Champions of DesignObservations on creativity for competitive advantage from jkr
IntroductionIn this book we celebrate twenty-five great works of design, the people whocreated them and the clients who bou...
ContentsA      is for...	        M      is for...Apple	              3    Marmite	           55                         Me...
Apple“There are no second acts in American lives” wrote F. Scott Fitzgerald. Steve Jobs’ life, cruelly curtailed though it...
MacBook Air, 2011.   Mactintosh ad, 1984.5
Timeline                                      1976                                      Rob Janoff created the famous Appl...
Did you know?                              One of these ‘facts’ isn’t, in fact, true. Which is the bad apple?*Apple gift c...
Bang & OlufsenBy combining reassuring expense with quirkily beautifuldesign, the Danish purveyors of luxury audio-visualeq...
BeoVision 7 with integrated 3D, 2011.   BeoSound 8, 2010.9
Timeline                           1930                           Bang & Olufsen product design was influenced             ...
Did you know?One of these stories has a low fidelity to the truth.*                              Bang & Olufsen ‘Sure of Su...
BarbourIt’s ironic that a company with such strong connectionswith the landed aristocracy should have its origins inthe se...
Barbour are enjoying a patch of ‘It girl’ popularity, making it de rigeur outerwear at all the best (and wettest) music fe...
Timeline                                           1894                                           John Barbour founded J. ...
Did you know?Which of these is less than watertight?*Barbour catalogue cover, c.1970.                      1. John’s grand...
CamperCamper has proved that a brand can retain its local rootsand still have worldwide appeal. Its unique approach toreta...
17
Timeline                                 1877                                 Cobbler Antonio Fluxà introduced machine    ...
Did you know?                                 Can you tell which one is, frankly, cobblers?*Camper ‘Birds’ print ad, 2007....
ConverseConverse shoes have been worn by sports legends androck stars alike, becoming in the process an icon ofyouth and s...
21
Timeline                                    1910                                    Within two years of opening, Converse ...
Did you know?                                            One of these puts the con into Converse.*Original All Star basket...
DucatiAlthough no longer Italian-owned, Ducati will foreversymbolise Italian style in the motorcycle market.The company wa...
25
Timeline                         1924                         Physics student Adriano Cavalieri Ducati invented           ...
Did you know?The devil is in the detail. Which of these is untrue?*                           Ducati 860 advertising, 1978...
DysonThe success of Dyson proves the truth of the adage,‘He who laughs last, laughs longest.’ With one caveat:he must have...
Look familiar? One of James Dyson’searly 70’s inventions was theBallbarrow, which spread the barrowsload more evenly. A di...
Timeline                    1993                    Funded by licensing the design in Japan, James                    Dyso...
Did you know?                                                                      Spot the truth vacuum.*Sir James Dyson ...
GuggenheimWorld-class art collections housed in some of the world’smost striking buildings. So runs the singular ethos oft...
33
Timeline                                  1949                                  Solomon R. Guggenheim died, never having s...
Did you know?There’s a Tom Keating lurking among the Old Masters.*                            Guggenheim poster by Chermay...
IKEACommenting on a perception that he was somethingof a vulgarian, Michael Winner once said “People thinkI vomit on the fl...
Captions go here.37
Timeline                                               1943                                               Ingvar Kamprad s...
Did you know?One of these is a (flat) pack of lies.* 1. In the early 60s,            2. IKEA did experience     4. IKEA beg...
InnocentApart from the name, everything about Innocent isstreet-wise, smart and very financially savvy. Nocompany can go fr...
41
Timeline                                         1998                                         Three friends trialled their...
Did you know?These are all guilty until proven innocent.* 1. The company was              2. Co-founder Jon        4. Inno...
Land RoverNavigating the tough terrain of the 21st centuryautomotive business is no easy task but Land Roverdraws on over ...
A design whose appealstretches from royalty tofarmers. The chunky lineshave a charm that translatesbeautifully into a chil...
Timeline                                       1948                                       The Land Rover Series I debuted ...
Did you know?                                   One of these finds the truth an uphill struggle.*Land Rover Defender ‘Above...
LegoSix Lego building blocks can be arranged in 915 milliondifferent ways: an apt illustration of the stunningversatility ...
49
Timeline                                       1934                                       Ole Kirk Christiansen named his ...
Did you know?                                    One thing is rotten in the state of Denmark’s premier toy company.*Origin...
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Champions of design vol #1

  1. 1. Champions of DesignObservations on creativity for competitive advantage from jkr
  2. 2. IntroductionIn this book we celebrate twenty-five great works of design, the people whocreated them and the clients who bought them.We collected their stories from a series called Champions of Design that wepublished throughout the year – not in design magazines but in Marketing.There is a little self-interest here. The more marketing people who grow tolove great design and value its contribution to their brands, the easier ourjob will be if we are fortunate enough to work with them.Over and above this we simply want to share our appreciation of theseenthralling enterprises. They never fail to inspire us and are confirmationclasses in our own deep-held beliefs. Which are?1. Design is not separate from the product, it is part of it. It should emerge so naturally from the brand that it feels and sounds right, like the voice of a friend. If design is simply bolted on or used as wrapping paper, the cracks will show and the product inside won’t last very long.2. People will pay a little more for something they want and a lot more for something they want very much. (Think of the last thing you wanted desperately and ask yourself what part its design played in its attraction.)3. As each of our champions illustrates, design pays for itself many times over. Few other investments show such a great return. Of course we would say this, you might be thinking, but over 21 years as a design agency we have found it to be true.These are the main lessons we take from the case histories in this bookbut there is one more. A truly great design is inimitable: once you have it,it’s yours forever. Competitors may try to copy you but they will onlycome second at best.All of which may sound very fine in retrospect but how do you recognisea great design in the first place? Speaking for ourselves we think the answeris viscerally. We feel a mixture of admiration and envy. We wish we’d done it.If you share these feelings when you turn the pages this book will havedone its job.
