The History of the Jewish People in 63 Slides


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Corey G. '14 gives this abridged overview of the history of the Jewish people.

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  • Historiography: the theory of history, the process of figuring out "the important thing", intellectual process, influenced by perspectives and attitudes, documentation and telling of historyFuray and Salevouris (1988) define historiography as "the study of the way history has been and is written — the history of historical writing... When you study 'historiography' you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians."Periodization: when to start and end a period of history, influenced by perspective; a type of historiography; an attempt to succinctly capture the essential nature of an historical eraJewish HistoryAncientMedievalModern (single ideology)Post Modern (many accepted ideologies)History: factual, academic; by trained historians; belongs to everyone, shared, and secular; interpreted; intellectualMemory: experience based; biased; owned; possessed by a heritage; emotionalPrimary Source: source contemporaneous with period being studiedSecondary Source: analyzes primary sources to come up with a coherent theory of history (textbook, documentary, article/essay, encyclopedia); academic/factually based
  • The History of the Jewish People in 63 Slides

    1. 1. The History of Your People: An Abridged Version By Corey G. „14
    2. 2. Why?  The tenth and eleventh grade Jewish History curricula cover content in great breadth and depth, leaving you with a lot of information to synthesize in the midst of your rigorous junior year  To aid in your understanding of the progression of Jewish History, this presentation outlines the major eras and topics of study within Jewish History
    3. 3. Divisions of Presentation Review Tenth Grade Curriculum Preview Eleventh Grade Curriculum
    4. 4. Some Terms Acculturation Accommodation Assimilation Responses to Surrounding Culture Periodization Ancient Medieval Modern Post Modern
    5. 5. Why Are We Starting Here?  We only have one source for the time leading up to this period: the Torah, the Five Books of Moshe  This poses various challenges to our academic understanding of ancient Jewish history Benefits Challenges •Starting point •Preservation provides evidence •Insight into cultural/social norms •Religious information/Talmudic tradition •Narrow window •Lack of chronology •Interpretation •Contradicts archeology •Theology book •Emotional factor
    6. 6. Tenth Grade Curriculum The Divided Kingdoms and the Assyrians to Jews and the Birth of Islam
    7. 7. Identify this Primary Source • Includes the first mention of Israel outside of the Tanakh, “Haberew” • 1210 BCE This is the: • Merneptah Stele
    8. 8. The Divided Kingdoms  Israel had reached its zenith at the beginning of King Solomon‟s rule; the Temple had been built  The Israelites were divided in ancient Israel into twelve tribes which owned pieces separate of land  Solomon‟s reign had inherent difficulties  He was the last king of the United Kingdom of Israel  922 BCE – Solomon‟s death  928 BCE – Division of Kingdom
    9. 9. The Divided Kingdoms  At the end of Solomon‟s reign, the kingdoms split  Northern Kingdom: Kingdom of Israel  Southern Kingdom: Kingdom of Judah  After invasions, attacks, and the division of the kingdoms, the Ten Tribes were exiled and assimilated among other peoples  Beginning of diaspora Wikipedia
    10. 10. The Northern Kingdom and the Assyrians  738 BCE – Assyrian King conquers a civilization by Canaan; deports the native population of dissenting thought and replaces these people with Assyrian loyalists (population transfer of the periphery)  This weakens the chance of protests and rebellion, while diluting Israel  722 BCE – Northern Kingdom conquered by King Sargon II of Assyria; upper class, women, and skilled workers deported  The Assyrian imports and lower class Jewish remnants were called Samaritans  Those deported either went to Judah or Assyria
    11. 11. The Southern Kingdom  Deuteronomic reforms alter the practice of Judaism  Personal responsibility  Sole loyalty to God  Central location for sacrifice  Contrasts the pagan view of sacrifices  Keeps Jews focused on Judaism and sacrifices halakhic  Hezekiah, the ruler of Judah from 727 - 698 BCE, retains control despite the threat of the Assyrians in the Northern Kingdom
    12. 12. The Fall of the Southern Kingdom  Babylonia replaces Assyria as the new world empire  597 BCE – Jerusalem is captured, upper class is exiled (first exile) and King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia puts in place a vassal king, Tzidkiyah  586 BCE – Judah revolts and the Temple is destroyed by the Babylonians; Jerusalem emptied of Jews (second exile)  582 BCE – Gedaliah, the new governor, revives Jerusalem economically, but is assassinated leading to the exile of the remaining Jews (third exile)
    13. 13. Destruction & Exile: Beginning of Jewish Life in the Diaspora  Exiled Jews join emerging Jewish communities  Leaders, exiled before the rest of the population, have set up these communities  Diversified Jewish economy contributes to society  Jews embrace personal responsibility when it comes to practicing their religion; they unite as they look toward the shared goal of a future in Israel
    14. 14. Destruction & Exile: Beginning of Jewish Life in the Diaspora  539 BCE – Persia replaces Babylonia as the new world empire  Book of Esther may have occurred during this time (no corroborating historical evidence)  Cyrus presents a policy change; grants Jews permission to return to Israel, however most are comfortable and choose to remain in exile  516 BCE – 70 years after Jeremiah‟s prophecy in 586 BCE, the Second Temple is built  Jews were autonomous in the diaspora, yet secular rulers had connections to the Jewish communities and often enforced Jewish law (corporatism)
