Realism in education


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It deals with the basic features of realism and its application in the modern world of education.

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Realism in education

  1. 1. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REALISM </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. REALISM <ul><li>Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Realism is derived from the Greek word”RES” which means real which further is related to object. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus realism is an outlook about the existence of an object according to which the objects of the word are real,i.e they are like they appear to us. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence it is an angle of vision according to which we see and perceive are realities. Realist believe that knowledge acquired by senses is true. Hence whatever we perceive by our senses is real nature and the true entity of the world“ </li></ul>
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>“ Realism is the reinforcement of our common acceptance of this world as it appears to us.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Butler </li></ul><ul><li>“ The doctrine of realism asserts that there is a real world of things behind and corresponding to the objects of our perception “ </li></ul><ul><li>- Ross </li></ul><ul><li>Realism means a belief or theory which looks upon the world as it seems to be a mere phenomenon.” -Swami Ram Tirth. </li></ul>
  4. 4. FORMS OF REALISM IN EDUCATION <ul><li>Humanistic realism- Protagonist--- </li></ul><ul><li>Irasmus,Rebelias,Milton. </li></ul><ul><li>Social realism –Protagonist----- </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Montaigne, John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Sense realism—Protagonist--- </li></ul><ul><li>Mulcaster,Francis Bacon,Ratke,Comenius. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Humanistic realism <ul><li>It sprang up after the renaissance. </li></ul><ul><li>It lays importance on Greek & moral literature because it is useful for life. </li></ul><ul><li>According to them, it studies present solution to each problem of life, So the real life of life cannot be known without its study. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The purpose of humanistic realist as to master his own environing life natural and social through a knowledge of the broader life of the ancients ;but both could be gained by mastery of the literature of the Greeks & Romans …study itself was not all of education .Physical, moral,& social development formed component parts …it might not be necessary to resort to practical study of life around one ….for when understood literature was a safer & more comprehensive guide of life than direct study of life.” </li></ul><ul><li>The realist humanism has recommended the study of ancient Greek & Roman literature for gaining useful knowledge of literature. </li></ul><ul><li>They consider the Greek & Roman literature as store house of all types of knowledge. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Social realism <ul><li>It criticized bookish knowledge & emphasized on practical knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Its aim is to fulfill social needs ,social efficiency which is the result of practical knowledge. Which can be imparted through tours,excursions,observations,experiences etc. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The social realist, looking askance of bookish studies stressed the values of direct studies of men & things in mind,having chiefly the upper classes ;they advocate a period of travel, a grand tour which will give real experience of varied aspects of life.” -J.S.Ross </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lord Montaigne <ul><ul><li>The chief social realist were Lord Montaigne & John Locke. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acc to Montaigne,' The aim of education is to inculcate intellect & logic in man by which he can lie his life well.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He emphasized a teaching method which was according to the natural tendencies & development of a child. He was against repressionistic discipline. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He said, &quot;To make it of any real value you must not only get it into their minds but espouse them to it.” </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. John Locke <ul><li>According to him the aim of education was the development of knowledge,traits,good conduct, learning faculty. </li></ul><ul><li>He attached more importance to method to subjects . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sense Realism <ul><li>It came into being in the 17 th century according to which knowledge can be gained through our senses. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence a child should be trained with the help of objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Acc to Munroe ,scientific researches have influenced sense realism. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence the child should be bought in contact with the nature. </li></ul><ul><li>It has preferred education of nature,observation,science in place of language & literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching methods should be scientific inductive, based on observation,analysis,synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed on physical education. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The medium of education should be mother tongue or dialect used in ancient times. </li></ul><ul><li>It is developed on the psychological,scientific,and sociological basis. </li></ul><ul><li>This doctrine also assisted in the development of educational philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>Comenius is considered to be the most perfect representative of sense realism. </li></ul><ul><li>Acc to him the aim of knowledge is to make a child moral,knowledgeable,and a devotee. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in universal education. </li></ul><ul><li>Method of teaching should be natural. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Education acc to Realism <ul><li>Acc to realism ,education ,is the chief means of an individual's physical,mental,moral,&religious development . </li></ul><ul><li>Realis t have accepted education as a social institution by which an individual is constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>In realist education ,natural elements social institutions have been given great importance . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Realism and aims of education <ul><li>Preparing the child for a happy and successful life- --Education should prepare the child so that he is able to solve the problems of life successfully. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing the child for a real life- ----They believe that reality of knowledge of external material world is gained through senses </li></ul><ul><li>Acc to Butler, the chief purpose of the school is to further through instructions,disciline and pupil activity, the development of physical,social,mental,and moral training. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>4. Emphasis on training of senses- --Unlike idealist who impose knowledge from above, realist advocate self learning through senses which ought to be trained. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Equal importance to individuality and sociability- ---The aim of realistic education is to develop both the individual self and the society which he is an integral part of. According to Bacon, realistic education develops the individual on one hand and on the other tries to develop the society through the development of social consciousness and sense of service of the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>6 . Developing scientific attitude . </li></ul><ul><li>Does not belief in soul, god & ancient & orthodox traditions . </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific knowledge can be obtained by clear knowledge of practical & knowledge of natural & social environment. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 7.Developing vocational efficiency Acc to Spens Report,Edn should inculcate in the child so that he learns to adapt in the environment & earn a livelihood. Hence vocational Edn is to be given. Acquainting a child with nature and social envt . Complete knowledge of nature &human should be given so that he understands human nature ,motivation,inspiration,needs& succeed in life. Emphasizing integration of cultural & vocatinal education Acc to Davenport, moral as well as vocational education shd be given. Acc to Ross, cultural& vocational aspects shd be blended. Hence the school shd impart vocation as well as cultural Edn without any bias.