  3. 3. ContentsA is for... M is for...Apple 3 Marmite 55 Method 59 Mini 63B is for...Bang & Olufsen Barbour 7 11 P is for... Penguin 67 Pixar 71C is for...Camper Converse 15 19 R is for... Ray-Ban 75D is for... S is for...Ducati 23Dyson 27 Selfridges 79 Sony 83 Swatch 87G is for... Swiss 91Guggenheim 31 V is for...I is for... Veuve Clicquot 95Ikea 35Innocent 39 W is for... Waitrose 99L is for...Land Rover 43Lego 47Liberty 51
  4. 4. Apple“There are no second acts in American lives” wrote F. Scott Fitzgerald. Steve Jobs’ life, cruelly curtailed though it was, disproved this aphorism. His return to the company that he founded proved more innovative and triumphant than his first stint. If Fitzgerald were alive today, he, like most other creatives, would probably have written that on an Apple.Blimey, where to start? Apple has harnessed the In a different retail channel, the music industrypower of design more effectively than any business was in disarray when it came to organising the digitalin the world. It is likely to report more than $100 downloading of songs until the creation of iTunes.billion in sales this year (roughly the same as Intel Once again, Apple led and others now follow.and Microsoft combined) and in rankings released As Steve Jobs said: “Design is not just what itin May, overtook Google to become the world’s looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.”most valuable brand. At a time when our lives continue to be transformedApple has made us more aware than ever before by technology, Apple has made clever stuff so muchof the importance of design, and not just product more intuitive than any other brand.design either. From packaging to retail experience Perhaps the cleverest thing of all is that, byand beyond, Apple has raised our expectations encouraging us to ‘Think Different’, Apple hasand sharpened our eye for design detail. managed to make us all think the same. JJFor those that are lucky enough to have one,we won’t forget the moment we unpacked ourfirst iPhone. It was truly special. So special in fact,that most of us have kept the box. The design ofthe Apple store is so different that it’s closer tovisiting an attraction than to shopping, a bit likegoing to the Hamleys toy store as a child.4
  5. 5. MacBook Air, 2011. Mactintosh ad, 1984.5
  6. 6. Timeline 1976 Rob Janoff created the famous Apple logo. He designed the apple with a bite taken from it, in order to distinguish it from a tomato. Apple I Self-Assembly Kit, 1976 1980 Apple Inc was taken public in the biggest IPO since Ford. Share prices rose by 32% on the first day of trading, making all 40 employees instant millionaires. iMac G3, 1998 1989 Apple Corps, The Beatles’ record label, filed a trademark lawsuit. The legal battle lasted for 18 years and The Beatles’ music was not available on iTunes until 2010. iPod, 2001 1997 Steve Jobs returned to Apple as interim chief executive. Two years later, he dropped the interim title, but joked that he would still be known as ‘the iCEO’. iBook G4, 2003 2003 The iTunes Store was launched and sold 1 million songs in the first week. Sales of the iPod doubled by the end of the year to more than 2 million. iPhone 3G, 2008 2011 Today, about 15 billion Apps have been downloaded from the App Store by more than 200 million iPhone, iPad and iPod touch users around the world. iPad, 20116
  7. 7. Did you know? One of these ‘facts’ isn’t, in fact, true. Which is the bad apple?*Apple gift catalogue, 1983. 1. The one billionth 2. In 1976, in order 3 . Forget Pete Best. 5. The first Apple song bought on to raise funds to Apple’s third computer, the iTunes was Speed of build their first co-founder Ronald Apple I, sold Sound by Coldplay. computer, Jobs Wayne sold his for $666.66. It was downloaded and Wozniak both 10% stake in the Cue Satan on February 23, sold items dear company to Steve conspiracy theories. 2006 by 16-year- to their hearts. Jobs and Steve old Alex Ostrovsky Jobs raised $1,500 Wozniak for $800. of West Bloomfield, by selling his As of June 2011, 6. Australians pay Michigan. Steve Volkswagen van, it would have the most for Jobs rang him while Wozniak been worth over iTunes downloads. personally to managed to get $31 billion. Songs cost the congratulate him $500 for his equivalent of and give him 10 Hewlett-Packard US$2.19 there, 60GB iPods, an scientific calculator. 4. The name iPod as opposed to iMac, a $10,000 came to Bill Stevens, $1.53 (99p) in the music gift its creator, during a UK and $1.29 in certificate and peyote trip. the US. a scholarship established in his name at Juilliard School. *The bad apple is number four. 7
  8. 8. Bang & OlufsenBy combining reassuring expense with quirkily beautifuldesign, the Danish purveyors of luxury audio-visualequipment have retained a distinctive niche in an evermore crowded marketplace. The company draws ona tradition of design excellence and technologicalinnovation, and has found its place in an Apple world.But what does its brand lesson teach us?Bang & Olufsen symbolises so much more than makes a much deeper impression than pressingsublime technology. It is a definitive lifestyle brand. a remote control. Bang & Olufsen do make remoteEncountering its products in a hotel room will controls, of course: it’s just that they’re cast in zincmake your stay feel that little bit more luxurious. to ensure they always feel cool to the user’s touch.Seeing them in someone’s house will confirm your This is by no means style over substance,suspicions that the owner isn’t short of a bob however. B&O’s first work with radios andor two. loudspeakers was driven by the ideal of ‘honestThe real lesson we learn from their design is music reproduction’, reaching the listener’s earshow to stand out while blending in. Like a really uninfluenced by the limitations of technology –great piece of furniture, it sets a tone without true high fidelity. Visiting a store, I was given abarking at you from across the room, reflecting demonstration of the new, 85-inch, 3D TV.the fact that Bang & Olufsen’s designers take It’s spectacular – and with a price tag of £65,000,their inspiration from everyday life: church you know you are buying more than justorgans, tulip fields, anything. a television. JJThey have long understood how user interfacecan differentiate them from the mainstream.Bringing a stereo to life with a wave of your hand8
  9. 9. BeoVision 7 with integrated 3D, 2011. BeoSound 8, 2010.9
  10. 10. Timeline 1930 Bang & Olufsen product design was influenced by Bauhaus Functionalism – not just a style, but an attitude to quality, consumer-friendliness Eliminator, 1926 and aesthetics. 1939 B&O produced a mains-powered radio with 16 permanent station settings. This was Beolit radio, 1939 revolutionary at a time when listeners had to search manually for each channel. 1948 The B&O factory was rebuilt after being TV 508 S, 1952 destroyed during World War II. The same factory is still at the centre of the company’s research and development. 1972 Jacob Jensen designed the first ‘dance-proof ’ Beolit 600, 1970s turntable, B&O’s Beogram 4000. It is now included in the permanent collection of New York’s Museum of Modern Art. 2001 B&O designer David Lewis was awarded the BeoLab 5, 2003 title of Royal Designer for Industry by the British Royal Society of Arts for eminence in creative design for industry. BeoSound 8, 2010 2010 Bang & Olufsen launched its first speaker dock, the BeoSound 8, for use with Apple’s iPod, iPhone and iPad.10
