The term personality is derived from the Latin
word Persona meaning a Mask.
The visible aspect of one's character as it impresses
others: He has a pleasing personality.
The sum total of the physical, mental, emotional, and
social characteristics of an individual
“Personality is the totality of habits, attitudes and traits that
result from socialization and characterizes us in our
relationship with others “
Anderson and Parker
“Personality represents those structural and dynamic properties
of an individual or individuals as they reflect themselves in
characteristic responses to situations ”
Lawrence A Pewin
“Personality is made up the characteristic patterns of thoughts,
feelings, and behaviors that make a person unique. It arises
from within the individual and remains fairly consistent
throughout life ”
Biological factors: The general biological characteristics of human
biological system influence the way in which human beings tend to
see external data interpret and respond to them. The study of
biological contribution to personality can be divided into three major
categories hereditary, brain and physical stature.
Family and social factors: Family and social groups have most
significant impact on personality development. These groups have
their impact through socialization and identification process.
Socialization Process: Socialization is process by which the individual
infant acquires, from the enormously wide range of behavior
potentialities that are open to him at birth, those behavior patterns
that are customary and are acceptable according to the standards of
his family and social group. Socialization process starts with initial
contact between mother and her new infant. Later on other members
of the family and social group influence the socialization process.
Identification Process: The identification process occurs when a person
tries to identify himself with some person to whom he feels ideal in
the family. First identification can be viewed as the similarity of
behavior between the child and model. Second identification can be
looked in as the child motives or desires to be like the model. Third
it can be viewed as the process through which the child actually
takes on the attributes of the model.
Home environment: Total home environment is critical factor in
personality development. For E.g. children with markedly
institutional upbringing or children in cold un stimulating home have
much greater potential to be emotionally maladjusted than children
raised by parents in warm and loving and stimulating environment.
Family Members: Parents and other family members have a strong
influence on the personality development of the child. Parents have
more effect on the personality development as compared to other
members of the family.
Social Groups: Besides a person’s home environment and family
members there are other influences arising from the social placement
of the family as the person is exposed to agencies outside the
home, particularly the school, friendship and other work groups.
Similarly socio economic group also affect personality.
Cultural Factors: Culture is the underlying determinant of human
decision making. It generally determines attitude towards
independence, aggression competition and co-operation. Each culture
expects and trains its members to behave in the way that are
acceptable to the group. To a marked degree the child’s cultural group
defines the range of experiences and situations he/she is likely to
encounter and the values and the personality characteristics that will
be reinforced and learned.
Situational factors: Apart from biological, sociological and cultural
factors situational factors also determine personality development.
Situation exerts an important press on the individual it exercises
constraint and may provide push. This aspect is very important for
organization behavior because manager has control over the
Doing one's best in objective or difficult tasks and achieving
Being agreeable to accepting the leadership of others
and avoiding unconventionality.
Organizing one's work and habits and planning ahead
as to attract
one's self by
Doing as one
Participating in friendships, sharing things with friends, and
forming attachments to them
Analyzing motives and putting oneself in other people's shoes
in order to understand their behavior
Seeking encouragement and support from others and appreciating
being aided when in need
Being a leader who supervises or wields influence over
Feeling oneself blameworthy and inferior to others and
less fortunate and
support to others
and fashions and
liking novelty in
Remaining with a task until it is completed and being able
to work without being distracted
Attacking contrary points of view and expressing
disagreement or criticism of others openly
ISTJ (Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging) The Duty Fulfiller :
Serious and quiet, interested in security and peaceful living.
Extremely thorough, responsible, and dependable. Well-developed
powers of concentration. Usually interested in supporting and
promoting traditions and establishments. Well-organized and hard
working, they work steadily towards identified goals. They can
usually accomplish any task once they have set their mind to it.
ISTP (Introverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving ) The Mechanic
Quiet and reserved, interested in how and why things work. Excellent
skills with mechanical things. Risk-takers who they live for the
moment. Usually interested in and talented at extreme sports.
Uncomplicated in their desires. Loyal to their peers and to their
internal value systems, but not overly concerned with respecting laws
and rules if they get in the way of getting something done. Detached
and analytical, they excel at finding solutions to practical problems.
ISFJ (Introverted Sensing Feeling Judging) The Nurturer
Quiet, kind, and conscientious. Can be depended on to follow
through. Usually puts the needs of others above their own needs.
Stable and practical, they value security and traditions. Welldeveloped sense of space and function. Rich inner world of
observations about people. Extremely perceptive of other's feelings.
Interested in serving others.
ISFP (Introverted Sensing Feeling Perceiving) The Artist
Quiet, serious, sensitive and kind. Do not like conflict, and not
likely to do things which may generate conflict. Loyal and faithful.
