIVER,HILL,TABLE ARE ALL COMMON NOUNS.2.PROPER NOUNS:-A PROPER NOUN IS THE NAME OF PARTICULAR PERSON OR THING.FOR EXAMPLE:-SACHIN,ANITA,KAVERI,MT.EVEREST,TAJMAHAL ARE ALL PROPER NOUNS.3.COLLECTIVE NOUNS:-A COLLECTIVE NOUN IS THE NAME OF A GROUP OF PEOPLE OR COLLECTIVE OFTHINGS OF THE SAME KIND.FOR EXAMPLE:-CLASS,TEAM,ARMY,SWARM,BUNDLE,BUNCH ARE ALLCOLLECTIVE NOUNS.4.ABSTRACT NOUNS:-AN ABSTRACT NOUN IS THE NAME OF A QUALITY, STATE OR IDEA.FOR EXAMPLE:-BEAUTY,WISDOM,CHILDHOOD,BELIEF,THICKNESS ARE ALL ABSTRACT NOUNS.ADJECTIVES:-AN ADJECTIVE ISAWORD QUALIFIES A NOUNOR PRONOUN OR ADD SOMETHING TO ITS MEANING.FOREXAMPLE:-ANANT IS AN INTELLIGENT PERSON. I HAVE A BLACK AND WHITE CAT.A HUGE CROWDGATHERED TO HEAR THE SPEAKER.DO YOU TAKE BATH IN COLD WATER? View slide
  • KINDS OF ADJECTIVES ADJECTIVES OF ADJECTIVES OF QUALITY QUANTITY ADJECTIVES DEMONSTRATIVE DISTRIBUTIVE OFNUMBER ADJECTIVE ADJE CTIVESADJECTIVES OF QUALITY:-ADJECTIVES OF QUALITY TELLS ABOUT THE QUALITY OR CONDITION OF ANOUN.FOR EXAMPLE:-1.AN HONEST PERSON IS RESPECTED EVERYWHERE.2.THIS SHOPKEEPER ISHONEST.ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY:-ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY TELLS ABOUT THE QUANTITY OF A NOUN.SUCHWORDS ARE CALLED ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. FOR EXAMPLE:-1.THERE IS LITTLE MILK IN THE JUG.2.HEHAS MUCH MONEY TO SPEND ON HIM.3.ALL THE MONEY I HAD IS SPENT.4.HE HAS BORROWED SOMEMONEY FROM ME.ADJECTIVES OF NUMBERS:-ADJECTIVES OF NUMBERS TELLS ABOUT THE NUMBER OF THINGS ORPERSONS.FOR EXAMPLE:-1. I HAVE MANY FRIENDS. 2. THERE ARE FEW BOYS IN THE CLASS.3.SOMEBOYS ARE ABSENT EVEN TODAY.5.ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS, I ADVISED HIM TO BE CAREFUL.DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES:- DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES ARE THOSE WORDS WHICH POINT OUT ATHING, PLACE OR A PERSON .FOR EXAMPLE:-1. THIS BICYCLE IS MINE.2.THAT HOUSE BELONGS TO HARI.3.THESE QUESTIONS ARE OUT OF SYALLABUS.4.THOSE STORIES ARE QUITE INTERESTING.DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES:-DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES WHICH INDICATE ONE THING,PERSON,TAKENSEPARATELY OUT OF A WHOLE GROUP OR CLASS.FOR EXAMPLE:-1.EVERY MAN MUST DO HIS DUTY.2.EACH STUDENT WAS AMPLY REWARDED. View slide
  • ADVERB:- AN ADVERB MODIFIES A VERB,AN ADJECTIVE OR AN ADVERB. FOR EXAMPLE:-1.THE BOYWALKED SLOWLY.2.IT IS TOO HOT OUTSIDE. 3. THE LAST BATSMEN PLAYED EXTREMELY WELL.KINDS OF ADVERBS:- ADVERB OF TIME INTEROGATIVE ADVERB ADVERB OF PLACE ADVERB OF ADVERB OF DEGREE OR MANNER INTENSITYADVERB OF TIME:-ADVERB OF TIME SHOWS AS TO WHEN AN ACTION TOOK PLACE.FOR EXAMPLE:-1.WEPLAY DAILY. 2. PLEASE DO IT NOW.3. WE PLAY DAILY.4.HE HAS JUST GONE OUT.5.I AM TO GO THEREIMMEDIATELY.ADVERB OF PLACE:-ADVERB OF PLACE SHOWS AS TO WHERE THE ACTION TOOK PLACE.FOR EXAMPLE:-1.HE MOVES BACKWARD. 2.LET US SIT OUTSIDE IN THE SUN.3.HE WAS WALKING UP AND DOWN.ADVERB OF MANNER:-ADVERB OF MANNER TELLS HOW AN ACTION IS PERFORMED. FOR EXAMPLE:-1.HOW WELL HE SINGS! 2. THE STAGE IS TASTEFULLY DECORATED. 3.HE IS WORKING VERY HARD THESEDAYS.ADVERB OF FREQUENCY:-THESE ADVERB EXPRESS THE FREQUENCY OF AN ACTION AND ANSWER THEQUESTION: HOW OFTEN?I ALWAYS TRY TO BE PUNCTUAL. THEY RARELY GO FOR AN OUTING.ADVERB OF DEGREE:-THESE ADVERBS EXPRESS THE DEGREE OR INTENSITY OF AN ACTION.FOREXAMPLE:-1.THE AUDITORIUM WAS NEARLY PACKED.2.THIS TEA IS TOO SWEET.INTERROGATIVE ADVERB:-THESE ADVERBS ARE USED TO ASK QUESTIONS.WHEN DID THE MATCH START? HOW DEEP IS THIS LAKE?