  11. 11. Did you know?One of these stories has a low fidelity to the truth.* Bang & Olufsen ‘Sure of Success’ poster campaign, 1948. 1. In 1927, Svend 3. Henning Dahl- 4. B&O designer, 6. The Royal Olufsen and Peter Mikkelsen produced Torsten Valeur once Penthouse Suite on Bang both borrowed the company’s halted production of the eighth floor of money from their distinctive Bauhaus a mobile phone the Hotel President fathers to set up the influenced logo in which the company Wilson on the shore company’s first 1931, while working was producing with of Lake Geneva is factory, having started freelance. He offered Samsung because currently the world’s in the attic of the the design to Svend the screen was 0.1 most expensive Olufsen family home. Olufsen for five inch too small. hotel suite at 75,000 Danish krone. The decision cost Swiss francs Olufsen, famed for $2 million. (£52,762) per night. his short arms and It is equipped with 2 . The ringtone on the deep pockets, was B&O’s BeoVision BeoCom 2 cordless nevertheless so 4-103, one of the phone was inspired 5. For Christmas 1934, impressed he gave to mark the release world’s largest by designer David him ten. Mikkelsen televisions at 103 Lewis accidentally of its first record found fame and player, B&O cut a inches, and is one dropping a piece fortune elsewhere, of only three hotels of metal tubing. disc on which they going on to draw the wished their workers in the world to He liked the sound internationally offer this TV. and hired a composer a Happy Yuletide syndicated cartoon and sang Silent Night. to replicate it. strip, Ferd’nand. *The buzzing sound is coming from number five. 11
  12. 12. BarbourIt’s ironic that a company with such strong connectionswith the landed aristocracy should have its origins inthe seafaring proletariat. Scottish businessman JohnBarbour established himself by selling waterproof jacketsand oilskins to the fishermen of South Shields at the turnof the 20th century. Nowadays, with a fistful of royalwarrants, the company has achieved the ultimate brandrecognition with Barbour having become synonymouswith the waxed jacket. The Barbour boat has definitelycome in. Let’s consider its brand lesson.Barbour might be more of a tortoise than a nimble Its popular biker jacket (a classic reborn) is thefashion-forward hare, but this has served it well. latest in a long line of variations on this theme.Some see hazard in its recent adoption by Alexa While the brand has diversified into otherChung (right), Sienna Miller, et al. The perfect garments (the kind one might arguably associatepartner to Hunter wellies, with a flagship Carnaby with Country Life’s ‘girls in pearls’), such rangesStreet store and design partnerships with the likes feel like a sideshow, and don’t steal the limelight.of Anya Hindmarch, might it be skirting the‘Burberry trap’ where ubiquitous popularity Beyond our shores, the unchanging Barbourtranslates into naffness? template presents it as quintessentially English – two-thirds of the brand’s sales are now overseas.I doubt we need fear for the brand’s longevity A British classic then. Moreover, being the lastwhen the fashionistas move on. Barbour has word in waterproof jackets, it can be sure ofform; having once profited as the definitive 80’s one constant: might originating in a land whereSloane Ranger garment, this stereotype backfired, a ready supply of rain is never in doubt providelimiting the brand’s appeal. Yet it met fashionable one source of their evergreen appeal? SAand unfashionable status and treated these twoimposters just the same.It endured, demonstrating the pluck and tenacityto stick with the one thing for which it was famedand loved – the green-waxed jacket.12
  13. 13. Barbour are enjoying a patch of ‘It girl’ popularity, making it de rigeur outerwear at all the best (and wettest) music festivals.13
  14. 14. Timeline 1894 John Barbour founded J. Barbour & Sons. Early Barbour label 1912 J. Barbour & Sons became J. Barbour & Sons Ltd, with John Barbour as chairman and sons Jack and Malcolm as joint managing directors. The Ursula suit, 1940s 1939-1945 The Ursula suit became standard issue for the Submarine Service in World War II, and was named after the U-class submarine. 1964 Steve McQueen wearing Barbour, 1964 At the International Six Days Motorcycle Trial, Steve McQueen and the rest of the American team all wore Barbour’s International suits. 1974 Barbour received its first Royal Warrant by Barbour Biker jacket the Duke of Edinburgh, followed by its second Royal Warrant by Her Majesty the Queen in 1982. A third Royal Warrant was awarded by HRH the Prince of Wales in 1987. 1999 Barbour International jacket The first Barbour concession opened in London’s Harrods. 2002 Margaret Barbour was appointed a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire.14
  15. 15. Did you know?Which of these is less than watertight?*Barbour catalogue cover, c.1970. 1. John’s grandson, 3. In 1981, a Spanish 5. When her husband 6. Sales of Barbour Duncan, had a mountaineering John died suddenly jackets soared in passion for team found a in 1968, Margaret the US following motorbikes, hence Barbour jacket at Barbour started to Helen Mirren Barbour’s tradition the summit of take an active role sporting one in of making classic Mount Everest. in the running of the film The Queen. biker jackets. They donated it the company. Recent endorsement They were worn by to the American After streamlining from fashionistas almost every British Moutaineering the production such as Alexa motorcycling team Centre in Golden, operation, she Chung, Lily Allen from 1935 to 1977. Colorado, where it became company and Sienna Miller is exhibited under chairman in 1972. (the look is known its nickname, ‘The Five generations on as ‘Hackney farmer’) Barbour of Seville’. from its foundation, have seen the brand 2. Until 2003, Barbour Barbour remains a regain a vibrancy was officially a family-run business. not witnessed since menswear brand. the mid-80s when Meaning, dare we say 4 . In October 2010, it was an essential it, that Her Majesty, a lorry full of fashion item for all the most famous Barbour jackets putative Sloanes. wearer of the line, was hijacked. Eight has been cross- thousand went dressing for most missing, valued of her adult life. at £750,000. *Number three is letting in the water. 15