Extremely well-developed senses, and aesthetic appreciation for
beauty. Not interested in leading or controlling others. Flexible and
open-minded. Likely to be original and creative. Enjoy the present
INFJ (Introverted intuitive Feeling Judging )The Protector
Quietly forceful, original, and sensitive. Tend to stick to things
until they are done. Extremely intuitive about people, and
concerned for their feelings. Well-developed value systems which
they strictly adhere to. Well-respected for their perseverance in
doing the right thing. Likely to be individualistic, rather than
leading or following.
INFP (Introverted intuitive Feeling Perceiving ) The Idealist
Quiet, reflective, and idealistic. Interested in serving humanity.
Well-developed value system, which they strive to live in
accordance with. Extremely loyal. Adaptable and laid-back unless
a strongly-held value is threatened. Usually talented writers.
Mentally quick, and able to see possibilities. Interested in
understanding and helping people.
INTJ (Introverted intuitive Thinking Judging )The Scientist
Independent, original, analytical, and determined. Have an
exceptional ability to turn theories into solid plans of action.
Highly value knowledge, competence, and structure. Driven to
derive meaning from their visions. Long-range thinkers. Have very
high standards for their performance, and the performance of
others. Natural leaders, but will follow if they trust existing
INTP (Introverted intuitive Thinking Perceiving ) The Thinker
Logical, original, creative thinkers. Can become very excited about
theories and ideas. Exceptionally capable and driven to turn
theories into clear understandings. Highly value knowledge,
competence and logic. Quiet and reserved, hard to get to know
well. Individualistic, having no interest in leading or following
ESTP (Extraverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving ) The Doer
Friendly, adaptable, action-oriented. "Doers" who are focused on
immediate results. Living in the here-and-now, they're risk-takers
who live fast-paced lifestyles. Impatient with long explanations.
Extremely loyal to their peers, but not usually respectful of laws
and rules if they get in the way of getting things done. Great people
ESTJ (Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging ) The Guardian
Practical, traditional, and organized. Likely to be athletic. Not
interested in theory or abstraction unless they see the practical
application. Have clear visions of the way things should be. Loyal
and hard-working. Like to be in charge. Exceptionally capable in
organizing and running activities. "Good citizens" who value
security and peaceful living.
ESFP (Extraverted Sensing Feeling Perceiving ) The
People-oriented and fun-loving, they make things more fun for
others by their enjoyment. Living for the moment, they love new
experiences. They dislike theory and impersonal analysis.
Interested in serving others. Likely to be the center of attention in
social situations. Well-developed common sense and practical
ESFJ (Extraverted Sensing Feeling Judging) The Caregiver
Warm-hearted, popular, and conscientious. Tend to put the needs of
others over their own needs. Feel strong sense of responsibility and
duty. Value traditions and security. Interested in serving others.
Need positive reinforcement to feel good about themselves. Welldeveloped sense of space and function.
ENFP (Extraverted intuitive Feeling Perceiving ) The Inspirer
Enthusiastic, idealistic, and creative. Able to do almost anything
that interests them. Great people skills. Need to live life in
accordance with their inner values. Excited by new ideas, but
bored with details. Open-minded and flexible, with a broad range
of interests and abilities.
ENFJ (Extraverted intuitive Feeling Judging ) The Giver
Popular and sensitive, with outstanding people skills. Externally
focused, with real concern for how others think and feel. Usually
dislike being alone. They see everything from the human
angle, and dislike impersonal analysis. Very effective at managing
people issues, and leading group discussions. Interested in serving
others, and probably place the needs of others over their own
ENTP (Extraverted intuitive Thinking Perceiving)The Visionary
Creative, resourceful, and intellectually quick. Good at a broad range
of things. Enjoy debating issues, and may be into "one-up-manship".
They get very excited about new ideas and projects, but may neglect
the more routine aspects of life. Generally outspoken and assertive.
They enjoy people and are stimulating company. Excellent ability to
understand concepts and apply logic to find solutions.
ENTJ (Extraverted intuitive Thinking Judging )The Executive
Assertive and outspoken - they are driven to lead. Excellent ability to
understand difficult organizational problems and create solid
solutions. Intelligent and well-informed, they usually excel at public
speaking. They value knowledge and competence, and usually have
little patience with inefficiency or disorganization
Extraversion: This trait includes characteristics such as excitability,
sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional
Agreeableness: This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust,
altruism, kindness, affection, and other pro-social behaviors.
Conscientiousness: Common features of this dimension include high levels
of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors.
Those high in conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details.
Neuroticism: Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional
instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness.
Openness: This trait features characteristics such as imagination and
insight, and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of
In brief it can be said:
1. Personality is not related to bodily structure alone. It includes
both structure and dynamics.
2. Personality is an indivisible unit.
3. Personality is neither good nor bad.
4. Every personality is unique
5. Personality refers to persistent qualities of the individual. It
expresses consistency and regularity.
6. Personality is acquired.
7. Personality is influenced by social interaction. It is defined in
terms of behavior.