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Livro em PDF sobre cases de design de grandes marcas vol #1

Livro em PDF sobre cases de design de grandes marcas vol #1

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Champions of design vol #1 Champions of design vol #1 Document Transcript

  • Champions of DesignObservations on creativity for competitive advantage from jkr
  • IntroductionIn this book we celebrate twenty-five great works of design, the people whocreated them and the clients who bought them.We collected their stories from a series called Champions of Design that wepublished throughout the year – not in design magazines but in Marketing.There is a little self-interest here. The more marketing people who grow tolove great design and value its contribution to their brands, the easier ourjob will be if we are fortunate enough to work with them.Over and above this we simply want to share our appreciation of theseenthralling enterprises. They never fail to inspire us and are confirmationclasses in our own deep-held beliefs. Which are?1. Design is not separate from the product, it is part of it. It should emerge so naturally from the brand that it feels and sounds right, like the voice of a friend. If design is simply bolted on or used as wrapping paper, the cracks will show and the product inside won’t last very long.2. People will pay a little more for something they want and a lot more for something they want very much. (Think of the last thing you wanted desperately and ask yourself what part its design played in its attraction.)3. As each of our champions illustrates, design pays for itself many times over. Few other investments show such a great return. Of course we would say this, you might be thinking, but over 21 years as a design agency we have found it to be true.These are the main lessons we take from the case histories in this bookbut there is one more. A truly great design is inimitable: once you have it,it’s yours forever. Competitors may try to copy you but they will onlycome second at best.All of which may sound very fine in retrospect but how do you recognisea great design in the first place? Speaking for ourselves we think the answeris viscerally. We feel a mixture of admiration and envy. We wish we’d done it.If you share these feelings when you turn the pages this book will havedone its job.
  • ContentsA is for... M is for...Apple 3 Marmite 55 Method 59 Mini 63B is for...Bang & Olufsen Barbour 7 11 P is for... Penguin 67 Pixar 71C is for...Camper Converse 15 19 R is for... Ray-Ban 75D is for... S is for...Ducati 23Dyson 27 Selfridges 79 Sony 83 Swatch 87G is for... Swiss 91Guggenheim 31 V is for...I is for... Veuve Clicquot 95Ikea 35Innocent 39 W is for... Waitrose 99L is for...Land Rover 43Lego 47Liberty 51
  • Apple“There are no second acts in American lives” wrote F. Scott Fitzgerald. Steve Jobs’ life, cruelly curtailed though it was, disproved this aphorism. His return to the company that he founded proved more innovative and triumphant than his first stint. If Fitzgerald were alive today, he, like most other creatives, would probably have written that on an Apple.Blimey, where to start? Apple has harnessed the In a different retail channel, the music industrypower of design more effectively than any business was in disarray when it came to organising the digitalin the world. It is likely to report more than $100 downloading of songs until the creation of iTunes.billion in sales this year (roughly the same as Intel Once again, Apple led and others now follow.and Microsoft combined) and in rankings released As Steve Jobs said: “Design is not just what itin May, overtook Google to become the world’s looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.”most valuable brand. At a time when our lives continue to be transformedApple has made us more aware than ever before by technology, Apple has made clever stuff so muchof the importance of design, and not just product more intuitive than any other brand.design either. From packaging to retail experience Perhaps the cleverest thing of all is that, byand beyond, Apple has raised our expectations encouraging us to ‘Think Different’, Apple hasand sharpened our eye for design detail. managed to make us all think the same. JJFor those that are lucky enough to have one,we won’t forget the moment we unpacked ourfirst iPhone. It was truly special. So special in fact,that most of us have kept the box. The design ofthe Apple store is so different that it’s closer tovisiting an attraction than to shopping, a bit likegoing to the Hamleys toy store as a child.4
  • MacBook Air, 2011. Mactintosh ad, 1984.5
  • Timeline 1976 Rob Janoff created the famous Apple logo. He designed the apple with a bite taken from it, in order to distinguish it from a tomato. Apple I Self-Assembly Kit, 1976 1980 Apple Inc was taken public in the biggest IPO since Ford. Share prices rose by 32% on the first day of trading, making all 40 employees instant millionaires. iMac G3, 1998 1989 Apple Corps, The Beatles’ record label, filed a trademark lawsuit. The legal battle lasted for 18 years and The Beatles’ music was not available on iTunes until 2010. iPod, 2001 1997 Steve Jobs returned to Apple as interim chief executive. Two years later, he dropped the interim title, but joked that he would still be known as ‘the iCEO’. iBook G4, 2003 2003 The iTunes Store was launched and sold 1 million songs in the first week. Sales of the iPod doubled by the end of the year to more than 2 million. iPhone 3G, 2008 2011 Today, about 15 billion Apps have been downloaded from the App Store by more than 200 million iPhone, iPad and iPod touch users around the world. iPad, 20116
  • Did you know? One of these ‘facts’ isn’t, in fact, true. Which is the bad apple?*Apple gift catalogue, 1983. 1. The one billionth 2. In 1976, in order 3 . Forget Pete Best. 5. The first Apple song bought on to raise funds to Apple’s third computer, the iTunes was Speed of build their first co-founder Ronald Apple I, sold Sound by Coldplay. computer, Jobs Wayne sold his for $666.66. It was downloaded and Wozniak both 10% stake in the Cue Satan on February 23, sold items dear company to Steve conspiracy theories. 2006 by 16-year- to their hearts. Jobs and Steve old Alex Ostrovsky Jobs raised $1,500 Wozniak for $800. of West Bloomfield, by selling his As of June 2011, 6. Australians pay Michigan. Steve Volkswagen van, it would have the most for Jobs rang him while Wozniak been worth over iTunes downloads. personally to managed to get $31 billion. Songs cost the congratulate him $500 for his equivalent of and give him 10 Hewlett-Packard US$2.19 there, 60GB iPods, an scientific calculator. 4. The name iPod as opposed to iMac, a $10,000 came to Bill Stevens, $1.53 (99p) in the music gift its creator, during a UK and $1.29 in certificate and peyote trip. the US. a scholarship established in his name at Juilliard School. *The bad apple is number four. 7
  • Bang & OlufsenBy combining reassuring expense with quirkily beautifuldesign, the Danish purveyors of luxury audio-visualequipment have retained a distinctive niche in an evermore crowded marketplace. The company draws ona tradition of design excellence and technologicalinnovation, and has found its place in an Apple world.But what does its brand lesson teach us?Bang & Olufsen symbolises so much more than makes a much deeper impression than pressingsublime technology. It is a definitive lifestyle brand. a remote control. Bang & Olufsen do make remoteEncountering its products in a hotel room will controls, of course: it’s just that they’re cast in zincmake your stay feel that little bit more luxurious. to ensure they always feel cool to the user’s touch.Seeing them in someone’s house will confirm your This is by no means style over substance,suspicions that the owner isn’t short of a bob however. B&O’s first work with radios andor two. loudspeakers was driven by the ideal of ‘honestThe real lesson we learn from their design is music reproduction’, reaching the listener’s earshow to stand out while blending in. Like a really uninfluenced by the limitations of technology –great piece of furniture, it sets a tone without true high fidelity. Visiting a store, I was given abarking at you from across the room, reflecting demonstration of the new, 85-inch, 3D TV.the fact that Bang & Olufsen’s designers take It’s spectacular – and with a price tag of £65,000,their inspiration from everyday life: church you know you are buying more than justorgans, tulip fields, anything. a television. JJThey have long understood how user interfacecan differentiate them from the mainstream.Bringing a stereo to life with a wave of your hand8
  • BeoVision 7 with integrated 3D, 2011. BeoSound 8, 2010.9
  • Timeline 1930 Bang & Olufsen product design was influenced by Bauhaus Functionalism – not just a style, but an attitude to quality, consumer-friendliness Eliminator, 1926 and aesthetics. 1939 B&O produced a mains-powered radio with 16 permanent station settings. This was Beolit radio, 1939 revolutionary at a time when listeners had to search manually for each channel. 1948 The B&O factory was rebuilt after being TV 508 S, 1952 destroyed during World War II. The same factory is still at the centre of the company’s research and development. 1972 Jacob Jensen designed the first ‘dance-proof ’ Beolit 600, 1970s turntable, B&O’s Beogram 4000. It is now included in the permanent collection of New York’s Museum of Modern Art. 2001 B&O designer David Lewis was awarded the BeoLab 5, 2003 title of Royal Designer for Industry by the British Royal Society of Arts for eminence in creative design for industry. BeoSound 8, 2010 2010 Bang & Olufsen launched its first speaker dock, the BeoSound 8, for use with Apple’s iPod, iPhone and iPad.10
  • Did you know?One of these stories has a low fidelity to the truth.* Bang & Olufsen ‘Sure of Success’ poster campaign, 1948. 1. In 1927, Svend 3. Henning Dahl- 4. B&O designer, 6. The Royal Olufsen and Peter Mikkelsen produced Torsten Valeur once Penthouse Suite on Bang both borrowed the company’s halted production of the eighth floor of money from their distinctive Bauhaus a mobile phone the Hotel President fathers to set up the influenced logo in which the company Wilson on the shore company’s first 1931, while working was producing with of Lake Geneva is factory, having started freelance. He offered Samsung because currently the world’s in the attic of the the design to Svend the screen was 0.1 most expensive Olufsen family home. Olufsen for five inch too small. hotel suite at 75,000 Danish krone. The decision cost Swiss francs Olufsen, famed for $2 million. (£52,762) per night. his short arms and It is equipped with 2 . The ringtone on the deep pockets, was B&O’s BeoVision BeoCom 2 cordless nevertheless so 4-103, one of the phone was inspired 5. For Christmas 1934, impressed he gave to mark the release world’s largest by designer David him ten. Mikkelsen televisions at 103 Lewis accidentally of its first record found fame and player, B&O cut a inches, and is one dropping a piece fortune elsewhere, of only three hotels of metal tubing. disc on which they going on to draw the wished their workers in the world to He liked the sound internationally offer this TV. and hired a composer a Happy Yuletide syndicated cartoon and sang Silent Night. to replicate it. strip, Ferd’nand. *The buzzing sound is coming from number five. 11
  • BarbourIt’s ironic that a company with such strong connectionswith the landed aristocracy should have its origins inthe seafaring proletariat. Scottish businessman JohnBarbour established himself by selling waterproof jacketsand oilskins to the fishermen of South Shields at the turnof the 20th century. Nowadays, with a fistful of royalwarrants, the company has achieved the ultimate brandrecognition with Barbour having become synonymouswith the waxed jacket. The Barbour boat has definitelycome in. Let’s consider its brand lesson.Barbour might be more of a tortoise than a nimble Its popular biker jacket (a classic reborn) is thefashion-forward hare, but this has served it well. latest in a long line of variations on this theme.Some see hazard in its recent adoption by Alexa While the brand has diversified into otherChung (right), Sienna Miller, et al. The perfect garments (the kind one might arguably associatepartner to Hunter wellies, with a flagship Carnaby with Country Life’s ‘girls in pearls’), such rangesStreet store and design partnerships with the likes feel like a sideshow, and don’t steal the limelight.of Anya Hindmarch, might it be skirting the‘Burberry trap’ where ubiquitous popularity Beyond our shores, the unchanging Barbourtranslates into naffness? template presents it as quintessentially English – two-thirds of the brand’s sales are now overseas.I doubt we need fear for the brand’s longevity A British classic then. Moreover, being the lastwhen the fashionistas move on. Barbour has word in waterproof jackets, it can be sure ofform; having once profited as the definitive 80’s one constant: might originating in a land whereSloane Ranger garment, this stereotype backfired, a ready supply of rain is never in doubt providelimiting the brand’s appeal. Yet it met fashionable one source of their evergreen appeal? SAand unfashionable status and treated these twoimposters just the same.It endured, demonstrating the pluck and tenacityto stick with the one thing for which it was famedand loved – the green-waxed jacket.12
  • Barbour are enjoying a patch of ‘It girl’ popularity, making it de rigeur outerwear at all the best (and wettest) music festivals.13