  16. 16. CamperCamper has proved that a brand can retain its local rootsand still have worldwide appeal. Its unique approach toretail is rooted in the island of Mallorca, where in differentforms, the Fluxà family have produced shoes for fourgenerations. It found its place in the world by daring tobelieve there were kindred spirits out there.El Bulli might have closed its doors, but that other basic design language, which is of greater charmidiosyncratic Spanish brand, Camper, shows no and lower maintenance than trend chasing andsigns of weariness. There are two design lessons zigzagging, that is often typical in fashion.we can draw from its continuing journey. Secondly, Camper has mastered designing classicsThe first is that if you know where you are coming with a twist – conventional loafers, but with onefrom, it makes it easier to know where you are. lace or a bright red sole, for example. It producesAs a brand nodding towards a Mediterranean fairly unassuming footwear – comfy to wear butpeasant identity, Camper have kept things simple, also comfy to purchase, while offering just enoughgentle and relaxed, as best expressed by its old seasoning in the design to keep things interesting.‘Walk don’t run’ strapline. This might sound simple, but the blending of rural and urban sensibilities and of fashion shoesYou expect brown cardboard boxes and cheerful with an ‘outside fashion’ attitude must be no easyposters, because Camper has this spirit in its trick to pull off. Its recipes might be a little lessDNA. Successive years of campaigns have not avant-garde than El Bulli’s, but they have adiluted this ethos. This means it has genuinely distinctive and palatable flavour. SAbuilt a brand personality through design, avoidinggilding the lily. It continues to re-express the same16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. Timeline 1877 Cobbler Antonio Fluxà introduced machine Camaleón, 1975 manufacturing for shoes to the leather craftsman of Inca, Mallorca. 1975 The Camaleón shoe, originally made from canvas and tyre treads in 1928, was updated. A ‘rural shoe for the urban consumer’, it demonstrated the essential Camper style. Camper advertising, 1980s 1981 The Camper logo was redesigned, from a simple black type to the familiar white lettering on red still used today, for the opening of its first shop. 1992 Camper began international expansion with branches opening in European fashion capitals London, Paris and Milan. ‘Walk don’t run’ campaign 2000 Designer Martí Guixé created ‘Walk in Progress’, a temporary provisional interactive store design, with furniture made from recycled materials. 2002 Camper expanded further with shops in New York and Sydney. Today it has more than 150 stores in 70 countries. Camper London poster18
  19. 19. Did you know? Can you tell which one is, frankly, cobblers?*Camper ‘Birds’ print ad, 2007. 1. Camper takes its 3 . In 2005, Camper 4. When Camper 5. Camper has hired name from the expanded into opened its store industrial designers Catalan word for boutique hotels in Milan, the such as Jaime ‘peasant’, reflecting with Casa Camper company fashioned Hayon and Hella the brand’s original in Barcelona. four special shoes Jongerius, to aim to produce It features hammocks to place on the design shoes for well made, country- (as well as beds) in hooves of a the company. style shoes for every room and massive bronze city dwellers. twin policies of statue of a horse no smoking and which had been 6. Camper shoes no tipping. There is erected in the city frequently have now also a Casa a few years earlier, 2. Symbolic of messages written Camper in Berlin. based on a design the company’s on their soles. by Leonardo unconventional ‘Hispanic causing da Vinci. approach to panic’ is a shoemaking are popular one. the ‘Twins’, a pair of shoes where the left and right do not match. *Cobblers? That will be number four. 19
  20. 20. ConverseConverse shoes have been worn by sports legends androck stars alike, becoming in the process an icon ofyouth and symbol of below-ankle rebellion. The companytied its fortunes to basketball and watched as the gametook off across the world, making sure its footwear wasalways on court. Somehow, it has managed to be bothall-American and countercultural, in a way no otherbrand has managed.Converse use well managed design to make a lucrative and seemingly alive. Online customisinglittle go a long way. Broadly, its products fall into options take this to the next level; not bad for atwo types. The classics, in their famous livery, brand with two basic designs that essentially gluepreserve the brand’s authenticity. Then, the ‘editions’ rubber to canvas, with a little stripe of colouruse these classics as a blank canvas, from which a around the sole. It’s amazing how many ways thebewildering array of editions, collaborations, film basic cards have been reshuffled.and music tie-ins are spawned. The myriad logos and liveries can be confusingI was wearing Converse before Sheena was a to the casual observer: why a certain star on this,punk rocker. We called them ‘bumper boots’ but a different one on that? But big brands avoidbecause of the ankle patches. For those of an dreary monolith status by allowing one wonkyold-school disposition (and old farts), the classics wheel on the vehicle. It keeps them soulful.seem unspoilt by progress. This is only partly true. Converse is a master in the art of designing anIn reality, Converse is constantly refining and endless variation on a sound basic theme. SArevisiting its past with a big range of vintagevariations, serving ‘classic’ in many flavours.The ‘inspired by’ lines are both promotionalbillboards and badges of consumer affiliation, fromDr Seuss editions to designer brand Marimekko.As a use of design for marketing ends, this ‘coolby proximity’ approach keeps the brand relevant,20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. Timeline 1910 Within two years of opening, Converse was producing 4,000 shoes per day. The company Chuck Taylor All Stars, 1920 gave up making tyres to focus solely on the successful shoe business. 1969 The Oxford, 1962 Chuck Taylor was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, earning the nickname ‘Mr Basketball’ for his lifelong role as an ambassador for the sport. The Weapon, 1980 1976 The Pro Leather style shoe was introduced. Worn by player Julius Erving, who revolutionised basketball with above-the-rim play, it was nicknamed ‘The Dr. J’. Converse All Star 2000, 1996 1996 Converse All Star 2000, a modern day version of the Chuck Taylor All Star was released. It became one of the company’s best-selling shoes. DC Comic Converse, 2010 2003 Nike bought the 95-year-old company for $305 million. It was the first Nike-owned product to be marketed without the Nike name. Jack Purcell & Comme des Garçons Play, 2011 2011 The limited-edition 50475, a replica of the original 1946 Chuck Taylor All Star, is now on sale. It includes the original government contract number stamped on the inside.22
  23. 23. Did you know? One of these puts the con into Converse.*Original All Star basketball shoe, 1920s. 1. In 1908, Marquis 2 . Badminton 3 . Converse 5. Famous Brits Mill Converse champion, Jack reinforced its associated with slipped and fell Purcell lent his musical heritage the brand: David down a flight of name to a when it saved the Tennant wore stairs in Malden, Converse shoe legendary London them in Doctor Massachusetts, which became music venue, Who; Daniel injuring both popular in The 100 Club, Radcliffe sports himself and his pet Hollywood from early in 2011 after a pair in Harry donkey, Seabiscuit. the 30s onwards, it was threatened Potter & The Order He blamed the fall worn by James with closure. of the Phoenix; and on the lack of grip Dean and many although they were in his shoes. others. In 1960, the seen as a punk It inspired him to Jack Purcell sneaker, brand, The Beatles create his own famous for the 4. Converse has wore them brand of rubber- smile on its toe, released numerous long before soled shoe and a was marketed as special editions of The Ramones. company was born. the first premium its shoes featuring sneaker, selling for the likes of AC/DC, $8.98 rather than The Ramones, the standard $5.98. The Who, The Clash and DC Comics. *The con is on number one. 23
