Roll No : 04 Semester : 2 Year : 2014-15
Paper :07:Literary Theory and Criticism
Department of English
M.K. Bhav. University
What is Rasa?
According to Makarand Paranjap
‘’Rasa in Bharatmuni, is nothing
But the exposition of the structure
Of human experience’’.
Rasa is the emotion resulting from a contemplation of a various
Sentiments Meaning God Color
1)Shringara attractiveness Vishnu Light green
2)Hasya Mirth/comedy pramatha white
3)Rudra Furg Rudra Red
4)Karun yam Compassion/tragedy Yama Gray
5)Bibhatsam Disgust/aversion Shiva Blue
6)Bhayanakam Horror/Terror Kala Black
7)Vira Heroic mood Indra Yellowish
8)Adbhutam Wonder/Amazement Brahma Yellow
9)Shantam Peace - White
The shringar rasa is associated with the God Vishnu. This
sentiment is associated with bright and elegant attire. The
mutual affection of love is found not only between men
and women but also between birds, animals, and all the
other creatures, since love convergent with every heart, it
has the prominent place among the rasas. It has two
The Erotic sentiment
Love – in –
Love – in – union
However in separation there will be hope great or small of that
meeting later. Even in love, love in union there will be a fear of
separation, some times before the first union takes place desire
may grow dominant and make the lover languish.
The whole idea can be summed up where in V.S.Seturaman
“Shringar is reach in pleasure associated with desired
objects favorable music and poetry and is related with
either the union or the separation of men and women”
The Comic sentiment
Six types of
According to T.N SHRINKANTAIYYA the analysis of humor is
extremely difficult. The modern philosophers who have set out to
examine the origin of this manifold humor and the nature of it’s
‘charm have not yet arrived at a define conclusion.
While taking about the humor Bharatmuni says that
“The humor arise from the grotesque dress and costume of other,
shameless character, craze for sensual pleasure, mischief, foul words,
physical handicaps, accusation of other and the like…”
some of the best example in Sanskrit of work generates pathos
“Raghuvansham” by Kalidasa
“Kadambari’’ – by Banabhatt
In Shakuntala separation of lover due to curse generates
pathos. While in Raghuvansham the death of indumati,
stimulates the pathetic sentiment.
According to Sreekantaiyya
“Pathetic is a very dedicate rasa, during its experience the
heart melt a great deal”
The Pathetic sentiment
The raudra rasa is created by anger, rape, abuse, insult, untrue,
allegation, exercising threatening and the similar
“The raudra rasa is created by striking, cutting,
multiliation and piecing in fight and tumult of
the battles and other similar thing.”
Theatrically the raudra rasa is represented on the stage
through red eyes, knitting of eye brows, billing of lips and
other similar expression, transitory states connected with it.
The Furious sentiment
The Heroic sentiment
Velour of munificence
Velour of virtue
Velour of war
The sthayins for vira is vigor (utsaha) and is associated with
The heroic sentiment is related with the superior type of
person. Theatrically the vira rasa is represented on the stage
through firmness, patience, heroism, charity, diplomacy and
other similar thing.
Bharat divides the rasa of velour into three kinds
The Terrible sentiment
The terrible rasa has its dominant state of fear which is black in
color and it associated with deity ‘Yama’.
It is related with bright and scariness. It is usually reacted by
gothic atmosphere like hideous, noise, sight of ghost, panic
anxiety due to the ultimate cry of dangerous and wild animals,
state of solitude ,battle etc.
The Odious sentiment
The odious rasa has as it’s the dominant state of disgust .
it is usually created by determinants such as hearing of
unpleasant, offensive impose and harmful thing or seeing
them or discussing them ,viewing a nauseated sight and other
Theatrically the Bibhatsam rasa is represented on the stage
through narrowing down of mouth, vomiting, spitting,
shaking the limbs in ulterdisgust.
The Marvelous sentiment
Like shringar rasa which is perhaps more wide spread is
Adbhutam. All experience, wonder, fantastic, astonishment
which is its basic wander begins from the time.
In poetry and drama there is a special impotence for figure of
speech like hyperbole and fancied comparison, which
generates marvelous sentiment.