  • Timeline 1894 John Barbour founded J. Barbour & Sons. Early Barbour label 1912 J. Barbour & Sons became J. Barbour & Sons Ltd, with John Barbour as chairman and sons Jack and Malcolm as joint managing directors. The Ursula suit, 1940s 1939-1945 The Ursula suit became standard issue for the Submarine Service in World War II, and was named after the U-class submarine. 1964 Steve McQueen wearing Barbour, 1964 At the International Six Days Motorcycle Trial, Steve McQueen and the rest of the American team all wore Barbour’s International suits. 1974 Barbour received its first Royal Warrant by Barbour Biker jacket the Duke of Edinburgh, followed by its second Royal Warrant by Her Majesty the Queen in 1982. A third Royal Warrant was awarded by HRH the Prince of Wales in 1987. 1999 Barbour International jacket The first Barbour concession opened in London’s Harrods. 2002 Margaret Barbour was appointed a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire.14
  • Did you know?Which of these is less than watertight?*Barbour catalogue cover, c.1970. 1. John’s grandson, 3. In 1981, a Spanish 5. When her husband 6. Sales of Barbour Duncan, had a mountaineering John died suddenly jackets soared in passion for team found a in 1968, Margaret the US following motorbikes, hence Barbour jacket at Barbour started to Helen Mirren Barbour’s tradition the summit of take an active role sporting one in of making classic Mount Everest. in the running of the film The Queen. biker jackets. They donated it the company. Recent endorsement They were worn by to the American After streamlining from fashionistas almost every British Moutaineering the production such as Alexa motorcycling team Centre in Golden, operation, she Chung, Lily Allen from 1935 to 1977. Colorado, where it became company and Sienna Miller is exhibited under chairman in 1972. (the look is known its nickname, ‘The Five generations on as ‘Hackney farmer’) Barbour of Seville’. from its foundation, have seen the brand 2. Until 2003, Barbour Barbour remains a regain a vibrancy was officially a family-run business. not witnessed since menswear brand. the mid-80s when Meaning, dare we say 4 . In October 2010, it was an essential it, that Her Majesty, a lorry full of fashion item for all the most famous Barbour jackets putative Sloanes. wearer of the line, was hijacked. Eight has been cross- thousand went dressing for most missing, valued of her adult life. at £750,000. *Number three is letting in the water. 15
  • CamperCamper has proved that a brand can retain its local rootsand still have worldwide appeal. Its unique approach toretail is rooted in the island of Mallorca, where in differentforms, the Fluxà family have produced shoes for fourgenerations. It found its place in the world by daring tobelieve there were kindred spirits out there.El Bulli might have closed its doors, but that other basic design language, which is of greater charmidiosyncratic Spanish brand, Camper, shows no and lower maintenance than trend chasing andsigns of weariness. There are two design lessons zigzagging, that is often typical in fashion.we can draw from its continuing journey. Secondly, Camper has mastered designing classicsThe first is that if you know where you are coming with a twist – conventional loafers, but with onefrom, it makes it easier to know where you are. lace or a bright red sole, for example. It producesAs a brand nodding towards a Mediterranean fairly unassuming footwear – comfy to wear butpeasant identity, Camper have kept things simple, also comfy to purchase, while offering just enoughgentle and relaxed, as best expressed by its old seasoning in the design to keep things interesting.‘Walk don’t run’ strapline. This might sound simple, but the blending of rural and urban sensibilities and of fashion shoesYou expect brown cardboard boxes and cheerful with an ‘outside fashion’ attitude must be no easyposters, because Camper has this spirit in its trick to pull off. Its recipes might be a little lessDNA. Successive years of campaigns have not avant-garde than El Bulli’s, but they have adiluted this ethos. This means it has genuinely distinctive and palatable flavour. SAbuilt a brand personality through design, avoidinggilding the lily. It continues to re-express the same16
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  • Timeline 1877 Cobbler Antonio Fluxà introduced machine Camaleón, 1975 manufacturing for shoes to the leather craftsman of Inca, Mallorca. 1975 The Camaleón shoe, originally made from canvas and tyre treads in 1928, was updated. A ‘rural shoe for the urban consumer’, it demonstrated the essential Camper style. Camper advertising, 1980s 1981 The Camper logo was redesigned, from a simple black type to the familiar white lettering on red still used today, for the opening of its first shop. 1992 Camper began international expansion with branches opening in European fashion capitals London, Paris and Milan. ‘Walk don’t run’ campaign 2000 Designer Martí Guixé created ‘Walk in Progress’, a temporary provisional interactive store design, with furniture made from recycled materials. 2002 Camper expanded further with shops in New York and Sydney. Today it has more than 150 stores in 70 countries. Camper London poster18
  • Did you know? Can you tell which one is, frankly, cobblers?*Camper ‘Birds’ print ad, 2007. 1. Camper takes its 3 . In 2005, Camper 4. When Camper 5. Camper has hired name from the expanded into opened its store industrial designers Catalan word for boutique hotels in Milan, the such as Jaime ‘peasant’, reflecting with Casa Camper company fashioned Hayon and Hella the brand’s original in Barcelona. four special shoes Jongerius, to aim to produce It features hammocks to place on the design shoes for well made, country- (as well as beds) in hooves of a the company. style shoes for every room and massive bronze city dwellers. twin policies of statue of a horse no smoking and which had been 6. Camper shoes no tipping. There is erected in the city frequently have now also a Casa a few years earlier, 2. Symbolic of messages written Camper in Berlin. based on a design the company’s on their soles. by Leonardo unconventional ‘Hispanic causing da Vinci. approach to panic’ is a shoemaking are popular one. the ‘Twins’, a pair of shoes where the left and right do not match. *Cobblers? That will be number four. 19
  • ConverseConverse shoes have been worn by sports legends androck stars alike, becoming in the process an icon ofyouth and symbol of below-ankle rebellion. The companytied its fortunes to basketball and watched as the gametook off across the world, making sure its footwear wasalways on court. Somehow, it has managed to be bothall-American and countercultural, in a way no otherbrand has managed.Converse use well managed design to make a lucrative and seemingly alive. Online customisinglittle go a long way. Broadly, its products fall into options take this to the next level; not bad for atwo types. The classics, in their famous livery, brand with two basic designs that essentially gluepreserve the brand’s authenticity. Then, the ‘editions’ rubber to canvas, with a little stripe of colouruse these classics as a blank canvas, from which a around the sole. It’s amazing how many ways thebewildering array of editions, collaborations, film basic cards have been reshuffled.and music tie-ins are spawned. The myriad logos and liveries can be confusingI was wearing Converse before Sheena was a to the casual observer: why a certain star on this,punk rocker. We called them ‘bumper boots’ but a different one on that? But big brands avoidbecause of the ankle patches. For those of an dreary monolith status by allowing one wonkyold-school disposition (and old farts), the classics wheel on the vehicle. It keeps them soulful.seem unspoilt by progress. This is only partly true. Converse is a master in the art of designing anIn reality, Converse is constantly refining and endless variation on a sound basic theme. SArevisiting its past with a big range of vintagevariations, serving ‘classic’ in many flavours.The ‘inspired by’ lines are both promotionalbillboards and badges of consumer affiliation, fromDr Seuss editions to designer brand Marimekko.As a use of design for marketing ends, this ‘coolby proximity’ approach keeps the brand relevant,20
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  • Timeline 1910 Within two years of opening, Converse was producing 4,000 shoes per day. The company Chuck Taylor All Stars, 1920 gave up making tyres to focus solely on the successful shoe business. 1969 The Oxford, 1962 Chuck Taylor was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, earning the nickname ‘Mr Basketball’ for his lifelong role as an ambassador for the sport. The Weapon, 1980 1976 The Pro Leather style shoe was introduced. Worn by player Julius Erving, who revolutionised basketball with above-the-rim play, it was nicknamed ‘The Dr. J’. Converse All Star 2000, 1996 1996 Converse All Star 2000, a modern day version of the Chuck Taylor All Star was released. It became one of the company’s best-selling shoes. DC Comic Converse, 2010 2003 Nike bought the 95-year-old company for $305 million. It was the first Nike-owned product to be marketed without the Nike name. Jack Purcell & Comme des Garçons Play, 2011 2011 The limited-edition 50475, a replica of the original 1946 Chuck Taylor All Star, is now on sale. It includes the original government contract number stamped on the inside.22
  • Did you know? One of these puts the con into Converse.*Original All Star basketball shoe, 1920s. 1. In 1908, Marquis 2 . Badminton 3 . Converse 5. Famous Brits Mill Converse champion, Jack reinforced its associated with slipped and fell Purcell lent his musical heritage the brand: David down a flight of name to a when it saved the Tennant wore stairs in Malden, Converse shoe legendary London them in Doctor Massachusetts, which became music venue, Who; Daniel injuring both popular in The 100 Club, Radcliffe sports himself and his pet Hollywood from early in 2011 after a pair in Harry donkey, Seabiscuit. the 30s onwards, it was threatened Potter & The Order He blamed the fall worn by James with closure. of the Phoenix; and on the lack of grip Dean and many although they were in his shoes. others. In 1960, the seen as a punk It inspired him to Jack Purcell sneaker, brand, The Beatles create his own famous for the 4. Converse has wore them brand of rubber- smile on its toe, released numerous long before soled shoe and a was marketed as special editions of The Ramones. company was born. the first premium its shoes featuring sneaker, selling for the likes of AC/DC, $8.98 rather than The Ramones, the standard $5.98. The Who, The Clash and DC Comics. *The con is on number one. 23
  • DucatiAlthough no longer Italian-owned, Ducati will foreversymbolise Italian style in the motorcycle market.The company was once described as combining“brilliant engineering with Marx Brothers’ management”which goes to the heart of its appeal. If you want theefficiencies of high-tech mass production, you’ve cometo the wrong shop. If you prefer bikes with passion,style, grace, speed and soul, Ducati is where you belong.Although consumers are more price sensitive than Ducati quickly followed it with another radicalever, Ducati reminds us that innovative design earns concept, the ‘street-style’ Monster, with exposeda premium. It’s a lesson the company learned the trellis frame.hard way, with the spur of competition. The commercial and critical success of theseAs a luxury purchase, the high end of the motorcycle ground-breaking models proved that progressivemarket is particularly open to new technology and design could compensate for an inherentHonda took the superbike market by storm when it disadvantage on cost.introduced the lightweight Fireblade in 1992. Today, six Ducati models exist. Each is distinct,With its back to the wall, Ducati stunned the yet each shares a futuristic style.motorcycle world by responding with the 916, Unlike Japanese bikes, which are hard to identifyjust two years later. It was a harmonious marriage until you see the logo, you recognise a Ducatiof form and function, the characteristic V-twin from afar. Thanks to the characteristic sound ofengine shoehorned beneath a slim red faring, their thunderous engines, you even know themhigh level tailpipes poking out behind the seat. with your eyes closed. AKVoted Motorcycle of the Year, its peerlesshandling and high torque gave Carl Fogartya World Championship in its first season.24
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  • Timeline 1924 Physics student Adriano Cavalieri Ducati invented an experimental short wave radio. Inspired by its success, he and his two brothers set up a Cucciolo, 1947 business together. 1939 Bruno Ducati was named a Cavaliere del Lavoro by the Italian government (the equivalent of Siluro, 1956 a knighthood) for his contribution to industry. 1948 Ducati was taken over by the Italian state after the three brothers were unable to keep it in profit. Scrambler, 1968 Adriano Cavalieri Ducati moved to the US where he worked at NASA. 1983 Claudio and Gianfranco Castiglioni purchased Ducati. It has gone through public and private Pantah, 1979 ownership by several companies since. 2007 Casey Stoner secured Ducati’s first ever MotoGP World Championship title as well as the MotoGP Constructors’ title. It was the first Monster, 1993 win by an Italian manufacturer in 34 years. 2010 Multiple World Champion, Valentino Rossi was announced as the rider for the Ducati MotoGP Diavel, 2011 team in the 2011-2012 season.26