  • ADVERB OF DEGREE OR QUANTITY:- ADVERB OF DEGREE WHICH SHOW HOW MUCH, OR IN WHATDEGREE OR TO WHAT EXTENT.EXAMPLE:-1.HE WAS TOO CARELESS. 2. THESE MANGOES ARE ALMOST RIPE. 3. I AM FULLYPREPARED.4.THE SEA IS VERY STORMY.ADVERB OF AFFIRMATION:-ADVERB OF AFFIRMATION WHICH SHOW THE AFFIRMATION .EXAMPLE:-1.SURELY YOU ARE MISTAKEN. 2.HE CERTAINLY WENT. 3.I DO NOT KNOW HIM.ADVERB OF REASON:- ADVERB OF REASON WHICH SHOW THE REASON OF HAPPENING OF THE EVENT.EXAMPLE:-1. HE THEREFORE LEFT SCHOOL. 2.HE IS HENCE UNABLE TO REFUTE THE CHARGE.INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS:- INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS ARE USED FOR ASKING QUESTIONS.FOR EXAMPLE:-1.WHEN DID YOU COME FROM ROHTAK?2.WHERE DO YOU LIVE?3.HOW EARLY DO YOUGET UP EVERY DAY? WHY DID YOU NOT GO THERE?RELATIVE ADVERBS:-RELATIVE ADVERBS FUNCTION NOT ONLY AS CONNECTIVES TO JOIN TWOCLAUSES BUT ALSO MODIFY THE VERB IN THE PRECEDING CLAUSE. 1) THAT IS THE FAIR PRICE SHOP.WE CAN HAVE ALL GOODS THERE. THAT IS THE FAIR PRICE SHOP WHERE WE CAN HAVE ALL GOODS. 2) MOHAN COULD NOT SPEAK. I DO NOT KNOW THE REASON OF IT. I DO NOT KNOW WHY MOHAN COULD NOT SPEAK. CONJUNCTION:- A CONJUNCTION OR A LINKER IS A WORD WHICH JOINS TWO WORDS, PHRASES OR SENTENCES TOGETHER. KINDS OF CONJUNCTIONS:- CONJUNCTION ARE OF THREE KINDS:- a)CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTION :-THESE CONJUNCTIONS JOIN TWO SIMILAR PARTS OF SPEECH( NOUN AND NOUN,ADVERB AND ADVERB,ADJECTIVE AND ADJECTIVE).THE OTHER COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS ARE FOR,YET,SO,HOWEVER,NEITHER ETC. b) CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS:-THESE CONJUNCTION ARE USED IN PAIRS,THEY ARE RELATED TO EACH OTHER. SUCH CONJUNCTIONS ARE CALLED CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS. c) SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTION:-THE CONJUNCTION USED HERE (WHY,WHEN,WHERE) JOIN THE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE AND THE MAIN CLAUSE.THEY ARE CALLED SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. EXAMPLES:- SINCE,ALTHOUGH,THOUGH,BEFORE,AFTER,TILL,UNTIL,UNLESS,AS,BECAUSE,WHILE,IN CASE,WHETHER,SO THAT ,AS IF,AS SOON AS,AS LONG AS, ETC.USES OF CONJUNCTIONS:-CONJUNCTIONS AS WE HAVE DEFINED,CONNECT SIMILAR WORD PHRASESAND SENTENCES.FOR EXAMPLE:-1.JOYS AND SORROWS(NOUN+NOUN).2.BREAD ANDBUTTER(NOUN+NOUN).3.BLACK AND WHITE(ADJECTIVE+ADJECTIVE).4.LOUDLY ANDCLEARLY.(ADVERB+ADVERB).