  16. 16. Realism and curriculum <ul><li>Acc to Ross , ’just as naturalism comes on the educational scene as a protest against system of training that have become artificial ,so realism tends to appear as a reaction against the curriculum consisting of studies that have become bookish, sophisticated & abstruse .” </li></ul><ul><li>According to realists only those subjects should included in the curriculum which prepare the child for day to day living </li></ul><ul><li>Realist emphasized prime importance to nature, science and vocational subjects whereas secondary place to arts, literature and languages. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>They have commended about thirty subjects for the curriculum. They have advocated free choosing by the children from these subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time they have made clear that teaching of mother tongue is the foundation of all the development and vocational subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence the essential subjects in the curriculum should be language and vocational subjects. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Subjects should have a sense of utility.(hence inclusion of science). </li></ul><ul><li>Stress on objects than words. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress on previous knowledge of students. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects in curriculum should be correlated. </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects: </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion of daily life subjects in the curruculum,modern lang,physics,chemistry,bio. </li></ul><ul><li>botany, hygiene,tours,maths,astronomy,science. </li></ul>
  19. 19. REALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING <ul><li>Realism changed the traditional system of bookish knowledge to gaining knowledge through senses according to the nature of the child and capacity by the way of observation and experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Realist insisted to impart knowledge of object and external phenomenon through senses. This encouraged the use of audio-visual aids in education. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacon, the famous realist introduced the inductive method in the process of education. wherein he child does self learning to a great extent. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Milton advocated learning through traveling. </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke also about tours,obsrevation and learning by experience as powerful means of education. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Realist also propounded many maxims of teaching which discourage rote memorization and prescribed instead learning by observation and experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Realist regard all knowledge as one unit and thus advocate the principle of correlation between the various subjects of studies . </li></ul><ul><li>Stress on scientific & problem solving method </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>They use observation, demonstration, inductive method under scientific methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress on inductive method(due to sense realism). </li></ul><ul><li>Realist move from parts to whole(synthetic methods). </li></ul><ul><li>Lay stress on correlation method also. </li></ul><ul><li>Also supported the non formal methods of teaching. </li></ul>
  22. 22. REALISM AND TEACHER <ul><li>The teacher according to realist, is expected to have full knowledge of the content and needs of the children. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher must be capable to present before the children the in a clear and intelligible way by employing psychological and scientific methods. </li></ul><ul><li>( The method which the new realist apply to the problems & philosophy is called as scientific method) </li></ul><ul><li>It is the duty of the teacher to tell children about scientific discovories,researches and inventions by others in the field of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>A teacher should know whom to teach, why to teach, when to teach, How much to teach. </li></ul><ul><li>Shd have a knowledge of child psychology & shd have undergone training. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The teacher himself should also be engaged in some research work and experimentation. At the same time he must inspire the children to undertake wide and close observation and experimentation so that they are able to find out the new facts. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher must understand the amount of knowledge to be provided to the children at a specific time. way. </li></ul><ul><li>Realist insist upon the training of the teachers before they engage themselves in the teaching work in an effective </li></ul>
  24. 24. REALISM AND DISCIPLINE <ul><li>Since realist emphasize on moral and religious education of the child hence discipline is a prerequisite condition. </li></ul><ul><li>They advocate self discipline to affect smooth adjustment the child with the external environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher only inspires and encourages the child sympathetically. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Commenius the school should be like the lap of the mother full of affection. love and sympathy. </li></ul><ul><li>Realist emphasize a synthetic form of impressionistic and emancipatory discipline </li></ul>
  25. 25. Realism and the child <ul><li>Acc to Mulcaster,the chief aim of education is to deliver the a child’s real tendency to its perfection. </li></ul><ul><li>Realist have considered the child as a focal point of education. Hence the child’s desires, feelings,sentiments,tendencies,ande faculties cannot be overlooked. </li></ul><ul><li>Acc to Realist, the child will have to be enabled to proceed from ignorance to knowledge & to beget the knowledge of the real. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike naturalist & idealist, the realist want to educate a child how to become a man(not god & gentle)so that he can face the real challenges of life. </li></ul>
  26. 26. REALISM AND SCHOOL <ul><li>Realist have different views about school. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of them prescribed traveling ,tours and teaching by private tutors as the best means of education. </li></ul><ul><li>Some realist emphasize the importance of school and class room teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>According to them school is an agency which meets the needs of the child and the demands of the society as well. </li></ul><ul><li>School is the only agency which provides vocational education to prepare the child for some livelihood . </li></ul><ul><li>In words of Comenius,’’ School are true forging places of men.” </li></ul>
  27. 27. Contribution of Realism in Education <ul><li>Education shd be practical </li></ul><ul><li>Aims presented are important because they are based on truth which is present before us. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of science & technical subjects in the curriculum ,life useful skills, Informal </li></ul><ul><li>Programmes, multipurpose curriculum, are the contribution of realism in education . </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher objectively imparts knowledge with isolating his desires his facts & sentiments. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no place for punishments, repression & fear but affection, sympathy,& human qualities in the school system. </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline concept has changed. Now discipline is based on feelings of affection & sympathy . </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Realism has laid the importance of individual by laying emphasis on individual education. </li></ul><ul><li>In modern democratic age, education is now considered to be a social institution. </li></ul><ul><li>Education has widened its scope. Vocational and technical subjects have made education liberal. </li></ul>