  • Did you know?The devil is in the detail. Which of these is untrue?* Ducati 860 advertising, 1978. 1. Ducati began in 1926 2 . Ducati’s post-war 4 . Claudia Cardinale 6. In 1978, the as Società Radio success as a motorbike was the face legendary Mike Brevetti Ducati, a manufacturer was of Ducati until ‘The Bike’ company producing based on its she fell off a Hailwood came radio components. adaptation of the bike while on out of an 11-year It was founded by Cucciolo engine; promotional retirement to win three brothers, a cheap, reliable duties in Venice. the Isle of Man Adriano, Marcello motor, so named TT race on a and Bruno Ducati, because its noise Ducati V-twin. and only moved into resembled the yap The engine blew up bike production at of a ‘puppy’. 5. The 1198cc just as he crossed the end of World Ducati Diavel goes the finish line. War II. from 0-62mph in 2.6 seconds 3. The Ducati Diavel – quicker than a takes its name from Bugati Veyron. the time a prototype was shown to a group of Italian engineers. One of them declared, “Ignurant comm al diavel” – i.e. “Evil, like the devil.” * Number four is out of petrol. 27
  • DysonThe success of Dyson proves the truth of the adage,‘He who laughs last, laughs longest.’ With one caveat:he must have sufficiently deep pockets to fight repeatedcopyright infringements in court. James Dyson couldn’tget established vacuum manufacturers interested in hisnew idea, then had to hire ‘m’ learned friends’ when thesame companies became so interested and wanted torip him off. Business is like laughter. It’s all about the timing.Ask a few friends which British entrepreneurs they The inspirational tale of dogged perseverancemost admire and chance is, they’ll name Sir Richard to introduce his bagless cleaner should be taughtBranson. Mention Sir James Dyson and perhaps in school. Not only did he have to overcomethey’ll talk enthusiastically about his products – the numerous technical challenges, he could find nocyclone vacuum cleaner, the hand dryer and the one to manufacture it, as established makers earn anew Air Multiplier fan, but about him relatively little considerable bounty from the sale of replacement bags.seems known. Pioneers like Sir James teach us to reject the notionFor someone who founded a billion dollar brand, that our inherently high cost base stops us foundingsurely the industrial designer deserves a higher world-class consumer goods companies here.profile? Perhaps it’s to do with the personality of Despite its lowly status as a domestic appliance, thethe individuals? Or perhaps it says more about the Dyson cleaner is now an international success story.media’s long held disinterest in manufacturing? Its products are sold in 45 countries and despiteAs a remarkable self-publicist, Branson is arguably having exported much of its manufacture to themore famous than his products and services, while Far East in order to remain competitive, we shouldDyson has focused on building an enduring celebrate that it employs 350 engineers at its headmanufacturing business, where substance is more office in Wiltshire. AKimportant than style.28
  • Look familiar? One of James Dyson’searly 70’s inventions was theBallbarrow, which spread the barrowsload more evenly. A direct lineage fromthis, to today’s DC15 vacuum cleaner,can be traced stylistically if notfunctionally. The Ballbarrow wasa painful business for Dyson, butproves another adage, ‘If at first youdon’t succeed, try, try again.’ 29
  • Timeline 1993 Funded by licensing the design in Japan, James Dyson launched his first vacuum cleaner, the DC01, in the UK. DC01, 1993 1995 The DC01 became the best-selling vacuum cleaner in the UK. In the same year, the DC02 was launched, becoming the second bestselling machine. CR01, 2000 1996 Dyson manufactured 20,000 De Stijl-inspired machines, drawing attention to the structural and geometric form of the humble vacuum cleaner. DC08, 2002 2001 The business created its patented Root Cyclone technology, which captures even smaller particles and creates more powerful suction. DC15, 2005 2006 The Dyson Airblade hand-dryer was launched. 2009 Dyson released the first bladeless fan – The Dyson Air Mulitplier. AB01, 2006 2011 Utilising Air Multiplier technology, the Dyson Hot fan heater was unveiled. AM04, 200930
  • Did you know? Spot the truth vacuum.*Sir James Dyson with the two latest designs for the Air Multiplier. 1. James Dyson 3. Research in 2008 4. Dyson vacuum 6. Dyson’s success went through suggested that the cleaners have in the US was 5,000 prototypes Dyson Airblade been given away propelled in part over 15 years to increases the in goodie bags at by its appearance create his first amount of bacteria both the Emmys in one of the vacuum cleaner. on the hands by and the Oscars. last episodes of at least 42%. Friends where the Funnily enough, fastidious Monica this research is seen cleaning 2. Dyson appeared 5 . James Dyson’s was sponsored by a Dyson, her to make water flow wife, Deirdre, is the paper towel pride and joy, upwards in his known to millions industry in the with a hand-held ‘Wrong Garden’ as the woman in form of the vacuum cleaner. which was the the classic early 80’s European Tissue sensation of the Shake’n’Vac advert. Symposium. 2003 Chelsea Flower Show. *Number five sucks. 31
  • GuggenheimWorld-class art collections housed in some of the world’smost striking buildings. So runs the singular ethos ofthe Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. Just as thecollection of non-representational art it was designedto house shocked most of the public on its creation, sotoo did Frank Lloyd Wright’s original New York museum.Bernard Levin dubbed it the architect’s “last practicaljoke on mankind”. If so, it’s one we’re still enjoying andits echoes are felt around the world.Perhaps the Guggenheim Foundation is a champion One ingredient of world-class patronage is passion.of design because it champions design. When the Solomon Guggenheim opened his first museum tocreative awards and plaudits are handed out, clients share his love (and collection) of ‘non-objective’ art.often see their role in the creative endeavour His niece Peggy, who picked up the torch, waseclipsed by the artists; for some, clients are just not just a far-sighted and involved collector; she‘the wallet’. However, centuries of works of art married painter Max Ernst. There’s someonehave existed only because of the vision, taste and passionately ‘living the brand’.yes, creativity of the patrons. Any brand manager can be a fantastic patron,The Guggenheim collection of art is arguably a employing the best talent and giving their brandcommodity – an impressive one, but not necessarily a first-class ticket through its life, but sadly, notsomething ‘everyday’ folk would visit if it were all show such verve. Through its commissions,housed in a more conventional space. Guggenheim is now synonymous, for many,Guggenheim is not about conventional design, with modern art; fortune favours the brave. SAhowever. The original (1959) Fifth Avenue gallerywas a bold, creative commission. Indeed manycomplained that its ‘snail shell’ form was impractical.Guess what? It’s now ‘iconic’. Same story withGuggenheim’s Bilbao museum.32
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  • Timeline 1949 Solomon R. Guggenheim died, never having seen the Museum of Non-Objective Painting in New York, which was renamed in his honour when it was completed. Early Guggenheim sketch 1952 Hilla Rebay resigned as museum director and was replaced by James Johnson Sweeney. The Hilla von Rebay Foundation was established after her death in 1967. Guggenheim, New York 1959 The Guggenheim museum opened. Located on New York’s Fifth Avenue, the building remains a controversial landmark to this day. Guggenheim ‘snail shell’ 1997 The Guggenheim Bilbao opened and was instantly hailed as an architectural masterpiece. The museum was credited with reviving Spain’s Basque region. Guggenheim concept, Bilboa 2013 The Guggenheim Abu Dhabi, designed by Frank Gehry, will open in the city’s cultural district of Saadiyat Island, and will be overseen by Thomas Krens. Guggenheim, Bilboa34
  • Did you know?There’s a Tom Keating lurking among the Old Masters.* Guggenheim poster by Chermayeff & Geismar, 1975. 1. In Manhattan, Woody 3. Peggy Guggenheim, 4 . The seal on the 6. Architect Frank Allen meets Diane niece of Solomon, floor of the Lloyd Wright’s Keaton at the opened her first Guggenheim original plans for Guggenheim gallery in London. Museum reads ‘Ars the Guggenheim Museum. The The Guggenheim Gratia Pecuniae’. museum featured Guggenheim Bilbao Jeune opened in It means ‘Art for a glass elevator. features at the start 1938 with an the sake of money’. He also wanted a of 1999 Bond film, exhibition of the vacuum system in The World Is work of Jean the lobby so that Not Enough. Cocteau. It lost people did not £600 in its first 5. When the bring in dirt, but year and she closed Guggenheim it was deemed it down on June 22, Museum opened too noisy. 2. The Guggenheim in New York on 1939. The gallery has its own typeface, October 21, 1959, she opened in Verlag, meaning admission was 50 Venice in 1951 ‘publisher’ in cents. 3,000 people remains there to German. It was queued to be this day and is now created by Jonathan the first to see part of the Solomon Hoefler and Tobias the museum. R. Guggenheim Frere-Jones and Foundation. based on the museum’s iconic Art Deco lettering. *The obvious forgery is number four. 35
  • IKEACommenting on a perception that he was somethingof a vulgarian, Michael Winner once said “People thinkI vomit on the floor and buy my furniture from IKEA” – asif the two were somehow synonymous. For most, IKEAis an unabashed joy; a modern, affordable, chic supplierof house-brightening, chintz-free furniture. Guess themulti-billion pound, globe-straddling company is somehowgoing to have rub along without Winner’s support.Love it or hate it, IKEA teaches us to respect the By setting out to design each product with apower of price – and the value of a consistent low end-price in mind, IKEA’s designers aredesign philosophy. compelled to invent and adapt. By necessity, they have pioneered the use of lightweight materialFlat-packing seems a modest enough innovation such as fibreboard and the honeycomb paperin hindsight, but at the time of IKEA’s inception, within its products’ bleached wooden frames.self-assembly furniture heralded a retailing revolution It is an ethos that dovetails perfectly with a desireevery bit as profound as self-service in grocery. to tread lightly upon the environment.By eliminating a major cost within the supply of For very little cost, IKEA’s fresh Swedish aestheticrigid furniture, and by facilitating self-selection offers light, bright living spaces with acceptableand self-collection, IKEA has been able to bring quality for modern lifestyles. Thanks to theexceptional value to homewares and appeal to brand’s marriage of economy and creativity, wethe mainstream. no longer need to preserve our set pieces for theIt does so within a considered design philosophy. next generation. Today we can afford to refurnishEverything at IKEA is designed with utility and whenever we repaint. AKefficiency in mind, from the bold blue and yellowof the stores (inspired by the Swedish flag), to aform-follows-function style.36
  • Captions go here.37
  • Timeline 1943 Ingvar Kamprad set up his own business selling products at a reduced price. He named it after his Lovet table, IKEA’s first flat-pack, 1956 initials and the first letters of the farm and village where he grew up, Elmtaryd and Agunnaryd. Five years later he introduced a furniture range. 1951 The first IKEA catalogue was published, allowing Skopa chair, 1974 Kamprad to sell furniture on a much bigger scale. By 1984, the catalogue’s print run reached 45 million copies. 1956 IKEA decided to flat-pack its furniture for self-assembly when a worker removed the legs Poäng armchair, 1976 from a table to fit into a customer’s car. Self-service came nine years later. 1973 The first IKEA store outside Scandinavia opened in Switzerland, and another a year later in Germany. Stores now total 301, across 37 Billy bookcase, 1978 countries, with Germany its largest market. 1995 The IKEA PS collection launched at the Furniture Fair in Milan, offering designers free range over their creations. The fourth PS collection, PS Lömsk swivel chair, 1997 in 2003, included the Brum soft toy, which raised €2.1 million (£1.8 million) for Unicef. 2010 Designers found a new way to pack the Ektorp sofa, halving its flat-pack volume, reducing the Klippan Loveseat, 2011 price by €100 (£88) and lowering the carbon footprint in transport.38
  • Did you know?One of these is a (flat) pack of lies.* 1. In the early 60s, 2. IKEA did experience 4. IKEA began selling 5. The nomenclature IKEA founder, some teething flat-pack furniture of IKEA products Ingvar Kamprad problems around in 1956 after a follows strict was, by his own the sizing of its worker removed the guidelines. Beds, admission, an products when it legs from a table to wardrobes and hall alcoholic. By 2004, opened stores in fit it into a furniture are with his drinking the US. Customers customer’s car. named after places under control, his reportedly bought The worker in Norway, garden personal fortune vases which they in question furniture after was estimated at mistakenly believed immediately went Swedish islands, £32 billion, making to be water glasses. into hiding after while dining chairs him the richest man being pursued and tables in the world. by angry mobs conform to towns of Allen-key- and cities in 3. The famous IKEA wielding customers. Finland. catalogue has been burned in red state areas of the US after the company claimed 6. The first IKEA it was “bigger than store to open the Bible”. In terms in the UK was in of its annual print Warrington run, this is true. in 1987. *The square peg is number three. 39