  • 1.THEY WENT TO CATTLE FAIR.THEY BOUGHT A BUFFALO.(THEY WENT TO CATTLE FAIR AND BOUGHT ABUFFALO.2.PREM BOUGHT APEN.HE BOUGHT A PENCIL.(PREM BOUGHT PEN AND PENCIL.)(A) IF THE SUBJECT IS COMMON AND THERE IS CONTINUITY IN ACTION,USED AND TO JOIN TWOSENTENCES.BUT IF THERE IS CONTRAST,USE BUT TO CONNECT THEM.FOR EXAMPLE:-a)HE DID HIS BEST. HE FAILED.(HE DID HIS BEST BUT FAILED.)i)HE DID HIS BEST BUT FAILED.i)Mohan came to meet me.ii)I was not at home.iii)Mohan came to meet me but I was not at home.B)In case of a choice or a warning,use or,otherwise.For example:-a) Word hard.b)You will not pass.c)Work hard or you will not pass.i) Do not while away your time.ii)Your father will punish you.iii)Do not while away your time otherwiseyour father will punish you.iv)Play hockey or football.TENSES:-Tense is the form of a verb which shows the time and the state of an action or event.Corresponding to three divisions of time there are three tenses:-The present tense referring tothepresent time,the past referring to past time,the Future Tense referring to the future time.Each tensehas four forms: (i) Indefinite or Simple:-It does not say anything about the completeness of an action.It merely states an action or event. (ii) Continous or Progressive:-It indicates that an action is in progress and still incomplete. (iii) Perfect :-It indicates that the action is complete. (iv) Perfect continous:-It indicates that the action has been in progress.
  • Tense Simple or Continous Perfect Perfect Continous Indefinite Or ProgressivePresent I play I played I have played I have been playingPast I played I was playing I had played I had been playing.Uses of Tensespresent TenseTo express what is actually happening at the present moment.E.g. The teacher is teaching.The student are learning.To explain custom or habit.E.g. I take tea every morning.I go for a walk early in the morning.He goes to the temple thrice a week.To express general or universal truths.E.g.The sun rises in the east.The earth rotates round the sun.Time and Tide wait for none.To express a planned future action or a series of actions particularly concerning a journey.E.g. The examination begins at 9a.m. tomorrow.
  • We leave Panipat at 8a.m. on Monday and arrive in Delhi at 10 a.m. We stay there for two days andleave for Bombay at 11a.m. on Wednesday. We spend four days there.5. To introduce quotations with the verb ‘say’E.g. Keats says, “ A thing is beauty is a joy forever”.The Bible says, “Thou shalt not steal”.The notice says, “No parking.”6. To express a past event in a dramatic manner.E.g. Alexander raises his hand and salutes Porus.Abhimanyu fights bravely but is killed in the end.7. In running commentaries on sporting events.E.g. Ajit passes the ball to Mohinder, Mohinder passes it Gurmit who kicks it past the goalkeeper.8.In exclamatory sentences beginning with ‘here’ and ‘there’.Here comes the train!There she goes!There goes the bell!Sentence Formation:-Present Indefinite Tense:-Affirmative Sentence:-Subject (Singular Third person) +V1s/es+object.Subject (plural, I, II and III person) +V1S/es+object.Negative Sentence:-Subject(s) +doesnot+V1+Object.Subject(P)+do not+ V1+object.Interrogative Sentence:- Do/Does+Subject +V1+Object.
  • Present Indefinite Tense or Simple Present Tense is formed by using the first form of the verb in the caseof sentences which are of affirmative nature.E.g. I exercise every day.Gunjan drinks milk every day.Present Continuous TenseThe Present Continuous Tense indicates an action as going on at the time of speaking.Rule:-Affirmative Sentence:-Subject+is/am/are+v1+ing+object.Negative Sentences:-Subject+is/am/are+not+v1+ing+object.Interrogative Sentences:-Is/Am/Are+Subject+v1+ing+object.In making the present continuous tense, the helping verbs is,am,are are followedby the verb+ing.I am reading my book.The girl is not playing.Is the girl playing?Uses of the Present Continuous Tense.1.It shows what is happening now ,at the time of writing or speaking.E.g. Sita is writing a letter. Mohan is reading a book.2.To express an action in progress about the time but not necessarily at the timeof speaking.E.g. They are building a new bridge on the river Yamuna.He is writing a book on Geography.She is teaching English at High School.3.To express an action which is likely to happen in near future.My brother is coming next week.I am going to delhi tomorrow.
  • 4. To express repeated happenings.He is always losing his things.His son is always bringing strange guests at home.The following verbs are not normally used in the continuous form:1. Verbs of senses: see, hear, smell, notice, feel, watch.2. Verbs of emotion: want, wish, desire, refuse, forgive, care, like, hate, dislike etc.3.Verbsofthinking:think,feel,realize,understand,mean,suppose,believe,except,forget,remember, recollect etc.