Delta SatisfactionHow To Avoid Unintended BiasWhen You Research CustomerSatisfactionBeyond PhilosophySteven Walden, Senior...
The Beyond Philosophy Perspective             Customer Experience                      Thought leadership is           New...
We are Proud to Have Helped Some Great Organizations…Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011   www.beyondphilos...
Delta Value Learning Objectives                      Discover how                      dissatisfaction is hidden or       ...
The Revolution                                    On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very  ...
DELTA VALUE             WHY BOTHER?Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011   www.beyondphilosophy.com   6
Why Satisfaction? the baseline KPI                                                                    Source: Wikipedia   ...
Why Satisfaction: the baseline for emotion (Kano)Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011   www.beyondphilosophy...
Four Problems with Satisfaction               • It overestimates actual                 satisfaction               • It ev...
What makes for a good measure?                     One that is psychologically valid i.e., covers the concept            ...
Looking at Customer Satisfaction            On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very        ...
Looking at Customer Satisfaction            On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very        ...
Looking at Customer Satisfaction            On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very        ...
Looking at Customer Satisfaction            On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very        ...
Delta Value: looking at Customer Satisfaction            On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means...
Delta Value: looking at Customer Satisfaction            On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means...
Delta Value: looking at Customer Satisfaction            On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means...
Delta Value: looking at Customer Satisfaction            On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means...
Delta Value: Unipolar solution            On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means not at all dissatisfied and 5 means         ...
Delta Value            On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means not at all dissatisfied and 5 means            very dissatisfie...
Delta Value            On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means not at all dissatisfied and 5 means            very dissatisfie...
Prospect Theory         Losses speak louder than gains. Satisfaction is most sensitive to         negative construals; iro...
Delta Value            On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means not at all Satisfied and 5 means            very Satisfied) tel...
∆SAT vs. Traditional CSAT                                                                    Which is a valid representati...
What if we just ask opinion?               Not how satisfied but what do you think?                                       ...
Airport Screen                                                                 Unhappy: can hardly see it                 ...
The meanings            X drives satisfaction                                A driver to satisfaction            X does no...
DELTA VALUE             THE EVIDENCEBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011   www.beyondphilosophy.com   28
Example: Fortune 500 Financial Services Company                                                                           ...
Example: Global Telecommunications Company                                                                 Delta       Tra...
To accurately allocate resources take proper account of the              customer experienceBeyond Philosophy © All rights...
A valid picture is only achieved by understanding its               opposite                                              ...
Managerial Implications                Keep with your current Satisfaction,                 Recommendation measures – you...
Don‟t just look at one side of the equationBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011   www.beyondphilosophy.com  ...
Thank YouDelta ValueBeyond PhilosophyQaalfa.Dibeehi@beyondphilosophy.comChief Operating and Consulting OfficerSteven.Walde...
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Transcript of "Delta satisfaction how to avoid unintended bias when you research customer satisfaction"

  1. 1. Delta SatisfactionHow To Avoid Unintended BiasWhen You Research CustomerSatisfactionBeyond PhilosophySteven Walden, Senior Head of Research and ConsultingQaalfa Dibeehi, Chief Operating and Consulting Officer www.beyondphilosophy.com
  2. 2. The Beyond Philosophy Perspective Customer Experience Thought leadership is New fourth book is all we do! our differentiator Is now available Offices in London, Atlanta with partners in Links with academia Focus on the emotional side of Europe & Asia Customer ExperienceBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 2
  3. 3. We are Proud to Have Helped Some Great Organizations…Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 3
  4. 4. Delta Value Learning Objectives Discover how dissatisfaction is hidden or being under-estimated Understand Anchoring bias and its implications Learn how Delta Value gives a more complete measurement of Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction, Trust/Distrust, Willingness to Recommend/Reputation Destroyer Explore actual case studies with information you can useBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 4