  • InnocentApart from the name, everything about Innocent isstreet-wise, smart and very financially savvy. Nocompany can go from start-up to multi-million marketleader and stay there without a real-world zeal forunderstanding its customers and maximising its reach.Even though we know it’s sold out to Coca-Cola we stilllove its smoothies and buy into the Innocent image.In some ways, that’s even more impressive.Innocent yes. Naïve, no. From a consumer perspective, Innocent’s gift is to have brought a little fun and some healthy choicesAs true champions of design, Innocent should be into our lives. But behind its success lies a deadlyapplauded for reminding us to use the medium as serious lesson for business.the message. What the founders lacked in marketingfirepower, they more than made up for with their It is rare to survive in the British food industrycharming, conversational style. without scale, yet, despite not being the cheapest, Innocent has captured the leading share inWith a simple, childlike logo, warm, witty words markets normally dominated by giants. It is livingand initiatives to reduce the environmental impact testimony to the competitive advantage that aof their packaging, they charm and distract us charismatic brand can bring to business.from the inherent contradiction in any pretenseof mass-produced innocence. Meanwhile, its In uncertain times, while lesser rivals succumbstream of creative initiatives, like Fruitstock, to the grinding attrition of the retailer price wars,Knitted Hats and dancing vans, in combination let’s celebrate and emulate Innocent’s imaginativewith the open spirit epitomised by their invitation integration of design, language and product toto call on the banana phone, express something escape the commodity trap. AKcheerful and personal about the people behindthe brand – and we thank them for it.40
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  • Timeline 1998 Three friends trialled their Innocent smoothie at a local jazz festival. They quit their jobs the next day to commit to Innocent full-time. Original Innocent packaging, 1999 1999 The Out to Lunch sandwich shop was the first to stock the Innocent smoothies. The trio hoped to sell eight bottles the first day, but managed to sell sixteen of them. Big Knit Campaign started, 2003 2003 The first annual Big Knit took place. Fans were asked to make tiny winter hats for Innocent bottles, and raise money for Age Concern. Innocent Redesign, 2005 2005 Innocent began selling its drinks in France, Holland and Belgium. It expanded to Scandinavia in 2006 and Germany in 2007. Innocent Smoothies for Kids, 2005 2006 Innocent began sourcing from Rainforest Alliance-accredited farms all the bananas used in its drinks. Innocent Veg Pots, 2008 2007 Turnover reached £114 million. 2009 The Coca-Cola Company invested £30 million in Innocent in return for an 18% stake. It increased Innocent Juices, 2011 this to 58% in 2010 for a further £65 million.42
  • Did you know?These are all guilty until proven innocent.* 1. The company was 2. Co-founder Jon 4. Innocent was 6. In 2007, Innocent founded by friends Wright’s business originally called had to recall Adam Balon, card used to read, Fast Tractor. 100,000 bottles Richard Reed ‘Complete Bottler’. of its banana and Jon Wright. and strawberry All three went to smoothies after the same Cambridge 5. Richard Reed reports of the 3. Maurice Pinto was is allergic to college, St John’s. drinks exploding. the one venture pineapples and capitalist who has therefore would back the never tasted company when it his company’s started. He put in original product. £200,000 for a 20% stake, which today is worth over £35 million. *The guilty amongst them is number five. 43
  • Land RoverNavigating the tough terrain of the 21st centuryautomotive business is no easy task but Land Roverdraws on over 60 years of experience, delivering a brandbeloved around the world, albeit one no longer run fromthe UK. Nevertheless, its journey, from the rough andready practicality of the Series I in the post-war yearsto the high-end luxury of today’s Range Rover Evoque,mirrors Britain’s transition from austerity to affluence.Land Rover’s history is an epic tale - a pioneering If it is legitimate to regret the loss of a nationalBritish brand suffers from timid management champion to ambitious young engineers frombefore enjoying a glorious renaissance, crowned overseas, we should celebrate the fact that ourby a Queen’s Award for Export. world-class design and invention has retained Land Rover’s R&D and manufactureUnder Rover, British Leyland and British in Birmingham.Aerospace, the brand enjoyed moments of glory,but inventive designs were often hindered by lack Under its current owners, the brand has beenof investment. Toyota’s Land Cruiser captured given another stylistic shove away from itsmany of the Defender’s potential export markets, traditional khaki boxcar aesthetic toward catwalk-while a parochial design ethos and rudimentary chic, yet the brand’s visual elastic hasn’t snapped.levels of comfort hampered Discovery and Range Diehards may lament the fact that Land Rover isRover in the US’ booming SUV sector. now more cultural than agricultural – a statusUltimately, others with a stronger vision and deeper symbol for new money and old. Surely we shouldpockets stepped in. BMW, Ford and Tata take pride, however, if the brand is finally poisedcollectively have invested billions in advancing to triumph in a global luxury market. AKengineering, style and comfort, while improvingcost-competitiveness.44
  • A design whose appealstretches from royalty tofarmers. The chunky lineshave a charm that translatesbeautifully into a child’sDinky Toy version. 45
  • Timeline 1948 The Land Rover Series I debuted at the Amsterdam Motor Show. It was followed by the Series II in 1958 and Series III in 1971. Winston Churchill and his Series I Land Rover, 1954 1968 The ‘Lightweight’ entered service with the British armed forces. Land Rovers have been used in Korea, Suez and on SAS operations and desert patrols. Range Rover Turbo, 1990 1987 The Range Rover was launched in North America. Within three years, it had become the market’s biggest export. Land Rover Freelander, 1997 1997 The Freelander model was released to celebrate Land Rover’s 50th year. Land Rover e-Terrain Technology concept, 2006 2006 The Land-e, a diesel electric hybrid, debuted at the Geneva Motor Show. 2007 Land Rover produced its four-millionth vehicle – a Discovery 3 that was donated to the Born Land Rover Defender, 2008 Free Foundation . Range Rover Evoque, 201146
  • Did you know? One of these finds the truth an uphill struggle.*Land Rover Defender ‘Above the clouds’, RKCR / Y&R, 2009. 1. You can have any 3. When the Range 4. Despite being seen 5. The Range Rover colour you want so Rover was under in close proximity was launched on long as it’s green. development in the and sometimes Friday June 17, Early Land Rovers late-60s, engineer inside a variety of 1970 at a retail were predominantly Mike Dunn was Land Rovers on price of £1,998. painted green as instructed to think Countryfile, John Roughly the cost the company of a working title Craven cannot of the coffees in still had a surplus which featured the actually drive any of today’s cupholders. of sage paint letters used in them by himself as intended for ‘Rover’ and its then he still only has a World War II fighter subsidiary ‘Alvis’. provisional licence. 6. Seventy per cent plane cockpits. He came up with the of all Land Rovers title ‘Velar’, a reference ever made are to the Spanish word still in use in meaning to ‘watch 2. The Discovery, some form. over or look after’, launched in 1989, emphasising the had an interior need to keep details designed by the away from the press Conran Design and competitors. Group, run by Jasper, Range Rovers were son of Terence. even registered as ‘Velars’ on original V5 documents. *Driving around the truth is number four. 47
  • LegoSix Lego building blocks can be arranged in 915 milliondifferent ways: an apt illustration of the stunningversatility of a brand launched in a worldwide recessionthat continues to thrive on a global basis. From thewooden building blocks of the 1930s, via the classic brickpioneered in the 40s – 62 of which exist for every personon the planet – to the present day company whichencompasses theme parks, film franchise tie-ins andinternet communities, Lego has fused innovation withgreat functional design to be a truly global brand.Designing a great development tool that is also The company has innovated through design onfun is an achievement in itself. But brilliant design two levels. First, by continually perfecting theis about brilliant systems – the intelligent and product, from wooden blocks of the 30s, toimaginative arrangement of individual components Binding Bricks in the late 40s, to the 1958 ‘studthat combine to make a corporate identity, a chair and tube’ we know today. Second, by exploitingor even a rocket. Lego truly is a world-class system its new properties; Lego was the first Danish– from the interaction of primary-coloured bricks company to invest in injection-moulded plastics.and the universe of interrelated ‘sets’, to its theme The hula-hoop also launched in 1958 and Frisbeesparks. To be a champion, you must be more than hail from the same period. Funny how such earlythe sum of your parts. adopters of a new technology have endured.Lego is also ergonomically amazing; not just for Try this as a judgement criterion for effectivethe children, but also for adults. It’s tough, design: genuinely beneficial, functional,washable and has a set to fit most wallet sizes. affordable, collectable, sociable, memorable,The only flaw is its ability to cripple a parent flexible and of universal appeal. That’s (some of)bumbling about in the dark. Lego puts the end what makes Lego a champion. SAuser at the heart of the brand, and truly meetstheir needs. It probably achieved this throughintuition and intelligence, rather than insight groups.48
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  • Timeline 1934 Ole Kirk Christiansen named his toy-making business Lego, formed from the Danish for ‘play well’, leg godt. Early Lego bricks 1967 More than 18 million Lego sets were sold during the year and 218 different elements (not counting colour variations) were in production. Set 600, The Original Minifigure 1974 The familiar yellow Lego figures were introduced, aimed at encouraging child role-play. More than 4 billion are estimated to have been produced since. 1986 Lego Star Wars Godtfred Kirk Christiansen resigned as chairman of the board of Lego System A/S and Lego Overseas. His son, Kjeld Kirk Christiansen, took over. 1998 An exclusive licensing deal was agreed with Lucasfilm giving Lego the right to create themed sets based on the Star W films. ars Lego Harry Potter Wii game 2000 Lego was named ‘Toy of the century’ by Fortune magazine and the British Association of Toy Retailers. Lego Technic Cherry Picker50
  • Did you know? One thing is rotten in the state of Denmark’s premier toy company.*Original wooden Lego toys, 1930s. 1. In 2010, Legoland 3. The most collectable 5 . Company founder, 6. In 1934, looking Windsor suffered Lego set today is a Ole Kirk for a name for an infestation Reservoir Dogs tie-in Christiansen took his company, of wasps. The complete with inspiration for his Christiansen general manager detachable ears. company’s famous organised a was grilled by Anne Only a handful of brick from English competition Robinson about prototype sets were company, among his staff the problem made before the Kiddicraft and with the winner on the BBC’s company hastily their Self-Locking promised a bottle programme Watchdog. abandoned the Building Brick of wine. In the project and these patented by British end, he preferred now change hands inventor, Hilary his own idea to for over £1,000. Fisher Page. any suggested 2. If the number of Page ran into by his employees. Lego blocks sold in financial trouble Proving that, a single year were and committed sadly, sometimes laid end to end 4. Lego is the biggest suicide in 1957, the boss does they would stretch manufacturer of and shortly know best. around the world car tyres in the five times. world. The company thereafter, Lego makes 306 million bought all the of them every year. rights to the Kiddicraft block. *The Hamlet is number three. 51
