Open Handset Alliance , a consortium of 47 hardware , software , and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Includes Texas Instruments , Broadcom Corporation , Google , HTC, Intel, LG, Marvell Technology Group, Motorola, Nvidia, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics, Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile
The linux kernel 2.6 is the hardware abstraction layer (HAL) between the hardware and the android software stack.
Maybe more profitable with ads than actually selling the app
2. Why Mobile App Development? The fact that we can! Only a few years ago you had tobe in the Motorola inner circle to do it! Mobile platform is the platform of the future Double-digit growth in world-wide smartphone ownership3 Job market is hot Market for mobile software surges from $4.1 billion in 2009 to$17.5 billion by 20121 2010 Dice.com survey: 72% of recruiters looking for iPhone appdevelopers, 60% for Android1 Dice.com: mobile app developers made $85,000 in 2010 andsalaries expected to rise2 Students (and faculty!) are naturally interested!1 http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/oct2010/tc20101020_639668.htm2 http://it-jobs.fins.com/Articles/SB129606993144879991/Mobile-App-Developers-Wanted-at-Ad-Agencies3http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1466313
3. Why Android? A lot of students have them 2010 survey by University of CO1: 22% of collegestudents have Android phone (26% Blackberry, 40%iPhone) Gartner survey2: Android used on 22.7% ofsmartphones sold world-wide in 2010 (37.6%Symbian, 15.7% iOS) Students already know Java and Eclipse Low learning curve CS0 students can use App Inventor for Android1http://testkitchen.colorado.edu/projects/reports/smartphone/smartphone-appendix1/2http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1543014
4. Why Android? Transferring app to phone is trivial Can distribute by putting it on the web Android Market for wider distribution• It’s not 1984
5. Types ofAndroidDevices
6. Various Android Phoneshttp://cloud.addictivetips.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/and
10. Brief History 1996 The WWW already had websites with color andimages But, the best phones displayed a couple of linesof monochrome text! Enter: Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) – stripped downHTTP for bandwidth reduction Wireless Markup Language (WML) – stripped downHTML for content
11. Brief History Many issues (WAP = “Wait And Pay”) Few developers to produce content (it wasn’t fun!) Really hard to type in URLs using the smallkeyboards Data fees frightfully expensive No billing mechanism – content difficult tomonetize Other platforms emerged Palm OS, Blackberry OS, J2ME, Symbian(Nokia), BREW, OS X iPhone, Windows Mobile
12. Brief History - Android 2005 Google acquires startup Android Inc. to start Android platform Work on Dalvik VM begins 2007 Open Handset Alliance announced Early look at SDK 2008 Google sponsors 1stAndroid Developer Challenge T-Mobile G1 announced SDK 1.0 released Android released open source (Apache License) Android Dev Phone 1 released
13. Brief History cont. 2009 SDK 1.5 (Cupcake) New soft keyboard with “autocomplete” feature SDK 1.6 (Donut) Support Wide VGA SDK 2.0/2.0.1/2.1 (Eclair) Revamped UI, browser 2010 Nexus One released to the public SDK 2.2 (Froyo) Flash support, tethering SDK 2.3 (Gingerbread) UI update, system-wide copy-paste
14. HoneycombAndroid3.0-3.Brief History cont. 2011 SDK 3.0/3.1/3.2 (Honeycomb) for tablets only New UI for tablets, support multi-core processors SDK 4.0/4.0.1/4.0.2/4.0.3 (Ice Cream Sandwich) Changes to the UI, Voice input, NFCIce cream SandwicAndroid 4.0+
15. The Android DeveloperWebsite http://developer.android.com/index.html This should be your homepage for the nextsemester!
16. Distribution of DevicesData collected during a 14-day period ending on January 3, 2012http://developer.android.com/resources/dashboard/platform-versions.html
17. What is Google Android? A software stack for mobile devices that includes An operating system Middleware Key Applications Uses Linux to provide core system services Security Memory management Process management Power management Hardware drivers
19. Mobile Devices: Advantages (ascompared to fixed devices) Always with the user Typically have Internet access Typically GPS enabled Typically have accelerometer & compass Most have cameras & microphones Many apps are free or low-cost
20. Mobile Devices: Disadvantages Limited screen size Limited battery life Limited processor speed Limited and sometimes slow network access Limited or awkward input: soft keyboard, phonekeypad, touch screen, or stylus Limited web browser functionality Range of platforms & configurations acrossdevices
22.  Developmentprocess for anAndroid apphttp://developer.android.com/guide/developing/index.html
23. Android Apps Built using Java and new SDK libraries No support for some Java libraries like Swing &AWT Oracle currently suing Google over use Java code compiled into Dalvik byte code(.dex) Optimized for mobile devices (better memorymanagement, battery utilization, etc.) Dalvik VM runs .dex files
24. Building and running ADB is a client server program that connects clients on developermachine to devices/emulators to facilitate development. An IDE like Eclipse handles this entire process for you.http://developer.android.com/guide/developing/building/index.html#detailed-buildCompiled resources(xml files)Android Debug Bridge
25. Building and running (moredetails) Expandfigure Android InterfaceDefinitionLanguage (AIDL) –Definitions toexchange databetweenapplications (thinkSOAP)http://developer.android.com/guide/developing/building/index.html#detailed-buildAndroid Asset Packing ToolAllows processes acrossapps to communicate.
26. Applications Are Boxed By default, each app is run in its own Linuxprocess Process started when app’s code needs to beexecuted Threads can be started to handle time-consumingoperations Each process has its own Dalvik VM By default, each app is assigned unique Linux ID Permissions are set so app’s files are only visible tothat app
27. Android Architecture
28. Publishing and Monetizing Paid apps in Android Market, various othermarkets Free, ad-supported apps in Android Market Ad networks (Google AdMob, Quattro Wireless) Sell your own ads Services to other developers Ex. Skyhook Wireless (http://www.skyhookwireless.com/) Contests (Android Developer Challenge) Selling products from within your app
29. Android Market http://www.android.com/market/Has various categories, allows ratingsHave both free/paid appsFeatured apps on web and on phoneThe Android Market (and iTunes/App Store) isgreat for developers Level playing field, allowing third-party apps Revenue sharing
30. Publishing to Android Market Requires Google Developer Account $25 fee Link to a Merchant Account Google Checkout Link to your checking account Google takes 30% of app purchase price
31. Android Design Philosophy Applications should be: Fast Resource constraints: <200MB RAM, slow processor Responsive Apps must respond to user actions within 5 seconds Secure Apps declare permissions in manifest Seamless Usability is key, persist data, suspend services Android kills processes in background as needed
32. Leveraging the web To keep your apps fast and responsive,consider how you can leverage the web What ____________ can be ________ on aserver or in the cloud? Tasks/performed Data/persisted Data/retrieved Beware, data transfer is also expensive and canbe slow
33. Other design principles http://developer.android.com/design/index.html Great reference!
34. Apple vs. Google Open Handset Alliance 30+ technology companies Commitment to openness, shared vision, andconcrete plans Compare with Mac/PC battles Similar (many PC manufacturers, one Apple) Different (Microsoft sells Windows, Google givesaway Android)