  24. 24. DucatiAlthough no longer Italian-owned, Ducati will foreversymbolise Italian style in the motorcycle market.The company was once described as combining“brilliant engineering with Marx Brothers’ management”which goes to the heart of its appeal. If you want theefficiencies of high-tech mass production, you’ve cometo the wrong shop. If you prefer bikes with passion,style, grace, speed and soul, Ducati is where you belong.Although consumers are more price sensitive than Ducati quickly followed it with another radicalever, Ducati reminds us that innovative design earns concept, the ‘street-style’ Monster, with exposeda premium. It’s a lesson the company learned the trellis frame.hard way, with the spur of competition. The commercial and critical success of theseAs a luxury purchase, the high end of the motorcycle ground-breaking models proved that progressivemarket is particularly open to new technology and design could compensate for an inherentHonda took the superbike market by storm when it disadvantage on cost.introduced the lightweight Fireblade in 1992. Today, six Ducati models exist. Each is distinct,With its back to the wall, Ducati stunned the yet each shares a futuristic style.motorcycle world by responding with the 916, Unlike Japanese bikes, which are hard to identifyjust two years later. It was a harmonious marriage until you see the logo, you recognise a Ducatiof form and function, the characteristic V-twin from afar. Thanks to the characteristic sound ofengine shoehorned beneath a slim red faring, their thunderous engines, you even know themhigh level tailpipes poking out behind the seat. with your eyes closed. AKVoted Motorcycle of the Year, its peerlesshandling and high torque gave Carl Fogartya World Championship in its first season.24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. Timeline 1924 Physics student Adriano Cavalieri Ducati invented an experimental short wave radio. Inspired by its success, he and his two brothers set up a Cucciolo, 1947 business together. 1939 Bruno Ducati was named a Cavaliere del Lavoro by the Italian government (the equivalent of Siluro, 1956 a knighthood) for his contribution to industry. 1948 Ducati was taken over by the Italian state after the three brothers were unable to keep it in profit. Scrambler, 1968 Adriano Cavalieri Ducati moved to the US where he worked at NASA. 1983 Claudio and Gianfranco Castiglioni purchased Ducati. It has gone through public and private Pantah, 1979 ownership by several companies since. 2007 Casey Stoner secured Ducati’s first ever MotoGP World Championship title as well as the MotoGP Constructors’ title. It was the first Monster, 1993 win by an Italian manufacturer in 34 years. 2010 Multiple World Champion, Valentino Rossi was announced as the rider for the Ducati MotoGP Diavel, 2011 team in the 2011-2012 season.26
  27. 27. Did you know?The devil is in the detail. Which of these is untrue?* Ducati 860 advertising, 1978. 1. Ducati began in 1926 2 . Ducati’s post-war 4 . Claudia Cardinale 6. In 1978, the as Società Radio success as a motorbike was the face legendary Mike Brevetti Ducati, a manufacturer was of Ducati until ‘The Bike’ company producing based on its she fell off a Hailwood came radio components. adaptation of the bike while on out of an 11-year It was founded by Cucciolo engine; promotional retirement to win three brothers, a cheap, reliable duties in Venice. the Isle of Man Adriano, Marcello motor, so named TT race on a and Bruno Ducati, because its noise Ducati V-twin. and only moved into resembled the yap The engine blew up bike production at of a ‘puppy’. 5. The 1198cc just as he crossed the end of World Ducati Diavel goes the finish line. War II. from 0-62mph in 2.6 seconds 3. The Ducati Diavel – quicker than a takes its name from Bugati Veyron. the time a prototype was shown to a group of Italian engineers. One of them declared, “Ignurant comm al diavel” – i.e. “Evil, like the devil.” * Number four is out of petrol. 27
  28. 28. DysonThe success of Dyson proves the truth of the adage,‘He who laughs last, laughs longest.’ With one caveat:he must have sufficiently deep pockets to fight repeatedcopyright infringements in court. James Dyson couldn’tget established vacuum manufacturers interested in hisnew idea, then had to hire ‘m’ learned friends’ when thesame companies became so interested and wanted torip him off. Business is like laughter. It’s all about the timing.Ask a few friends which British entrepreneurs they The inspirational tale of dogged perseverancemost admire and chance is, they’ll name Sir Richard to introduce his bagless cleaner should be taughtBranson. Mention Sir James Dyson and perhaps in school. Not only did he have to overcomethey’ll talk enthusiastically about his products – the numerous technical challenges, he could find nocyclone vacuum cleaner, the hand dryer and the one to manufacture it, as established makers earn anew Air Multiplier fan, but about him relatively little considerable bounty from the sale of replacement bags.seems known. Pioneers like Sir James teach us to reject the notionFor someone who founded a billion dollar brand, that our inherently high cost base stops us foundingsurely the industrial designer deserves a higher world-class consumer goods companies here.profile? Perhaps it’s to do with the personality of Despite its lowly status as a domestic appliance, thethe individuals? Or perhaps it says more about the Dyson cleaner is now an international success story.media’s long held disinterest in manufacturing? Its products are sold in 45 countries and despiteAs a remarkable self-publicist, Branson is arguably having exported much of its manufacture to themore famous than his products and services, while Far East in order to remain competitive, we shouldDyson has focused on building an enduring celebrate that it employs 350 engineers at its headmanufacturing business, where substance is more office in Wiltshire. AKimportant than style.28
  29. 29. Look familiar? One of James Dyson’searly 70’s inventions was theBallbarrow, which spread the barrowsload more evenly. A direct lineage fromthis, to today’s DC15 vacuum cleaner,can be traced stylistically if notfunctionally. The Ballbarrow wasa painful business for Dyson, butproves another adage, ‘If at first youdon’t succeed, try, try again.’ 29
  30. 30. Timeline 1993 Funded by licensing the design in Japan, James Dyson launched his first vacuum cleaner, the DC01, in the UK. DC01, 1993 1995 The DC01 became the best-selling vacuum cleaner in the UK. In the same year, the DC02 was launched, becoming the second bestselling machine. CR01, 2000 1996 Dyson manufactured 20,000 De Stijl-inspired machines, drawing attention to the structural and geometric form of the humble vacuum cleaner. DC08, 2002 2001 The business created its patented Root Cyclone technology, which captures even smaller particles and creates more powerful suction. DC15, 2005 2006 The Dyson Airblade hand-dryer was launched. 2009 Dyson released the first bladeless fan – The Dyson Air Mulitplier. AB01, 2006 2011 Utilising Air Multiplier technology, the Dyson Hot fan heater was unveiled. AM04, 200930