  • LibertyFounded in 1875, Liberty is one of Britain’s oldest departmentstores and – thanks to its intimate association with theArts & Crafts and Art Nouveau movements – has ahistorical significance which eclipses any of its rivals.Thankfully, it has also found a way to stay relevant inthe 21st century, a relief for all who enjoy a wanderaround its fabulous Great Marlborough Street store.Liberty can teach us more from its mistakes than its uncompetitive pricing and lacklustre merchandise.triumphs. In particular, that one dilutes a defining Although you might enter its dark Tudor halls indesign ethos at one’s peril. A self-evident truth, excited anticipation, all too often you wouldyou would think, for an organisation with a emerge into the sunlight empty-handed.particular identification with the Arts and Crafts Only since the business has returned to championingmovement; yet it is a philosophy that Liberty has exclusive, cutting-edge design, the strategy originallyignored under various owners in recent times. pursued by Arthur Liberty after he started tradingAs a consequence, the business has stumbled in 1875, has the store started to regain loyaltythrough the past decade. It had to exit an among the affluent fashion cognoscenti.expensive Sloane Street store within a year of its So, will Liberty sustain its return to profit?opening and undertake the sale and lease-back of Competition among ‘heritage’ department stores isits flagship, simply to finance its survival. intense, but, with wealthy tourists returning toPossessing neither the scale of the major London, and with online a perfect channel fordepartment stores, nor the focus of the luxury niche luxury retailers, Liberty is perhaps betterspecialists of Bond Street and Chelsea, Liberty placed to succeed than for many a year. AKtried to compete on too many fronts, with52
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  • Timeline 1862 Arthur Liberty became a draper’s apprentice at Farmers & Rogers of Regent Street. After 10 years learning his trade there, he decided to open his own business. Liberty print, 1940s 1890 Liberty & Co. became a public company, with Arthur Liberty as the majority shareholder. Liberty print, 1950s 1917 Arthur Liberty died, just three years after he was knighted. Longstanding Liberty designer Archibald Knox designed his gravestone. 1927 Liberty & Nike, 2009 Liberty built its Tudor-style shop using timber from the ships HMS Impregnable and HMS Hindustan, with the front of the shop the same length as the latter. 1975 Liberty’s centenary was celebrated with an Liberty & Mac, 2010 exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum. 2009 Under the guidance of creative consultant Yasmin Sewell, Liberty relaunched with a focus on exclusive designs and brand collaboration. Liberty & Barbour, 201154
  • Did you know? We have some lovely lines in fabrications and yarns.*Liberty ad campaign, 2008. 1. Arthur Liberty’s 3. Nicholas II, the last 5. John Merrick, aka 6. Oscar Wilde once original store was Tsar of Russia, The Elephant Man, described Liberty named East India ordered new had his rooms in the as “the chosen House, reflecting furnishing for the London Hospital resort of the the large amount of Imperial Palace decorated for him artistic shopper.” household goods from Liberty in by Liberty free Less kindly, he he had personally 1914, just three of charge. also described a sourced from the years before his dress made from Far East. assassination. material designed by Liberty’s costume department head, E.W. Godwin as 2. Liberty’s connection 4. In 2009, Liberty looking like “a badly with the Art Nouveau made an annual made salad.” movement in the profit for the first Edwardian era was time in a decade. so strong that in Italy, Art Nouveau became known as ‘Stile Liberty’. *Number five takes some liberties. 55
  • MarmiteIts design is as distinctive as its taste is divisive.When Marmite came up with the ‘love it or hate it’ adcampaign in 1996, it resonated across the country andentered the national lexicon. Apt too that something sobeloved should be created out of something that wasinitially rejected – the spent brewer’s yeast.Marmite offers two big design lessons: the The lucky bounce: high visibility is the aim ofscientific use of colour and the art of exploiting a anyone producing hazard signage, so they uselucky bounce. Ok, so we all get the love and hate yellow and black. Thus, over time, this combinationmessaging, and the pack tells you this is not a brand of colours takes on a particular learned meaning,for the faint-hearted – it’s a powerful little jar. which chimes with Marmite’s persona brilliantly.The original trademark was a largely yellow design All this, presumably, created without the Edwardianwith accents of red and green on a cream pot. equivalent of a semiotician to assist theThe move to a glass jar revealed the black product, packaging strategy.and retained a label bordered and capped in yellow. Visual and emotional polarity: love and hate,The science bit: yellow and black offer the biggest yellow and black, a product that carries a frissoncolour (as opposed to tonal) contrast one can achieve. of danger. As the guy in The A-Team used to say,Therefore, this pack has massive impact (one “I love it when a plan comes together.” SAreason why it’s a design ‘icon’, whereas Bovril, in asimilarly distinctive jar, but with a lower level ofcontrast, is not). By luck or design, Marmite acesit on standout.56
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  • Timeline 1902 Production of Marmite began in the UK. The spread was said to be named after the Original Marmite pot, 1902 French casserole dish known as ‘petit marmite’, which is still pictured on the label. 1908 The Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company bought the rights to the Marmite name in New Marmite glass jar, 1920s Zealand and Australia. However, a different recipe was used. 1969 The Marmite Guide to Better Cooking was given away with jars of Marmite to encourage consumers to Marmite plastic lid pot, 1984 do more than simply spread it on their toast. 2002 Marmite celebrated its 100th birthday with jars carrying limited-edition label designs from 1900s, 40s and 70s. Marmite Guinness, 2007 2010 A Portland stone ‘shrine’ to the spread was unveiled in the brand’s hometown of Burton-on- Trent. Shaped like the familiar Marmite jar, it was nicknamed the Monumite. Marmite XO, 2010 2011 The UK media reported with outrage that Denmark had banned imported Marmite. The story turned out to be inaccurate. Limited Edition Marmite jar, 201158
  • Did you know? Food for thought. Someone’s spreading lies.*Marmite ‘Mr Bean’ ad campaign, DDB London, 2006. 1. Marmite has many 2. When Mark Thatcher 3 . Yorkshire-born 5. To prevent their imitators around the was lost for six NASA astronaut, Japanese guards world. Promite and days in the Sahara Dr Nicholas Patrick confiscating the Vegemite in Desert during the took Marmite supplies they were Australia, Cenovis 1982 Paris-Dakar aboard the space sent, British POWs in Switzerland, while Rally, his only shuttle in 2006 as the in World War II New Zealand’s supplies were two one comfort food he would dab Marmite Marmite is its own jars of Marmite. was allowed. on their shoes, brand and not the He ate one and pretending it was same as the used the other to boot polish. similarly named help repair a leak English product. in his radiator. 4. In a 2008 publicity English Marmite is stunt, 420 jars of sold in New Zealand champagne- 6. Madonna, apparently under the name, flavoured Marmite does not cherish ‘Our Mate’. were used in a the “tar in a jar.” seven-foot replica She has been quoted of Rodin’s sculpture, as saying, “I would The Kiss, that was do anything for my unveiled on children. For sure. Valentine’s Day Except have a in London’s Marmite sandwich.” Greenwich Park. *Truth seekers would hate number two. 59
  • MethodMethod’s blend of aesthetic details with environmentalvalue has proved the bedrock of a company nowenjoying its 10th anniversary in a rude state of health.Hiring an outside design expert, Karim Rashid, to craftits soap liquid bottle was a turning point, but takingthe hair shirt out of environmentalism has been evenmore important.With sustainability nothing is ever simple – pull Method, it seems, leapfrogged more ‘worthy’one thread and watch the whole plan unravel in looking eco-brands, recognising that a certainthe face of pragmatic challenges. Method’s great educated consumer cares about the planet butachievement is in joining the dots both effectively makes brand choices as a reflection of their goodand beautifully. taste and general ‘with-it-ness’. Its packaging would be wasted stuck beneath the sink.It has grasped that the most effective ethicaldesign works within a kind of triangulation: it is It is greatly to Method’s credit that it has nailed itsnot enough to be greener, you must also be more colours to the green mast – because for everydesirable and engaging through design. If you can innovation the brand makes there are a millionmanufacture the product more smartly and charge ‘yes, but…’ headaches to be dealt with. These area premium, so much the better. Being innovative challenging waters to sail in, but if you wait forin ways that consider the supply chain, product perfect solutions, you will never go anywhere.benefits, ergonomics and suchlike means Method Leading by example, Method is influencing muchcan offer style with a flourish, secure that there is mainstream thinking, one pack and oneplenty of underpinning substance. improvement at a time. SA60
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  • Timeline 2000 With $100,000 of seed capital, Adam Lowry and Eric Ryan began experimenting with products in their San Francisco flat. Method dish soap 2001 The first line of products went on sale at an upscale grocery store in California. Alastair Dorward was hired as chief executive. Method floor cleaner 2003 After a successful 90-store trial run in 2002, Target began selling Method in more than 1000 of its US stores. Method dish soap refill 2003 Karim Rashid won an I.D. magazine Annual Design Review Design Distinction award for the Method dish soap bottle. 2006 Method concentrated detergent Method won PETA’s Company of the Year Award, and was ranked as the seventh-fastest growing private company in the US by Inc. 2010 Disney & Method soap Method won the International Design Excellence Award for its 8x concentrated laundry detergent.62
  • Did you know? One of these is not whiter-than-white.*Method advertising, TBWACHIATDAY, 2008. 1. When company 2. All potential new 4 . A picture of the 6. Since the start of co-founders, Adam recruits at Method current ‘Employee 2011, on alternate Lowry and Eric Ryan HQ are given a of the Month’ Thursdays, all first met Target piece of home pops up on every female employees supermarket in 2002 work entitled: Method worker’s at their HQ dress to persuade them to ‘What would you computer screen like Dolly Parton, carry their ‘eco chic’ do to keep when they log on while male workers cleaning products, Method weird?’ in the morning. impersonate Burt they were told that Reynolds. Last year they had “less than in the same slot, a snowball’s chance the workers 3. An interviewee at 5. Every Friday in hell”. They got the dressed like Faye their London office afternoon at contract and it Dunaway and asked everyone in Method’s San proved a turning Warren Beatty in the building to leave Francisco HQ, point in the fortunes Bonnie and Clyde. the premises for margaritas are of a company which 10 minutes. In that served in Method’s now has an annual time he set up a unique liquid turnover of more treasure hunt based soap bottles. than $100 million. on Method values. He got the job and is now general manager. *The less than squeaky clean tale is number six. 63
  • MiniHow many good ideas can you fit into a Mini? Several,it seems. Compact, fuel-efficient with innovative designand instant personality, the Mini revolutionised life in60’s Britain as much as the Fab Four – all of whom,incidentally, drove one. All credit to its creator, Sir AlecIssigonis, Britain’s (much nicer) answer to Henry Ford,a man who brought motoring to the masses.We regularly counsel brands to latch on to what The latest version has boldly adapted to becomemakes them special and amplify that quality. more globally relevant. The brand has been a successI think the lesson we can draw here is that in the US, where its original dimensions wouldgeneral rules have exceptions. surely have been considered prohibitively tiny. Also, its bigger frame carries a generallyLike many other slight young things from the more-robust piece of automotive engineering.60s, the Mini has filled out somewhat of late. The original Mini was a design of purity; truly,The compact British everyman car is now less was more. The redesign was realistic,comparatively bigger, owned by BMW, and however, and the car’s lines could never losearguably less likely to be driven by both pop their essential charm.stars and plumbers alike. It now feels like a carwith a target audience rather than a nation in mind. The new Mini was an early harbinger of theYet for its fans, the marque is forgiven all these retro styling we see all around us today. It pullstransitions, demonstrating how elastic ‘brand a smart trick, looking to the future more thanDNA’ can be. the past in its design, having the best of both worlds. SAIf the latest Mini has arguably lost much of whatmade its forebear special and successful, let’sremember that the original went out of production.It’s all very well being loved, as the original was,but design also has to sell.64
  • This swingingly decorated Mini was illustrated by Alan Aldridge in 1965. It shows a design defining its era, as well as its category.65
