Personality

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Personality, Meaning of Personality, Definition of Personality, Characteristics of Personality, Types of Personality,Big Five Model of Personality,,

Personality, Meaning of Personality, Definition of Personality, Characteristics of Personality, Types of Personality,Big Five Model of Personality,,

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  • 1. The term personality is derived from the Latin word Persona meaning a Mask. The visible aspect of one's character as it impresses others: He has a pleasing personality. The sum total of the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics of an individual
  • 2. “Personality is the totality of habits, attitudes and traits that result from socialization and characterizes us in our relationship with others “ Anderson and Parker “Personality represents those structural and dynamic properties of an individual or individuals as they reflect themselves in characteristic responses to situations ” Lawrence A Pewin “Personality is made up the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that make a person unique. It arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life ”
  • 3. Biological factors: The general biological characteristics of human biological system influence the way in which human beings tend to see external data interpret and respond to them. The study of biological contribution to personality can be divided into three major categories hereditary, brain and physical stature. Family and social factors: Family and social groups have most significant impact on personality development. These groups have their impact through socialization and identification process. Socialization Process: Socialization is process by which the individual infant acquires, from the enormously wide range of behavior potentialities that are open to him at birth, those behavior patterns that are customary and are acceptable according to the standards of his family and social group. Socialization process starts with initial contact between mother and her new infant. Later on other members of the family and social group influence the socialization process.
  • 4. Identification Process: The identification process occurs when a person tries to identify himself with some person to whom he feels ideal in the family. First identification can be viewed as the similarity of behavior between the child and model. Second identification can be looked in as the child motives or desires to be like the model. Third it can be viewed as the process through which the child actually takes on the attributes of the model. Home environment: Total home environment is critical factor in personality development. For E.g. children with markedly institutional upbringing or children in cold un stimulating home have much greater potential to be emotionally maladjusted than children raised by parents in warm and loving and stimulating environment. Family Members: Parents and other family members have a strong influence on the personality development of the child. Parents have more effect on the personality development as compared to other members of the family.
  • 5. Social Groups: Besides a person’s home environment and family members there are other influences arising from the social placement of the family as the person is exposed to agencies outside the home, particularly the school, friendship and other work groups. Similarly socio economic group also affect personality. Cultural Factors: Culture is the underlying determinant of human decision making. It generally determines attitude towards independence, aggression competition and co-operation. Each culture expects and trains its members to behave in the way that are acceptable to the group. To a marked degree the child’s cultural group defines the range of experiences and situations he/she is likely to encounter and the values and the personality characteristics that will be reinforced and learned. Situational factors: Apart from biological, sociological and cultural factors situational factors also determine personality development. Situation exerts an important press on the individual it exercises constraint and may provide push. This aspect is very important for organization behavior because manager has control over the organizational situation.
  • 6.  ACHIEVEMENT Doing one's best in objective or difficult tasks and achieving recognition.
  • 7.  DEFERENCE Being agreeable to accepting the leadership of others and avoiding unconventionality.
  • 8.  ORDERLINESS Organizing one's work and habits and planning ahead systematically.
  • 9.  EXHIBITION Behaving so as to attract attention to one's self by appearance, speech, and manner
  • 10.  AUTONOMY Doing as one chooses independently of others' opinions and avoiding conformity
  • 11.  AFFILIATION Participating in friendships, sharing things with friends, and forming attachments to them
  • 12.  SENSITIVENESS Analyzing motives and putting oneself in other people's shoes in order to understand their behavior
  • 13.  NEEDINESS Seeking encouragement and support from others and appreciating being aided when in need
  • 14.  DOMINANCE Being a leader who supervises or wields influence over others
  • 15.  ABASEMENT Feeling oneself blameworthy and inferior to others and experiencing timidity
  • 16.  NURTURANCE Assisting those less fortunate and giving moral support to others
  • 17.  CHANGE Participating in new activities and fashions and liking novelty in one's life
  • 18.  ENDURANCE Remaining with a task until it is completed and being able to work without being distracted
  • 19.  AGGRESSION Attacking contrary points of view and expressing disagreement or criticism of others openly
  • 20.  ISTJ (Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging) The Duty Fulfiller : Serious and quiet, interested in security and peaceful living. Extremely thorough, responsible, and dependable. Well-developed powers of concentration. Usually interested in supporting and promoting traditions and establishments. Well-organized and hard working, they work steadily towards identified goals. They can usually accomplish any task once they have set their mind to it.  ISTP (Introverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving ) The Mechanic Quiet and reserved, interested in how and why things work. Excellent skills with mechanical things. Risk-takers who they live for the moment. Usually interested in and talented at extreme sports. Uncomplicated in their desires. Loyal to their peers and to their internal value systems, but not overly concerned with respecting laws and rules if they get in the way of getting something done. Detached and analytical, they excel at finding solutions to practical problems.