  31. 31. Did you know? Spot the truth vacuum.*Sir James Dyson with the two latest designs for the Air Multiplier. 1. James Dyson 3. Research in 2008 4. Dyson vacuum 6. Dyson’s success went through suggested that the cleaners have in the US was 5,000 prototypes Dyson Airblade been given away propelled in part over 15 years to increases the in goodie bags at by its appearance create his first amount of bacteria both the Emmys in one of the vacuum cleaner. on the hands by and the Oscars. last episodes of at least 42%. Friends where the Funnily enough, fastidious Monica this research is seen cleaning 2. Dyson appeared 5 . James Dyson’s was sponsored by a Dyson, her to make water flow wife, Deirdre, is the paper towel pride and joy, upwards in his known to millions industry in the with a hand-held ‘Wrong Garden’ as the woman in form of the vacuum cleaner. which was the the classic early 80’s European Tissue sensation of the Shake’n’Vac advert. Symposium. 2003 Chelsea Flower Show. *Number five sucks. 31
  32. 32. GuggenheimWorld-class art collections housed in some of the world’smost striking buildings. So runs the singular ethos ofthe Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. Just as thecollection of non-representational art it was designedto house shocked most of the public on its creation, sotoo did Frank Lloyd Wright’s original New York museum.Bernard Levin dubbed it the architect’s “last practicaljoke on mankind”. If so, it’s one we’re still enjoying andits echoes are felt around the world.Perhaps the Guggenheim Foundation is a champion One ingredient of world-class patronage is passion.of design because it champions design. When the Solomon Guggenheim opened his first museum tocreative awards and plaudits are handed out, clients share his love (and collection) of ‘non-objective’ art.often see their role in the creative endeavour His niece Peggy, who picked up the torch, waseclipsed by the artists; for some, clients are just not just a far-sighted and involved collector; she‘the wallet’. However, centuries of works of art married painter Max Ernst. There’s someonehave existed only because of the vision, taste and passionately ‘living the brand’.yes, creativity of the patrons. Any brand manager can be a fantastic patron,The Guggenheim collection of art is arguably a employing the best talent and giving their brandcommodity – an impressive one, but not necessarily a first-class ticket through its life, but sadly, notsomething ‘everyday’ folk would visit if it were all show such verve. Through its commissions,housed in a more conventional space. Guggenheim is now synonymous, for many,Guggenheim is not about conventional design, with modern art; fortune favours the brave. SAhowever. The original (1959) Fifth Avenue gallerywas a bold, creative commission. Indeed manycomplained that its ‘snail shell’ form was impractical.Guess what? It’s now ‘iconic’. Same story withGuggenheim’s Bilbao museum.32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. Timeline 1949 Solomon R. Guggenheim died, never having seen the Museum of Non-Objective Painting in New York, which was renamed in his honour when it was completed. Early Guggenheim sketch 1952 Hilla Rebay resigned as museum director and was replaced by James Johnson Sweeney. The Hilla von Rebay Foundation was established after her death in 1967. Guggenheim, New York 1959 The Guggenheim museum opened. Located on New York’s Fifth Avenue, the building remains a controversial landmark to this day. Guggenheim ‘snail shell’ 1997 The Guggenheim Bilbao opened and was instantly hailed as an architectural masterpiece. The museum was credited with reviving Spain’s Basque region. Guggenheim concept, Bilboa 2013 The Guggenheim Abu Dhabi, designed by Frank Gehry, will open in the city’s cultural district of Saadiyat Island, and will be overseen by Thomas Krens. Guggenheim, Bilboa34
  35. 35. Did you know?There’s a Tom Keating lurking among the Old Masters.* Guggenheim poster by Chermayeff & Geismar, 1975. 1. In Manhattan, Woody 3. Peggy Guggenheim, 4 . The seal on the 6. Architect Frank Allen meets Diane niece of Solomon, floor of the Lloyd Wright’s Keaton at the opened her first Guggenheim original plans for Guggenheim gallery in London. Museum reads ‘Ars the Guggenheim Museum. The The Guggenheim Gratia Pecuniae’. museum featured Guggenheim Bilbao Jeune opened in It means ‘Art for a glass elevator. features at the start 1938 with an the sake of money’. He also wanted a of 1999 Bond film, exhibition of the vacuum system in The World Is work of Jean the lobby so that Not Enough. Cocteau. It lost people did not £600 in its first 5. When the bring in dirt, but year and she closed Guggenheim it was deemed it down on June 22, Museum opened too noisy. 2. The Guggenheim in New York on 1939. The gallery has its own typeface, October 21, 1959, she opened in Verlag, meaning admission was 50 Venice in 1951 ‘publisher’ in cents. 3,000 people remains there to German. It was queued to be this day and is now created by Jonathan the first to see part of the Solomon Hoefler and Tobias the museum. R. Guggenheim Frere-Jones and Foundation. based on the museum’s iconic Art Deco lettering. *The obvious forgery is number four. 35
  36. 36. IKEACommenting on a perception that he was somethingof a vulgarian, Michael Winner once said “People thinkI vomit on the floor and buy my furniture from IKEA” – asif the two were somehow synonymous. For most, IKEAis an unabashed joy; a modern, affordable, chic supplierof house-brightening, chintz-free furniture. Guess themulti-billion pound, globe-straddling company is somehowgoing to have rub along without Winner’s support.Love it or hate it, IKEA teaches us to respect the By setting out to design each product with apower of price – and the value of a consistent low end-price in mind, IKEA’s designers aredesign philosophy. compelled to invent and adapt. By necessity, they have pioneered the use of lightweight materialFlat-packing seems a modest enough innovation such as fibreboard and the honeycomb paperin hindsight, but at the time of IKEA’s inception, within its products’ bleached wooden frames.self-assembly furniture heralded a retailing revolution It is an ethos that dovetails perfectly with a desireevery bit as profound as self-service in grocery. to tread lightly upon the environment.By eliminating a major cost within the supply of For very little cost, IKEA’s fresh Swedish aestheticrigid furniture, and by facilitating self-selection offers light, bright living spaces with acceptableand self-collection, IKEA has been able to bring quality for modern lifestyles. Thanks to theexceptional value to homewares and appeal to brand’s marriage of economy and creativity, wethe mainstream. no longer need to preserve our set pieces for theIt does so within a considered design philosophy. next generation. Today we can afford to refurnishEverything at IKEA is designed with utility and whenever we repaint. AKefficiency in mind, from the bold blue and yellowof the stores (inspired by the Swedish flag), to aform-follows-function style.36
  37. 37. Captions go here.37