  • Timeline 1964 After winning the Monte Carlo rally, the Mini Cooper appeared on popular TV show Sunday Night at the Palladium in front of an audience of Morris Mini-Minor, 1959 20 million viewers. 1969 The twin Austin Mini and Morris Mini-Minor identities were dropped and the marque became George Harrison’s Mini, 1966 known simply as Mini. 1976 The four-millionth Mini rolled off the production line. It had become the bestselling British car in the world. Austin Mini Cooper, 1969 1997 Celebrities designed Minis to celebrate the marque’s 40th birthday. Michael Caine’s featured a gold bullion pattern in tribute to the Mini heist in his film The Italian Job. The Italian Job, 1969 1999 Mini took second place in the international Car of the Century awards, behind the Ford Model T. Mini Cooper, 2001 2001 The first new generation Mini was released by BMW, which took over the Mini brand in 1994. The car is still primarily developed and produced New generation BMW Mini, 2006 in the UK.66
  • Did you know?How many fibs can you fit into one page?* 1. The maximum 3. The last of the 4 . 1970’s football star, 6. Peter Sellers was number of people original Mini series Duncan McKenzie, one of many ever fitted into a (a red Cooper achieved fame 60’s celebrities to Mini is 24. Sport, chassis no: off the field for have a famous 5,387,862) rolled being able to connection off the Longbridge jump over a Mini, with the Mini. production line on a feat he often He owned a 1963 2. The Mini was October 4, 2000. performed before Radford Mini designed as a To the strains of games for charity. Cooper with response to the The Self-Preservation distinctive wicker Suez Crisis of 1956 Society from the coachwork which which had seen the original The Italian he drove in The reintroduction 5. The blue Mini Job, the car left Pink Panther sequel, of petrol rationing. Cooper originally the line driven A Shot In The Dark. This was fixed at seen as one of by 60’s singing He finally gave it 10 gallons per the getaway cars legend, Lulu. to his director, month, placing in The Italian Job Blake Edwards, as a premium on featured in the real a gift. It was sold at fuel economy. robbery of a auction in 2009 for Securicor van just over £40,000. in Herne Hill in 1971. *Number five is a little fibber. 67
  • PenguinGiven its beloved status as a British institution to rivalthe BBC, it’s worth remembering what a revolutionaryidea Penguin originally was. The company’s cheapbut well-made, well-designed books found a newaudience of working and middle-class readers whichfew believed existed. The future really was orange.If the point of a brand mark is to guarantee quality, This flightless bird has adapted beautifully overthen Penguin excels. My father, a lifelong devotee, the years, radically changing its design approachdescribes it as ‘my university’. Many share his in response to market forces and trends, fromtrust and appreciation. Like holding a Guinness the graphical covers of the 60s, to the commercialat the bar, one feels part of a select band designs of today. Penguin achieved coherentwhen reading a Penguin on the Tube or beach. change mostly from having a strong in-houseGenerations of investment in great design has design culture. This ethos was not elitist.helped earn this status. Edward Young was a 21-year-old office junior when he drew the logo and devised the colour-The original (Tube map inspired?) system of coding system. A secretary came up withdistinctive coloured stripes met the business the name.strategy; they would have been cheap toproduce, compared with myriad cover designs Luck also plays a part in great brand design.and illustrations. However, we don’t want Penguin was still young as World War IIcheap brands. We want great brands cheap. erupted, and its format just so happened toPenguin used good paper, quality binding and prove the perfect fit for a battledress pocket.typography that allowed the words to breathe. On such quirks are great brands built. SAThey were designs of hardback quality in soft covers.68
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  • Timeline 1937 Two years after its inception, Penguin sales Penguin book covers, 1930s reached 3 million and it moved its premises to the crypt of the Holy Trinity Church on Marylebone Road in London. 1946 The famous Penguin Classics series was launched Lady Chatterley’s Lover, 1960 with E.V. Rieu’s translation of The Odyssey, bringing classic works to the masses. 1960 People queued to buy D. H. Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover. The book sold more than Penguin book covers, 1960s 2 million copies in six weeks. 1961 Penguin became a public company and broke records when it was listed on the Penguin Modern Classics, 2002 London Stock Exchange. 1970 Penguin founder Sir Allen Lane died and tributes flooded in from the literary world. Penguin was Classic Penguin book mugs, 2004 bought by media group Pearson, owner of the Financial Times. Penguin cover, 200870
  • Did you know?One of these is complete fiction.* 1. Allen Lane’s decision 2. In 1989, following 4 . In 1937, the company 6. Edward Young, to found Penguin Penguin’s pioneered a book- who designed came about after a publication of vending machine Penguin’s famous visit in 1934 to Salman Rushdie’s which it called the ‘dignified but Agatha Christie’s The Satanic Verses, Penguincubator. flippant’ logo and Devon home. bombs were planted The first was the colour scheme At Exeter station he in a Penguin installed outside for its book covers was unable to find a bookshop in York Hendersons, at 66 was a submariner book he liked and and in Liberty’s in Charing Cross Road. during the war. His decided to found a London where the boat was involved publishing house company also had in a collision which selling good quality a concession. saw it sink to the paperbacks cheaply. 5. When Penguin bottom of the He chose to price launched in 1935 it North Sea, but the books at sixpence was widely dismissed Young escaped 3. The entire first print as a terrible idea as that was then the by swimming to run of Penguin’s within the publishing cost of a packet the surface. 1949 edition of Pride industry, but within of cigarettes. and Prejudice had to be three years it had pulped after it was sold 17 million books. noticed that ‘obscene By 1960 sales had amendments’ had reached 250 million been made to the and the company Penguin logo on the had 3,500 original inside back cover. titles in print. *The cuckoo in the penguin’s nest is number three. 71
  • PixarAnyone who has raised a child in the past 20 yearsshould also raise a cheer for Pixar. It’s a flagship for funny,inclusive family entertainment in a field dominated by themawkish, the moral and the mind-bendingly tedious(take a bow Pokémon and Digimon). The perfectionismof Pixar has provided the closest thing to a guaranteedgood-time that cinema can supply.Great brands, they say, become verbs. While we Chief creative John Lasseter believes technology ismight not be ‘Pixaring’ just yet, the name defines not the be all and end all. When he became creativeits category. Last week I overheard a cinema usher head at Disney the old drawing tables were takenconfidently describing Rio as ‘the latest Pixar’, out of mothballs for The Princess and the Frog, aalthough it’s not (not even close). Does this indicate return to the traditional hand-drawn musicalthat the brand has lost its distinctiveness? animation that made Disney famous, and which it killed off in a desire to emulate Pixar’s technical lead.That’s unlikely, because while being a technicalpioneer arguably made Pixar, it’s not, in my opinion, So what makes Pixar distinctive? Innovation?what sustains it. Pixar’s astonishing rendering of A visionary creative head? Or the most traditionalchrome, water, fur and suchlike can be copied. thing in the book – a superior, crafted product?But if inanimate objects offer the best subjects for As Lasseter himself puts it: “Quality is a greatPixar’s technology, their limitations have presumably business plan.” SAinspired the leaps of imaginative storytelling whichstick in the mind. For Pixar, content is king.The emotional heart of the films defines Pixar, notits dexterity with a pixel. Both Up and Toy Story 3were mostly reviewed from the perspective of howembarrassing it was to start weeping in front ofyour children.72
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  • Timeline 1995 Toy Story became the second highest-grossing film of the year. It made $362 million worldwide and received numerous awards nominations. André and Wally B, 1984 1996 John Lasseter received a special achievement Oscar for his work on Toy Story. Toy Story, 1995 1997 The number of Pixar employees reached 375. 1999 Toy Story 2 was released. It was the first film to be entirely created, mastered and exhibited digitally, A Bug’s Life, 1998 and the first animated sequel to gross more than its original. 2001 Monsters Inc. recorded the biggest three-day opening for an animated film, as well as the Monsters Inc., 2001 biggest in the history of Disney and Pixar, taking $62.6 million on its first weekend. 2006 Disney bought Pixar. Finding Nemo, 2003 2008 WALL-E received glowing reviews, six Oscar nominations and the Oscar for Best Animated Feature. Up, 200974
  • Did you know? Tall Story or Toy Story? You decide.*Concept work for Monsters Inc. 1. The massive flop 2. The parts of Mr 4. In Pixar’s Up, Carl’s 6. Billy Crystal turned that was Howard the and Mrs Potato house is raised by down the role of Duck arguably gave Head in Pixar’s 10,297 balloons. Buzz Lightyear in birth to the success Toy Story were However, Pixar Toy Story, a move of Pixar. George originally much technicians calculated he has described as Lucas went heavily smaller and that in reality it one of the worst into debt following intended to be would take more of his life. Bill the dismal box office voiced by Bill and than 26.5 million Murray had been performance of his Hilary Clinton. balloons to achieve considered for 1986 Marvel Comics’ this feat. the same role production (plus the but he lost the expense of setting up producer’s number. his Skywalker Ranch). 3 . The hand moves made by Hopper 5. Computers used in Needing quick cash, in A Bug’s Life the making of Cars he sold the CGI were modelled were 1,000 times animation branch on those of faster than those of his Lucasfilm to Steve Jobs. employed to create Steve Jobs for the Toy Story, a mere 11 knockdown price years earlier. of $5 million. Under Jobs’ guidance, Pixar became Oscar-winning and box-office busting. *Number two is pixellating the truth. 75
  • Ray-BanThe US Navy set up recruiting booths in cinema foyerswhich were showing Top Gun, so powerful a piece ofpropaganda did it prove to be. Part of the appeal toenlist must surely have been the uniforms and Aviatorsworn by Maverick, Iceman and the rest. After all, whenLieutenant Macready originally asked Bausch & Lombto manufacture anti-glare glasses for the US Air Forcehe insisted that they were stylish. UK Armed Forcesrecruitment bods take note.It is no accident that jazz and rock ‘n’ roll came from Ray-Ban products (both Wayfarers and Aviators)the US not the Eastern Bloc. Ray-Ban is a design are great functional design. In their streamlinedchampion because it was in the right place at the curves, bevels and detailing, they also capture theright time and designed in the right spirit. The time spirit of America. They are definitions of their era,was the mid-20th century, the place the US, and the alongside Zippo lighters, Fender guitars, Coke bottles,spirit a confident optimism, one that danced from Willys jeeps, Airstream trailers and other classics.the hips. They look like someone loved designing them.In the interests of brevity allow me to be broad; Most brands have a key or an onion upon whichmid-century industrial design in both East and ‘brand personality’ is laboriously defined. Ray-Ban’sWest was, out of necessity, simple and utilitarian. design went for a broader and deeper context – itIn Russia, this was purely about functionality, with tapped the zeitgeist. It is an approach Apple haslittle need to court consumer choice, but in the mastered in today’s world, but you won’t findStates, one had to try harder and bring a little style, any planning document that shows you how toa little élan. US designers had an innate gift for achieve this. It takes talent, intuition and feel.producing industrial design with flair. They celebrated Genius, perhaps. SAconsumer culture through design as populist asGershwin or Elvis.76
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  • Timeline 1853 John Bausch and Henry Lomb set up business together in Rochester, New York, making optical products. General Douglas MacArthur, 1945 1969 By the end of the decade Ray-Ban had expanded, and offered more than 50 designs and ranges. Hunter Thompson, 1960s 1982 A lucrative $50,000-a-year deal was signed with Unique Product Placement to promote the brand in movies and TV shows. 1986 Another popular design, the Clubmaster was launched, inspired by classic 50s and 60s styles. Ray-Ban ad, 1979 1999 Ray-Ban was bought by Italian eyewear group Luxottica, the owner of Oakley and Oliver Peoples sunglasses and retailer Sunglass Hut. 2011 Ray-Ban was ranked fourteenth on the Coolbrands index, decided on by a panel including musician Jessie J and DJ Rob da Bank. Risky Business, 198378