  5. 5. The Revolution On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very satisfied) tell us how satisfied you are with your train service. CSAT Very Neither satisfied Very Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very satisfied) tell us how satisfied you are with your train service. Very Neither satisfied Very Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 ∆SAT On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means not at all dissatisfied and 5 means very dissatisfied) tell us how dissatisfied you are with your train service. Not at all Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied 1 2 3 4 5Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 5
  6. 6. DELTA VALUE WHY BOTHER?Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 6
  7. 7. Why Satisfaction? the baseline KPI Source: Wikipedia Turel, Ofir; Alexander Serenko (2006). "Satisfaction with mobile services in Canada: An empirical investigationBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 3
  8. 8. Why Satisfaction: the baseline for emotion (Kano)Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 8
  9. 9. Four Problems with Satisfaction • It overestimates actual satisfaction • It ever so slightly biases towards positive answers • It does not take account of the fact that we customers can be happy and unhappy about aspects of a product/ service at the same time • It plateaus at the high endBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 9
  10. 10. What makes for a good measure?  One that is psychologically valid i.e., covers the concept in the mind of the consumer correctly not one that sounds correct on paper or as a mathematical interpretation  One that covers the dimension in question adequately  Current measures are mathematically valid, not psychologically validBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 10
  11. 11. Looking at Customer Satisfaction On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very satisfied) tell us how satisfied you are with your train service. Very Neither Satisfied Very Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 11
  12. 12. Looking at Customer Satisfaction On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very satisfied) tell us how satisfied you are with your train service. Very Neither Satisfied Very Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 Conceptually it is accepted that Customer Satisfaction has to be measured on a continuum that runs from very dissatisfied to very satisfiedBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 12
  13. 13. Looking at Customer Satisfaction On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very satisfied) tell us how satisfied you are with your train service. Very Neither Satisfied Very Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied 3.5 Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 13
  14. 14. Looking at Customer Satisfaction On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very satisfied) tell us how satisfied you are with your train service. Very Neither Satisfied Very Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied 3.5 Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 What is the psychological interpretation of this score? Does it adequately enable consideration of dissatisfaction, in the minds of the consumer! Does it enable consideration that things can be both at the same time? If not then it lacks validity, even though it maybe mathematically valid.Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 14
  15. 15. Delta Value: looking at Customer Satisfaction On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very satisfied) tell us how satisfied you are with your train service. Very Neither Satisfied Very Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied 3.5 Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 15
  16. 16. Delta Value: looking at Customer Satisfaction On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very satisfied) tell us how satisfied you are with your train service. Very Neither satisfied Very Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied 3.5 Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 Anchoring and adjustment is a psychological heuristic that influences the way people intuitively assess probabilities. According to this heuristic, people start with an implicitly suggested reference point (the "anchor") and make adjustments to it to reach their estimate. The anchoring and adjustment heuristic was first theorized by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. In one of their first studies, the two showed that when asked to guess the percentage of African nations which are members of the United Nations, people who were first asked "Was it more or less than 10%?" guessed lower values (25% on average) than those who had been asked if it was more or less than 65% (45% on average).Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 16
  17. 17. Delta Value: looking at Customer Satisfaction On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very satisfied) tell us how satisfied you are with your train service. Very Neither Satisfied Very Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied 3.5 Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 Okish Platform Interior Construal is a social psychological term used to describe how a person Memory perceives, comprehends, and Construal interprets the world around him or her,Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 17
  18. 18. Delta Value: looking at Customer Satisfaction On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means very dissatisfied and 5 means very satisfied) tell us how satisfied you are with your train service. Very Neither Satisfied Very Dissatisfied Nor Dissatisfied 3.5 Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 Okish Platform Interior „I do not pull out dissatisfaction moments, but bland moments; the scale is a mathematical solution, not a psychological one.Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 18
  19. 19. Delta Value: Unipolar solution On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means not at all dissatisfied and 5 means very dissatisfied) tell us how dissatisfied you are with your train service. Not at all Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied 1 2 3 4 5Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 19