  38. 38. Timeline 1943 Ingvar Kamprad set up his own business selling products at a reduced price. He named it after his Lovet table, IKEA’s first flat-pack, 1956 initials and the first letters of the farm and village where he grew up, Elmtaryd and Agunnaryd. Five years later he introduced a furniture range. 1951 The first IKEA catalogue was published, allowing Skopa chair, 1974 Kamprad to sell furniture on a much bigger scale. By 1984, the catalogue’s print run reached 45 million copies. 1956 IKEA decided to flat-pack its furniture for self-assembly when a worker removed the legs Poäng armchair, 1976 from a table to fit into a customer’s car. Self-service came nine years later. 1973 The first IKEA store outside Scandinavia opened in Switzerland, and another a year later in Germany. Stores now total 301, across 37 Billy bookcase, 1978 countries, with Germany its largest market. 1995 The IKEA PS collection launched at the Furniture Fair in Milan, offering designers free range over their creations. The fourth PS collection, PS Lömsk swivel chair, 1997 in 2003, included the Brum soft toy, which raised €2.1 million (£1.8 million) for Unicef. 2010 Designers found a new way to pack the Ektorp sofa, halving its flat-pack volume, reducing the Klippan Loveseat, 2011 price by €100 (£88) and lowering the carbon footprint in transport.38
  39. 39. Did you know?One of these is a (flat) pack of lies.* 1. In the early 60s, 2. IKEA did experience 4. IKEA began selling 5. The nomenclature IKEA founder, some teething flat-pack furniture of IKEA products Ingvar Kamprad problems around in 1956 after a follows strict was, by his own the sizing of its worker removed the guidelines. Beds, admission, an products when it legs from a table to wardrobes and hall alcoholic. By 2004, opened stores in fit it into a furniture are with his drinking the US. Customers customer’s car. named after places under control, his reportedly bought The worker in Norway, garden personal fortune vases which they in question furniture after was estimated at mistakenly believed immediately went Swedish islands, £32 billion, making to be water glasses. into hiding after while dining chairs him the richest man being pursued and tables in the world. by angry mobs conform to towns of Allen-key- and cities in 3. The famous IKEA wielding customers. Finland. catalogue has been burned in red state areas of the US after the company claimed 6. The first IKEA it was “bigger than store to open the Bible”. In terms in the UK was in of its annual print Warrington run, this is true. in 1987. *The square peg is number three. 39
  40. 40. InnocentApart from the name, everything about Innocent isstreet-wise, smart and very financially savvy. Nocompany can go from start-up to multi-million marketleader and stay there without a real-world zeal forunderstanding its customers and maximising its reach.Even though we know it’s sold out to Coca-Cola we stilllove its smoothies and buy into the Innocent image.In some ways, that’s even more impressive.Innocent yes. Naïve, no. From a consumer perspective, Innocent’s gift is to have brought a little fun and some healthy choicesAs true champions of design, Innocent should be into our lives. But behind its success lies a deadlyapplauded for reminding us to use the medium as serious lesson for business.the message. What the founders lacked in marketingfirepower, they more than made up for with their It is rare to survive in the British food industrycharming, conversational style. without scale, yet, despite not being the cheapest, Innocent has captured the leading share inWith a simple, childlike logo, warm, witty words markets normally dominated by giants. It is livingand initiatives to reduce the environmental impact testimony to the competitive advantage that aof their packaging, they charm and distract us charismatic brand can bring to business.from the inherent contradiction in any pretenseof mass-produced innocence. Meanwhile, its In uncertain times, while lesser rivals succumbstream of creative initiatives, like Fruitstock, to the grinding attrition of the retailer price wars,Knitted Hats and dancing vans, in combination let’s celebrate and emulate Innocent’s imaginativewith the open spirit epitomised by their invitation integration of design, language and product toto call on the banana phone, express something escape the commodity trap. AKcheerful and personal about the people behindthe brand – and we thank them for it.40
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. Timeline 1998 Three friends trialled their Innocent smoothie at a local jazz festival. They quit their jobs the next day to commit to Innocent full-time. Original Innocent packaging, 1999 1999 The Out to Lunch sandwich shop was the first to stock the Innocent smoothies. The trio hoped to sell eight bottles the first day, but managed to sell sixteen of them. Big Knit Campaign started, 2003 2003 The first annual Big Knit took place. Fans were asked to make tiny winter hats for Innocent bottles, and raise money for Age Concern. Innocent Redesign, 2005 2005 Innocent began selling its drinks in France, Holland and Belgium. It expanded to Scandinavia in 2006 and Germany in 2007. Innocent Smoothies for Kids, 2005 2006 Innocent began sourcing from Rainforest Alliance-accredited farms all the bananas used in its drinks. Innocent Veg Pots, 2008 2007 Turnover reached £114 million. 2009 The Coca-Cola Company invested £30 million in Innocent in return for an 18% stake. It increased Innocent Juices, 2011 this to 58% in 2010 for a further £65 million.42
  43. 43. Did you know?These are all guilty until proven innocent.* 1. The company was 2. Co-founder Jon 4. Innocent was 6. In 2007, Innocent founded by friends Wright’s business originally called had to recall Adam Balon, card used to read, Fast Tractor. 100,000 bottles Richard Reed ‘Complete Bottler’. of its banana and Jon Wright. and strawberry All three went to smoothies after the same Cambridge 5. Richard Reed reports of the 3. Maurice Pinto was is allergic to college, St John’s. drinks exploding. the one venture pineapples and capitalist who has therefore would back the never tasted company when it his company’s started. He put in original product. £200,000 for a 20% stake, which today is worth over £35 million. *The guilty amongst them is number five. 43
  44. 44. Land RoverNavigating the tough terrain of the 21st centuryautomotive business is no easy task but Land Roverdraws on over 60 years of experience, delivering a brandbeloved around the world, albeit one no longer run fromthe UK. Nevertheless, its journey, from the rough andready practicality of the Series I in the post-war yearsto the high-end luxury of today’s Range Rover Evoque,mirrors Britain’s transition from austerity to affluence.Land Rover’s history is an epic tale - a pioneering If it is legitimate to regret the loss of a nationalBritish brand suffers from timid management champion to ambitious young engineers frombefore enjoying a glorious renaissance, crowned overseas, we should celebrate the fact that ourby a Queen’s Award for Export. world-class design and invention has retained Land Rover’s R&D and manufactureUnder Rover, British Leyland and British in Birmingham.Aerospace, the brand enjoyed moments of glory,but inventive designs were often hindered by lack Under its current owners, the brand has beenof investment. Toyota’s Land Cruiser captured given another stylistic shove away from itsmany of the Defender’s potential export markets, traditional khaki boxcar aesthetic toward catwalk-while a parochial design ethos and rudimentary chic, yet the brand’s visual elastic hasn’t snapped.levels of comfort hampered Discovery and Range Diehards may lament the fact that Land Rover isRover in the US’ booming SUV sector. now more cultural than agricultural – a statusUltimately, others with a stronger vision and deeper symbol for new money and old. Surely we shouldpockets stepped in. BMW, Ford and Tata take pride, however, if the brand is finally poisedcollectively have invested billions in advancing to triumph in a global luxury market. AKengineering, style and comfort, while improvingcost-competitiveness.44