  • Did you know?Which one is the shady character?* Ray-Ban ‘Never Hide’ Rare Prints ad, 2010. 1. Ray-Bans were 2. The sunglasses 4. John Belushi only 6. Tom Cruise is good originally called scooped the kind removes his news for Ray-Bans. Anti-Glare until of publicity money Ray-Bans once When he wore a pair their re-christening can’t buy when in the course of of Wayfarers in Risky in 1937. Not sexy, General Douglas The Blues Brothers Business, annual sales but did exactly MacArthur was – when talking to for 1983 climbed what it said on photographed Carrie Fisher. from 18,000 pairs to the tin. wearing a pair of 360,000. By the end Aviators as he of 1986 after further waded on to the product placement 5. US Vogue editor-in- beach at Layte, in in Miami Vice, chief, Anna the Phillipines, Moonlighting and The ‘Nuclear’ Wintour in 1944. Breakfast Club, they has an ‘indoor’ were selling 1.5 and ‘outdoor’ million. When version of Cruise repeated the 3 . In the mid-70s, every brand of trick with Aviators Ray-Ban introduced sunglasses which in Top Gun, sales a line of ‘disco’ she wears, including rose by 40% to 1.5 sunglasses. They did Ray-Bans. million in the seven not catch on. months after the film was released. *Behind the shades is number five. 79
  • SelfridgesThe passion of store founder, Harry Selfridge, was evidentin everything he brought to retail. Not least his reasoningfor relocating to England, namely his belief that “Londonis the greatest and richest city in the world and containssix million discerning inhabitants.” Despite being forcedout by his board in 1939, his legacy remains, in the ‘joiede vivre’ that his store still retains. As for his opponents.Literally, yesterday’s men.When does packaging become advertising? Those The real potency of the design was brilliantlyglossy yellow bags do not only serve to carry the demonstrated during the Oxford Street store’sgoods we buy from Selfridges. For more than a 100th anniversary in 2009. Exclusive editions ofdecade now, they have also been bright beacons products from brands such as Converse, Johnnieof brand advocacy. The fact that they are normally Walker, Levi’s and Fender were launched in theseen resting proudly on the shoulder of the retailer’s signature Pantone 109 yellow. Even thewell-heeled only amplifies the benefit to the brand. most famous bottle in the world momentarily looked more Selfridges than Coca-Cola.So what design lesson can we learn from Selfridges?A helpful reminder that fortune favours the brave. The design also makes Selfridges accessible.It takes courage to do something bold. It also The other top-end department stores can’t helptakes courage (and a lot of discipline) to keep but feel a bit stuffy or a little cold by comparison:things simple. Apparently, early incarnations of a virtue that last year helped Selfridges officiallythe design featured decoration echoing the shop’s become the world’s best department store.exterior. This was judiciously removed, revealing a For now at least, it’s in the bag. JJcontemporary brand unencumbered by its heritage.80
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  • Timeline 1858 Harry Gordon Selfridge was born in Ripon, Wisconsin. In 1879 he began working Selfridges & Co. sign for Chicago department store Field and Leiter, where he spent 25 years. 1929 Holding company The Gordon Selfridge Trust became the biggest retail group in Europe after it Selfridges flagship store, London acquired premises in locations such as Bayswater and Leeds. 1939 Selfridge was forced to retire by the board of Selfridges Bullring, Birmingham directors and investors. He had lost much of his personal fortune by that time. 1951 Selfridges was bought by Liverpool-based retail Selfridges advertising campaign, 2007 group Lewis’ Investment Trust for £3.4 million. 2003 Selfridges was acquired by Canadian retailer Galen Weston for an estimated £590 million. His daughter Alannah was appointed creative director. Selfridges Oxford Street centenary, 2009 2010 Executives and industry experts named Selfridges the world’s best department store at the Global Department Store Summit.82
  • Did you know? Ground floor – blarney, boondoggles and beguilement.*Selfridges retro sweet jars, 2011. 1. John Logie Baird 3 . 1970’s sitcom Are 5. Selfridge had a gift 6. In the run-up to gave the first public You Being Served? for pulling the Christmas 1968, a demonstration of was based on crowds in for Situationist group television in co-writer Jeremy events which had called King Mob, Selfridges in April Lloyd’s experience nothing to do with which included 1925. Three years as a shopwalker shopping. Thus in future Sex Pistols later the store sold at Selfridges in 1909, four months manager, Malcolm the world’s first the 1960s. after opening, he McClaren, visited television set. arranged for the Selfridges with their battered aircraft in own Santa Claus. which Louis They handed out 4. Selfridge himself Bleriot had just the store’s toys as 2. Above the Art-Deco coined the made the first ‘alternative’ presents main entrance there expression, “Why Channel crossing to queuing children, is a statue known as not spend the day to be displayed in along with a leaflet The Queen of Time at Selfridges?” the store. 150,000 which read: Riding in Her Ship which introduced people came to see “Christmas, it was of Commerce. What the concept of it over four days. meant to be great, that means is anyone’s shopping as a but it’s horrible.” guess, but it still leisure pursuit. looks great. In its first week of opening a million people visited his store. *On the ground floor is number three. 83
  • SonySony’s growth in the post-war world hinges on thesuccessful co-operation between two former combatants.The Japanese company’s first major coup came when itwon the licence to use transistor technology pioneeredby Bell laboratories in the US. It sold half a million of itsTR-610 transistor radios between 1958 and 1960, mostof them to the US. From the Walkman to the Playstation,it has remained at the heart of our culture ever since.Despite a glorious heritage, the truth is that Sony disparate range of products and hope to bind themhas been struggling to return to form for years. together with just a logo. The risk is that the wholeFighting on too many fronts, the brand has been becomes less than the sum of the parts.surpassed by Apple, undercut by Samsung and The good news at Sony is that ever since he tookoutpaced by Nintendo and Microsoft. the reins in 2005, chief executive Howard StringerSo, perhaps a first lesson to take from Sony is that has quietly effected a revolution by stealth and Sony’sgood design works hand-in-hand with good thinking, latest generation products harness their always-not as a substitute for it. innovative technology to a more alluring style. It can’t be a coincidence that the underlyingA second is that the value of a cohesive style cannot business appears to be returning to form asbe underestimated when brands extend far and wide. Sony takes the fight to its competitors again.Despite continuing to exhibit its renowned flair inthe styling of individual products, Sony was making Perhaps the biggest lesson we can learn from Sonythe mistake of starting to emulate the competition is that a strategic approach to design is no longer arather than craft its own common look. In today’s luxury; it’s a necessity. AKmarket, it isn’t good enough to manufacture a84
  • Perfect for ‘kicking off your Sunday shoes’. By 1984 the Walkman was embedded in the popular culture it was also driving.85
  • Timeline 1950 Japan’s first magnetic tape recorder, the G Type, was launched. Five years later the country’s first transistor radio, the TR-55, went on the market. TR-55, 1955 1958 The theft of 4,000 Sony radios from a New York warehouse gave the brand valuable publicity in the US by putting its name in the headlines. TV8-301, 1960 1960 The world’s first direct-view portable TV, the TV8-301, was launched, followed by the world’s smallest and lightest all-transistor TV, TV5-303, in 1962. 1973 Sony Cassette Walkman, 1979 Sony received the first Emmy ever awarded to a Japanese company for developing the Trinitron colour TV system. 1988 Sony acquired CBS Records and renamed it Sony Sony PlayStation, 1994 Music Entertainment in January 1991. In 1993, Sony Computer Entertainment was established. 1994 Sony launched the PlayStation games console. The PS2 and PS3 followed, as well as a handheld Sony BRAVIA, 2009 console, the PSP. The PS4 is now in development. Sony PlayStation 4 concept, 201286
  • Did you know? Believe half of what you see. And none of what you hear.* “We don’t ask consumers what they want. They don’t know. Instead we apply our brain power to what they need, and will want, and make sure we’re there, ready.” Akio Morita, co-founder, SonyAkio Morita, Sony co-founder & chairman. 1. Sony’s first 4. Legend has it that 5 . Sony was unsure 6. Sony’s Betamax electronic product the length of a about using the system lost out to was an automatic compact disc name Walkman for VHS for a variety rice cooker. (developed by its first portable of reasons. One of Sony and Phillips) cassette player the most crucial, was set at 74 when it launched however, was that minutes because outside Japan. Betamax tapes were 2. The hole in the Sony vice-president It planned to call it originally only an middle of every and Beethoven Storaway in the UK, hour long, whereas CD is exactly the aficionado, Norio Freestyle in VHS tapes were same diameter as Ohga, wanted it to Sweden and twice that length. the Japanese 1 be long enough to Soundabout in the Hence, movies yen coin. play Ludwig van’s US. But when Sony could not be Ninth Symphony boss Akio Morita recorded on uninterrupted. visited a factory in Betamax, but 3. Sony’s first ‘pocket- Paris, employees’ normally could sized’ transistor children asked on VHS. radios were slightly when they could too big for standard get their Walkman pockets, so Morita and the original made his salesmen name prevailed. wear shirts with bigger pockets. *Number two has a dodgy socket. 87
  • SwatchSwatch is more than a company. It is a model of howa national industry can be rescued from apparentterminal decline with bold vision, private enterpriseand government backing. By the early 80s, the Swisswatch industry had been overrun and outmanoeuvredby cheap, Asian digital rivals. Nicholas Hayek changedall that, launching Swatch as a brand that was fun,fashionable and relatively inexpensive. Today, Swisswatches are world leaders once again.The downturn resulted in fewer folk buying and A couple of thoughts: Swatch proves that afewer folk flying. Airports are a prime watch- flexibility of design language can be as effective asbuying environment, so we might forgive analysts single-mindedness. It has used cool artists such aswho were pessimistic about the fortunes of Swatch. Keith Haring, but also gone mainstream withThey should have studied the brand’s design, not James Bond editions and the like. This fluidthe numbers. Swatch was born in tough times, and approach has brought broad appeal.is resurgent now tough times have returned. The original ads, featuring models wearingLike feel-good movies in the Great Depression, several watches on one wrist, were a strokebad times create a desire for a bit of fun, and of genius. This approach said ‘fashionable, fun,Swatches are visually cheerful. The brand’s irreverence disposable, collectable’ – not bad for a humbleis supported by the Swiss provenance it wears pack shot.so lightly. We hear much of ‘emotional intelligence’ inThat the whole proposition is based on limitless management; it’s also a useful attribute for brands.editions with an eye on fashion has also helped it Swatch understands how we feel and offers anto stay fresh and relevant. Also, with all things 80s affordable little luxury to improve ourmaking a stylistic comeback, the Swatch is collective mood. SAenjoying good times indeed – what goes aroundcomes around.88
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  • Timeline 1984 Swatch AG was established with headquarters in Biel, Switzerland, following the merger of ASUAG and SSIH. Jelly Fish, 1983 1986 The POP Swatch was launched. The watch could be attached to clothes and worn as a wristwatch. Swatch & Keith Haring, 1985 1988 The Swatch Newseum, a travelling museum showcasing every Swatch ever produced, made its debut. 2001 Designer Vivienne Westwood created the POP Swatch, 1986 ‘Flying Time’ collection of watches. 2006 Swatch celebrated its 333-millionth watch. About 15 million to 20 million Swatches are produced every year. Swatch & Billy the Artist, 2009 2010 Nicolas Hayek died. Two days later, daughter Nayla was voted in to replace him as chairman of the board. Swatch & Jeremy Scott, 2011 Swatch & Kidrobot, 201190
  • Did you know? One of these is a little two-faced.*Swatch advertising, 1980s (Left), Swatch advertising, 2011 (Right). 1. Swatch is a 3 . Swatch entered the 4 . The company has 5. On March 21, shortened form Guinness Book of collaborated with a 1997, all 1,600 of both Second Records in 1984 for number of artists, Swatch watches in Watch, and the Giant Swatch most recently Lady the travelling Swiss Watch. which was attached Gaga which led Swatch Newseum to the side of the to the Swatch were stolen. Commerzbank PokerFace, a limited 2. As well as being in Frankfurt. edition range which primarily made The watch was 162 featured all 52 cards 6. Swatch proved the from plastic, Swatch metres high and of a standard deck, water-resistant revolutionised weighed 13 tons. set in rubies and accuracy of its watch production diamonds around AquaChrono range by reducing the the bezel. by submerging it number of to a depth of component parts 200 metres in from almost 100 Loch Ness. to just 50. *Number four has a few cogs loose. 91