  • 21.  ISFJ (Introverted Sensing Feeling Judging) The Nurturer Quiet, kind, and conscientious. Can be depended on to follow through. Usually puts the needs of others above their own needs. Stable and practical, they value security and traditions. Welldeveloped sense of space and function. Rich inner world of observations about people. Extremely perceptive of other's feelings. Interested in serving others.  ISFP (Introverted Sensing Feeling Perceiving) The Artist Quiet, serious, sensitive and kind. Do not like conflict, and not likely to do things which may generate conflict. Loyal and faithful. Extremely well-developed senses, and aesthetic appreciation for beauty. Not interested in leading or controlling others. Flexible and open-minded. Likely to be original and creative. Enjoy the present moment.
  • 22.  INFJ (Introverted intuitive Feeling Judging )The Protector Quietly forceful, original, and sensitive. Tend to stick to things until they are done. Extremely intuitive about people, and concerned for their feelings. Well-developed value systems which they strictly adhere to. Well-respected for their perseverance in doing the right thing. Likely to be individualistic, rather than leading or following.  INFP (Introverted intuitive Feeling Perceiving ) The Idealist Quiet, reflective, and idealistic. Interested in serving humanity. Well-developed value system, which they strive to live in accordance with. Extremely loyal. Adaptable and laid-back unless a strongly-held value is threatened. Usually talented writers. Mentally quick, and able to see possibilities. Interested in understanding and helping people.
  • 23.  INTJ (Introverted intuitive Thinking Judging )The Scientist Independent, original, analytical, and determined. Have an exceptional ability to turn theories into solid plans of action. Highly value knowledge, competence, and structure. Driven to derive meaning from their visions. Long-range thinkers. Have very high standards for their performance, and the performance of others. Natural leaders, but will follow if they trust existing leaders.  INTP (Introverted intuitive Thinking Perceiving ) The Thinker Logical, original, creative thinkers. Can become very excited about theories and ideas. Exceptionally capable and driven to turn theories into clear understandings. Highly value knowledge, competence and logic. Quiet and reserved, hard to get to know well. Individualistic, having no interest in leading or following others.
  • 24.  ESTP (Extraverted Sensing Thinking Perceiving ) The Doer Friendly, adaptable, action-oriented. "Doers" who are focused on immediate results. Living in the here-and-now, they're risk-takers who live fast-paced lifestyles. Impatient with long explanations. Extremely loyal to their peers, but not usually respectful of laws and rules if they get in the way of getting things done. Great people skills.  ESTJ (Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging ) The Guardian Practical, traditional, and organized. Likely to be athletic. Not interested in theory or abstraction unless they see the practical application. Have clear visions of the way things should be. Loyal and hard-working. Like to be in charge. Exceptionally capable in organizing and running activities. "Good citizens" who value security and peaceful living.
  • 25.  ESFP (Extraverted Sensing Feeling Perceiving ) The Performer People-oriented and fun-loving, they make things more fun for others by their enjoyment. Living for the moment, they love new experiences. They dislike theory and impersonal analysis. Interested in serving others. Likely to be the center of attention in social situations. Well-developed common sense and practical ability.  ESFJ (Extraverted Sensing Feeling Judging) The Caregiver Warm-hearted, popular, and conscientious. Tend to put the needs of others over their own needs. Feel strong sense of responsibility and duty. Value traditions and security. Interested in serving others. Need positive reinforcement to feel good about themselves. Welldeveloped sense of space and function.
  • 26.  ENFP (Extraverted intuitive Feeling Perceiving ) The Inspirer Enthusiastic, idealistic, and creative. Able to do almost anything that interests them. Great people skills. Need to live life in accordance with their inner values. Excited by new ideas, but bored with details. Open-minded and flexible, with a broad range of interests and abilities.  ENFJ (Extraverted intuitive Feeling Judging ) The Giver Popular and sensitive, with outstanding people skills. Externally focused, with real concern for how others think and feel. Usually dislike being alone. They see everything from the human angle, and dislike impersonal analysis. Very effective at managing people issues, and leading group discussions. Interested in serving others, and probably place the needs of others over their own needs.
  • 27.  ENTP (Extraverted intuitive Thinking Perceiving)The Visionary Creative, resourceful, and intellectually quick. Good at a broad range of things. Enjoy debating issues, and may be into "one-up-manship". They get very excited about new ideas and projects, but may neglect the more routine aspects of life. Generally outspoken and assertive. They enjoy people and are stimulating company. Excellent ability to understand concepts and apply logic to find solutions.  ENTJ (Extraverted intuitive Thinking Judging )The Executive Assertive and outspoken - they are driven to lead. Excellent ability to understand difficult organizational problems and create solid solutions. Intelligent and well-informed, they usually excel at public speaking. They value knowledge and competence, and usually have little patience with inefficiency or disorganization
  • 28.  Extraversion: This trait includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness.  Agreeableness: This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other pro-social behaviors.  Conscientiousness: Common features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those high in conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details.  Neuroticism: Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness.  Openness: This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight, and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests.
  • 29. In brief it can be said: 1. Personality is not related to bodily structure alone. It includes both structure and dynamics. 2. Personality is an indivisible unit. 3. Personality is neither good nor bad. 4. Every personality is unique 5. Personality refers to persistent qualities of the individual. It expresses consistency and regularity. 6. Personality is acquired. 7. Personality is influenced by social interaction. It is defined in terms of behavior.