  45. 45. A design whose appealstretches from royalty tofarmers. The chunky lineshave a charm that translatesbeautifully into a child’sDinky Toy version. 45
  46. 46. Timeline 1948 The Land Rover Series I debuted at the Amsterdam Motor Show. It was followed by the Series II in 1958 and Series III in 1971. Winston Churchill and his Series I Land Rover, 1954 1968 The ‘Lightweight’ entered service with the British armed forces. Land Rovers have been used in Korea, Suez and on SAS operations and desert patrols. Range Rover Turbo, 1990 1987 The Range Rover was launched in North America. Within three years, it had become the market’s biggest export. Land Rover Freelander, 1997 1997 The Freelander model was released to celebrate Land Rover’s 50th year. Land Rover e-Terrain Technology concept, 2006 2006 The Land-e, a diesel electric hybrid, debuted at the Geneva Motor Show. 2007 Land Rover produced its four-millionth vehicle – a Discovery 3 that was donated to the Born Land Rover Defender, 2008 Free Foundation . Range Rover Evoque, 201146
  47. 47. Did you know? One of these finds the truth an uphill struggle.*Land Rover Defender ‘Above the clouds’, RKCR / Y&R, 2009. 1. You can have any 3. When the Range 4. Despite being seen 5. The Range Rover colour you want so Rover was under in close proximity was launched on long as it’s green. development in the and sometimes Friday June 17, Early Land Rovers late-60s, engineer inside a variety of 1970 at a retail were predominantly Mike Dunn was Land Rovers on price of £1,998. painted green as instructed to think Countryfile, John Roughly the cost the company of a working title Craven cannot of the coffees in still had a surplus which featured the actually drive any of today’s cupholders. of sage paint letters used in them by himself as intended for ‘Rover’ and its then he still only has a World War II fighter subsidiary ‘Alvis’. provisional licence. 6. Seventy per cent plane cockpits. He came up with the of all Land Rovers title ‘Velar’, a reference ever made are to the Spanish word still in use in meaning to ‘watch 2. The Discovery, some form. over or look after’, launched in 1989, emphasising the had an interior need to keep details designed by the away from the press Conran Design and competitors. Group, run by Jasper, Range Rovers were son of Terence. even registered as ‘Velars’ on original V5 documents. *Driving around the truth is number four. 47
  48. 48. LegoSix Lego building blocks can be arranged in 915 milliondifferent ways: an apt illustration of the stunningversatility of a brand launched in a worldwide recessionthat continues to thrive on a global basis. From thewooden building blocks of the 1930s, via the classic brickpioneered in the 40s – 62 of which exist for every personon the planet – to the present day company whichencompasses theme parks, film franchise tie-ins andinternet communities, Lego has fused innovation withgreat functional design to be a truly global brand.Designing a great development tool that is also The company has innovated through design onfun is an achievement in itself. But brilliant design two levels. First, by continually perfecting theis about brilliant systems – the intelligent and product, from wooden blocks of the 30s, toimaginative arrangement of individual components Binding Bricks in the late 40s, to the 1958 ‘studthat combine to make a corporate identity, a chair and tube’ we know today. Second, by exploitingor even a rocket. Lego truly is a world-class system its new properties; Lego was the first Danish– from the interaction of primary-coloured bricks company to invest in injection-moulded plastics.and the universe of interrelated ‘sets’, to its theme The hula-hoop also launched in 1958 and Frisbeesparks. To be a champion, you must be more than hail from the same period. Funny how such earlythe sum of your parts. adopters of a new technology have endured.Lego is also ergonomically amazing; not just for Try this as a judgement criterion for effectivethe children, but also for adults. It’s tough, design: genuinely beneficial, functional,washable and has a set to fit most wallet sizes. affordable, collectable, sociable, memorable,The only flaw is its ability to cripple a parent flexible and of universal appeal. That’s (some of)bumbling about in the dark. Lego puts the end what makes Lego a champion. SAuser at the heart of the brand, and truly meetstheir needs. It probably achieved this throughintuition and intelligence, rather than insight groups.48
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  50. 50. Timeline 1934 Ole Kirk Christiansen named his toy-making business Lego, formed from the Danish for ‘play well’, leg godt. Early Lego bricks 1967 More than 18 million Lego sets were sold during the year and 218 different elements (not counting colour variations) were in production. Set 600, The Original Minifigure 1974 The familiar yellow Lego figures were introduced, aimed at encouraging child role-play. More than 4 billion are estimated to have been produced since. 1986 Lego Star Wars Godtfred Kirk Christiansen resigned as chairman of the board of Lego System A/S and Lego Overseas. His son, Kjeld Kirk Christiansen, took over. 1998 An exclusive licensing deal was agreed with Lucasfilm giving Lego the right to create themed sets based on the Star W films. ars Lego Harry Potter Wii game 2000 Lego was named ‘Toy of the century’ by Fortune magazine and the British Association of Toy Retailers. Lego Technic Cherry Picker50
  51. 51. Did you know? One thing is rotten in the state of Denmark’s premier toy company.*Original wooden Lego toys, 1930s. 1. In 2010, Legoland 3. The most collectable 5 . Company founder, 6. In 1934, looking Windsor suffered Lego set today is a Ole Kirk for a name for an infestation Reservoir Dogs tie-in Christiansen took his company, of wasps. The complete with inspiration for his Christiansen general manager detachable ears. company’s famous organised a was grilled by Anne Only a handful of brick from English competition Robinson about prototype sets were company, among his staff the problem made before the Kiddicraft and with the winner on the BBC’s company hastily their Self-Locking promised a bottle programme Watchdog. abandoned the Building Brick of wine. In the project and these patented by British end, he preferred now change hands inventor, Hilary his own idea to for over £1,000. Fisher Page. any suggested 2. If the number of Page ran into by his employees. Lego blocks sold in financial trouble Proving that, a single year were and committed sadly, sometimes laid end to end 4. Lego is the biggest suicide in 1957, the boss does they would stretch manufacturer of and shortly know best. around the world car tyres in the five times. world. The company thereafter, Lego makes 306 million bought all the of them every year. rights to the Kiddicraft block. *The Hamlet is number three. 51

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