  20. 20. Delta Value On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means not at all dissatisfied and 5 means very dissatisfied) tell us how dissatisfied you are with your train service. Not at all Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied 1 2 3 4 5 Poor Very crowded Rude inspector Memory Construal ChangesBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 20
  21. 21. Delta Value On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means not at all dissatisfied and 5 means very dissatisfied) tell us how dissatisfied you are with your train service. Not at all Dissatisfied 1.8 Very Dissatisfied 1 2 3 4 5 Poor Very crowded Rude inspector Memory Construal ChangesBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 21
  22. 22. Prospect Theory Losses speak louder than gains. Satisfaction is most sensitive to negative construals; ironically, a bi-polar scale mutes its effectiveness as a measure by failing to emphasis where losses occur.Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 22
  23. 23. Delta Value On a scale from 1-5, (where 1 means not at all Satisfied and 5 means very Satisfied) tell us how satisfied you are with your train service. Not at all Satisfied 3.6 Very Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 OK Slightly late Interior Memory ConstrualBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 23
  24. 24. ∆SAT vs. Traditional CSAT Which is a valid representation? ∆SAT 1.8 CSAT 3.5 Delta values are applicable to all indicators and change the resource allocation drivers.Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 24
  25. 25. What if we just ask opinion? Not how satisfied but what do you think? Lazarus tells us how people can have a positive and negative response at the same time. “We argue that customers are simultaneously satisfied and dissatisfied and more over the relation of satisfaction and dissatisfaction forms a system of meaning upon with they draw and make behavioural decisions.” Paaige K. Turner, Robert L. Krizek Management Communication Quarterly, Volume 20, Number 2 (November 2006)Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 25
  26. 26. Airport Screen Unhappy: can hardly see it Happy: flight is on time Now rate the Airport Screen Experience! Unhappy ___________Happy There is a problem of Phenomenology inherent in quantitative questioning i.e., it is always an artifice in may or may not capture the full conceptual representation of an object.Beyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 26
  27. 27. The meanings X drives satisfaction A driver to satisfaction X does not drive dissatisfaction X drives satisfaction Example: parts of the call centre cause X drives dissatisfaction satisfaction, parts cause dissatisfaction X drives satisfaction A mega driver to satisfaction X reduces dissatisfaction X does not drive satisfaction No impact X does not drive dissatisfaction X does not drive satisfaction A driver to dissatisfaction X drives dissatisfaction X does not drive satisfaction A hygienic action X reduces dissatisfaction X reduces satisfaction Partioned experience: parts + and parts - X reduces dissatisfaction X reduces satisfaction A mega dissatisfier X drives dissatisfaction X reduces satisfaction A blandiser X does not drive dissatisfactionBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 27
  28. 28. DELTA VALUE THE EVIDENCEBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 28
  29. 29. Example: Fortune 500 Financial Services Company Statement Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Delta Satisfaction Experience strongly drives PE= 49.2% PE= 62.9% PE= 51.2% dissatisfaction - a destroyer of Usage 0.29 -0.12 0.31 satisfaction not picked up normally Marketing 0.09 --- --- Marketing has Statement --- 0.52 -0.28 no value Call Centre Experience -0.07 --- -0.04 Usage and Complaints are even more Complaints experience 0.36 -0.19 0.51 important as active reducers Overseas call center -0.02 --- --- of dissatisfactionBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 29
  30. 30. Example: Global Telecommunications Company Delta Traditional Delta Variance under Factor Label CSAT Dissatisfaction Less investment in Satisfaction Allocation Allocation Delta Customer Care, 1 1 Customer In-store and care 0.74 -0.33 1.07 44% 27% -17% Network Joining --- --- --- 0% 0% 0% Network both drives CSAT and 2 2 Dissatisfaction In-store -0.5 0.27 -0.77 30% 22% -8% High investment in 3 Advertising/ Brand 0.09 -0.16 0.25 5% 13% Product 8% Experience Network 0.35 0.12 0.23 3 21% 10% Delta Satisfaction -11% actually predicts there will be 28% x 1 Product --- -0.33 -0.33 0% 27% less 27% return on Experience (RoX) VARIANCE CSAT DELTABeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 CSAT www.beyondphilosophy.com UNDER DELTA 30 TOTAL BY
  31. 31. To accurately allocate resources take proper account of the customer experienceBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 31
  32. 32. A valid picture is only achieved by understanding its opposite Customer Satisfaction Customer Dissatisfaction ∆SAT Positive Word of Mouth ∆WOM Negative Word of Mouth Trust ∆Trust DistrustBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 32
  33. 33. Managerial Implications  Keep with your current Satisfaction, Recommendation measures – you have great longitudinal data  Complement these with a clear understanding of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction (or positive and negative sides of your measures)  Model in these Delta Values when making resource decisions  Analyse negative information (i.e., what drives dissatisfaction) as an active measureBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 33
  34. 34. Don‟t just look at one side of the equationBeyond Philosophy © All rights reserved. 2001-2011 www.beyondphilosophy.com 34
  35. 35. Thank YouDelta ValueBeyond PhilosophyQaalfa.Dibeehi@beyondphilosophy.comChief Operating and Consulting OfficerSteven.Walden@beyondphilosophy.comSenior Head of Research and Consulting www.beyondphilosophy.com
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