  • SwissIf World War II GIs had been able to call it by its realname, Schweizer Offiziersmesser, rather than the ‘SwissArmy knife’, would the brand still have taken off?Probably, because it was useful and looked good likemost US servicemen’s kit. Its success now is such thatit has come to represent that nation’s characteristics– practical, organised, efficient. A much better role modelthan the cuckoo clock.The Swiss Army Knife has carved out a distinct It has played its part alongside other brands,space in our minds as a symbol of versatility. from Rolex to Roger Federer, to create anDespite being famous for its multi-functionality, expectation of quality and accuracy from allthe lesson it reminds us is, to keep it simple. things Swiss.The brand has continually added depth and The restraint and discipline that has beeninterest to a consistent product proposition, shown at the brand’s core has served to liberatewhile resisting the temptation to tinker with the periphery. Expansion into other categoriesa strikingly simple identity. Consequently, has helped drive growth without underminingthe Swiss Army Knife has a ‘fresh continuity’ the brand’s credibility.about it that keeps it familiar yet relevant. Presumably, however, there is a limit and SwissProduct quality has also remained army fragrances might just be it. While we mightreassuringly consistent. The individual aspire to share their equipment, I’m not surefeatures on every single knife it produces are how much we really want to smell like thestill tested by hand, an expensive but essential Swiss army. JJprocess that sensibly hasn’t fallen victim to acost-engineering exercise.That precision and reliability has made theSwiss Army Knife not just a successful brand,but a powerful ambassador for Swiss culture.92
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  • Timeline 1886 The Swiss army decided to equip every soldier with a regulation single-blade folding knife, sourced from Solingen, Germany. Swiss Soldier’s Knife, 1891 1908 Swiss knife-makers Victorinox, based in the German-speaking Schwyz region, and Wenger, from the French-speaking Jura region, became dual suppliers to the army. Swiss Army Knife, 1951 1945 US army, marines and air force shops sold a high number of knives, calling them the ‘Swiss Army Knife’. This name was adopted in all English-speaking countries. 1980 Manufacturing of the knife for Victorinox Victorinox Pioneer generated sales of more than 65 million Swiss francs. Office and storage space expanded and staff numbers grew to 730. 2005 Victorinox took over Wenger and became the The Huntsman sole owner of the Swiss Army Knife brand. Manufacturing of the knife continued under the two brands. 2007 The Swiss army invited bids for supplying an Victorinox Tomo, 2011 updated knife. Victorinox retained Swiss Army Knife production against competition from seven other suppliers.94
  • Did you know?One of these is corkscrew straight.* Rob Ryan artwork using the Victorinox Tomo. 1. Swiss Army knife 3. Since Lyndon B. 5. The largest model 6. One of the original specials include Johnson, US is the SwissChamp tooth picks which ‘Cigar Cutter’ presidents present with over 33 came as standard and ‘Golf Tool’ their guests with features. Over 450 on most Swiss which includes a tee Swiss Army Knives. stages are involved Army models punch and in its production. was recently ball marker. discontinued when it was found to be 4. The only part of useful in picking the Swiss Army Yale locks as well 2. A screwdriver for knife that’s not as teeth. disassembling manufactured in rifles was the first Switzerland is the extra tool to be corkscrew, which is added to the forged in Japan. original pen knife. *Number six is twisted. 95
  • Veuve ClicquotIn 2000, Veuve Clicquot took legal action against asmall Tasmanian producer of sparkling wine becauseit claimed it was using the same ‘mango’ colour labelintrinsically associated with the French company.Veuve Clicquot won. Not a happy episode, of course,but one that demonstrates the value of distinctivedesign in an industry where brand recognition is priceless.Madame Clicquot’s portrait graces Veuve’s muselet La Grande Dame’s presence is the grit that makes(the fiddly wire bit to you and me). As portraits the pearl. She is someone to be admired as ago it is, ahem, no oil painting. Her stalwart image true pioneer by a female audience, someoneis, arguably, at odds with the brand’s stylish ‘designer’ with broad shoulders on which all the brand’spersonality, but a design lesson one might take is contemporary, stylistic innovations can stand.that style will carry you only so far. Substance is She offers a foundation of authenticity.the thing. Many brands airbrush and polish their equities, or smooth off the interesting, but rough edges.Without sight of a strategy document, I can Great ones do not.only presume that the brand’s relentless energyfor quality-design editions and fashion-house A friend’s father-in-law once accused him ofcollaborations reflects a targeting of women, having ‘Champagne taste and beer money’.and men who love design; but then, we are just Veuve Clicquot has spent Champagne-sizedbig girls anyway. budgets on Champagne-quality design, both on and off-pack. This affords it a ChampagneWhere Champagnes would once have played to standard of identity. As the lady herself said:a world of masculine status, Veuve Clicquot has “One quality only, the finest.” Penny-pinchersmoved with the times. This isn’t femininity with take note. SAa bow on it, however: it is design with élan.96
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  • Timeline 1811 An exceptional harvest produced an outstanding vintage, claimed to be due to the Great Comet of 1811. Veuve Clicquot, 1893 1866 Ponsardin died, leaving the business under the leadership of Èdouard Werlè, her business partner at the time. He was succeeded by his son Alfred Werlè. 1963 Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin was listed on the Veuve Pucci, 1996 French stock exchange for the first time. In 1987 it became part of the Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy luxury brand group. 2000 The company released its first Clicquot icebox, the first of many brand extensions. Veuve Clicquot icebox 2004 Veuve Clicquot’s first non-vintage rosé was released in Japan. It was not made available internationally until 2006. By 2008 it represented about 10 per cent of the brand’s sales. Veuve Clicquot fridge, 2010 2010 Bottles of 200 year-old Veuve Clicquot were found in a Baltic Sea shipwreck. The world’s oldest Champagne, it sold for more than £25,000 a bottle at auction. ‘Clicq’up’ foldable ice bucket, 201198
  • Did you know?Which isn’t of authentic vintage?* 1. Veuve Clicquot has 2. Phillippe Clicquot- 3 . Under the 5. Justin Timberlake’s always positioned Muiron set up a leadership of backstage rider itself at the top trading business in Mireille Guilliano includes 20 end of the 1772 which only in the 80s, Veuve Magnums of Champagne market. dealt in Champagne Clicquot targeted Veuve Clicquot. During the as a sideline and the US and raised Napoleonic Wars his son Francois its share from less it made a point of succeeded him than one per cent 6. In 2008, an defying Russia’s in 1801. When to over a quarter unopened bottle ban on the import Francois died, it of the market. of 1893 Veuve of Champagne was thought that Clicquot in perfect by smuggling its the company condition was wares to the would be sold, but 4. Nancy Dell’Olio discovered in a country’s elite. his widow (‘Veuve’ threatened to sue drinks cabinet in in French), Barbe- Strictly Come Torosay Castle on Nicole Ponsardin Dancing judge the Isle of Mull. took over. The Bruno Tonioli It is now on company’s full when he criticised display at the name remains her performance by Champagne Veuve Clicquot saying he thought, house’s visitor Ponsardin. “She had inhaled centre in Reims. two gallons of Veuve Clicquot.” *Number five is more sham than Champagne. 99
  • WaitroseWaitrose, that odd supermarket where parents talk withtheir children, rather than the national norm of shoutingat them. A relaxed, friendly, efficient place with lesspackaging and more aisle space. Depending on whatyou buy, it doesn’t necessarily cost that much more forthe privilege. Perhaps it shows what can be done whenstaff are made partners.Waitrose has long regarded design as a source of It was a well-executed response to a strategic threatcompetitive advantage. In contrast to the visual that could have left Waitrose positioned as ancacophony of cardboard signs and non-food occasional shop, a niche from which M&S Simplymerchandise at its brasher competitors, Waitrose Food seemingly struggles to escape.customers enjoy light and airy stores with wide Within weeks, Waitrose topped the grocery leagueaisles, intelligent signage and courteous staff. table, with like-for-likes up 10%. Since then it hasAn eclectic selection of sophisticated design sustained the recovery with initiatives featuring Deliadelights its customers and allows it to avoid the Smith and Heston Blumenthal, a partnership withworst of the price war being fought out between Duchy Originals and extension into smaller outlets.the big four supermarkets. Although consumers are again cautious aboutWaitrose hasn’t always been so immune. In 2008, spending, Waitrose continues to command highsales fell 4.6% due to a perception that Waitrose levels of loyalty, thanks to its commitment towas pricey when people needed to cut back. quality and design. AKThis perception was dispelled only by theintroduction of its Essential range. Simplepackaging with bright, hand-drawn illustrationsefficiently positions its everyday products as‘Quality you’d expect at prices you wouldn’t.’100
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  • Timeline 1904 An early Waitrose logo Wallace Waite, Arthur Rose and David Taylor opened a small grocery shop at 263 Acton Hill. Two years later, Taylor left the business. Waitrose logo, 2003 1937 The chain of 10 grocery stores was acquired by John Lewis Partnership (JLP), adopting a conflation of the names of owners Waite and Rose. Waitrose Cooks’ Ingredients, 2008 1955 The first Waitrose supermarket opened in Streatham, South London. Waitrose Mustards, 2008 1992 Waitrose opened its 100th food shop. By 2011 the number of stores hit 240; there are plans to open a further 400 branches by 2017. 2000 Ocado, the online grocery-delivery service, which carries Waitrose goods and is part-owned Waitrose bag for life by JLP, launched. 2003 Waitrose was awarded a royal warrant by Her Majesty the Queen. A second was granted by Waitrose Good to Go, 2011 HRH the Prince of Wales in 2011. The chain previously held the Queen Mother’s royal warrant.102
  • Did you know?Why not sample our delicious range of pork pies?* Waitrose ‘Community Matters’ token. 1. When Waitrose 3 . Waitrose has 4. Demand for 6. Waitrose has won opened a branch recently launched a Waitrose’s £13.99 Best Supermarket in the affluent giant avocado, known Christmas puddings, in the Good Cheshire town of as ‘The Linda’, which created by Heston Housekeeping Cheadle Hulme in is ten times the size Blumenthal was so Food Awards 2007, it was its first of the normal fruit. great last year that for the past purpose-built retail It is also selling they were selling on seven years. outlet in the North ‘Sumo’ pumpkins eBay for £400. of England. that weigh more than six stone and onions the 5. In 2009, Waitrose 2. Former envoy to size of grapefruit. rescued Prince the Archbishop of Charles’ struggling Canterbury, Terry Duchy Originals Waite is a great- organic produce nephew of the brand and expanded store’s founder, its range. Wallace Waite. As a result he is entitled to anything from the store’s Essential range free of charge. *The porky pie is number two. 103
  • Want to read more?Our Design Gazette posts every working day online.* A book is also available on Amazon. * www.jkr.co.uk/design-gazette
  • jones knowles ritchie specialise in designing packaging, guided by theprinciple that, above all else, the brand comes first. This is our third book andwe hope you enjoy it!Andy Knowles began his career marketing Heineken and Stella Artois atWhitbread before co-founding jkr. Now chairman, he’s as interested as everin lively debate around what gets packaging noticed and chosen.Silas Amos was a founder designer at jkr in 1990. He writes our daily DesignGazette online and is focused on creative strategy as a day job.James Joice is a relative newcomer to jkr, having spent the first ten years ofhis career at M&C Saatchi. He notes that the lunches are shorter but thequestions are no less meaty.
  • AcknowledgementsIn no particular order, but with star billing going to Amy Maw for hertypically sunny way of whipping the book into shape. Within the velvetglove an iron fist! Thanks to Mina Jee for the book’s design and all theeffort involved. Thank you to Andrew David and Norah Lewis for artwork,Nick Little for photography and retouching, and Judith Allan for production.A special thanks to John Naughton for drafting all the big copy introductionsfor each champion and finding the great facts to accompany them. Thanksalso to him for the hidden fibs.We wish to express our thanks to the manufacturers of the products and servicesportrayed in this publication. Copyright of the images and trademarks used is thatof the legal owner whose moral rights are acknowledged.All rights in the text used in this publication are reserved exclusively to Jones KnowlesRitchie Limited, except as may otherwise have been acknowledged. No part of thispublication may be reproduced without the written permission of the copyright owner.First published by Jones Knowles Ritchie in December 2011.Published by:jkr Brand First Books128 Albert StreetLondonNW1 7NE
  • This book celebrates twenty-five great works of design, thepeople who created them and the clients who bought them.