    15. 15. Destruction & Exile: Beginning of Jewish Life in the Diaspora  Intermarriage first emerges as a problem in response to the enticing Persian culture  The Jews of Elephantine assimilate yet remain connected to their Jewish roots; in their corporate community structure, they embrace aspects of outside culture yet remain connected to Israel from the diaspora
    16. 16. Hellenism  331 BCE – Greece replaces Persia as the new world power; Alexander the Great conquers  Greeks impose rule and culture, leading to hellenization  Greek becomes the official language in much of the territory  Greek intellectual culture is enticing (modern western world influenced by Graeco-Roman ideology)  Gymnasium demonstrates assimilation; circumcision contradicts the cult of the body  Seders demonstrate acculturation  Jews must determine how much of Greek culture they will embrace
    17. 17. The Septuagint  Translation of the Torah into Greek  Completed in Alexandria, Egypt by 70 rabbis  For Ptolemy II‟s personal library (supposedly)  Some Jews embraced the assimilation and the Greek culture/language while others believed that the Septuagint was terrible for Jewish tradition
    18. 18. Jews During the Greek Empire Life in Judea  Greek rule with Jewish autonomy  Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek were all spoken  High priest collected taxes  Great influence of Hellenism Life in the Diaspora  Introduction of synagogues; new form of worship without temple  Increasing Jewish populations; Jews concentrated in some areas
    19. 19. The Effect of Hellenism on Judea Factionalization of Jews Embrace Greeks and Hellenism Hellenizers Upper Class City dwellers Pious ones Hasidim Lower class Less urban
    20. 20. Judea Under Seleucid Rule  200 BCE – Seleucids (Syrian Greeks) take control of Judea  Jason purchases his position of high priest; Hellenization increasingly corrupts Jerusalem  175 BCE – Antiochus IV Epiphanes takes power  New priest, Menelaus, replaces Jason and steals Temple funds  168 BCE – revolt is led by Jason, but it is crushed by Antiochus; greater Greek scrutiny and encroachment on autonomy; extreme outlawing of Jewish observance and practice
    21. 21. Maccabean Revolt Maccabean Revolt begins as a guerilla war For the first time, Jews fight on Shabbat •They chose to break commandments, live, and win battles ( ) 166 BCE – Mattathias is killed in battle Judah takes command and leads the revolt into Jerusalem Antiochus dies 164 BCE – Maccabees win and retake the Temple Idols and pagan objects removed from the Temple; rededication Chanukah Story (rabbinic- miracle of oil, Book of Maccabees – military, Josephus – religious freedoms) 160 BCE – death of Judah Maccabee in battle; Jonathan takes over; war with Greece NOT OVER
    22. 22. Beginning of the Hasmonean Dynasty  5-7 years after the Chanukah miracle the Greeks were defeated militarily  Confluence of factors allow for independence for Judea and the birth of the Hasmonean Dynasty 1. Rome doesn‟t conquer but keeps Greeks in check through sphere of influence 2. Breakup of Seleucid Empire into warring factions 3. Maccabees (Judah, Jonathan…) were especially strong leaders 4. Growing population  continually growing army  Through military victory and “God said so” Maccabean leaders established their legitimacy  “Establishing your legitimacy does not mean you are illegitimate!” – Mrs. Frank
    23. 23. The Hasmonean Dynasty  140 BCE - Simon becomes the founder of the Hasmonean dynasty  Hellenization continues; building campaigns sweep Israel; coercive conversion campaign by Jews  Hasmonean leadership breaks with the people of Judea when Alexander Yonai crucifies 800 Pharisees; corrupt  Diaspora Jews remain connected to Judea  Encouraged Cleopatra to protect Judea and not alienate Jews in Egypt  37 BCE - Civil war breaks out and Rome is invited in to keep order; end of Hasmonean Dynasty
    24. 24. Meanwhile… Jewish Sectarianism  Different views of Judaism and ways of accessing the Jewish establishment emerged  From 2nd century BCE to 2nd century CE Why?  Period of transition and upheaval in response to Hellenistic influences  Urbanization leads to alienation  Problematic nature of Hasmonean leadership
    25. 25. Meanwhile… Jewish Sectarianism  Small, voluntary frameworks with unique identities  Urban, wealthy, educated people associated themselves with sects (Jerusalem society)  All sects were equally passionate about Judaism Pharisees •Progressive group of people •Forerunner of rabbinic Judaism Saducees •Connected to the priestly class •Believed Pharisaic Judaism was wrong Essenes •Emphasis on “holiness” •Communitarian rules  Zealots grew to capture the majority of the Jewish public opinion by the time of the Great Revolt
    26. 26. Dissatisfaction with Roman Rule  37 BCE - Herod ascended to the throne, hated by Jews (b/c he kills wife and opposition) but embraced by the secular population (building campaigns, strong leader)  Puppet ruler for Rome which has seized power  Rules until he dies in 4 CE  Procurators reign after Herod; bought their positions and were often corrupt  Dissatisfaction with Roman procurator rule led to increased Jewish zealotry
    27. 27. Meanwhile… The Birth of Christianity  During his lifetime, Jesus was a Jew  30 CE – Jesus was crucified (Christians blame San Hedrin, however only Romans utilize capital punishment and Christ was dangerous to Roman rule)  A Jewish sect, Christianity, emerges with innovations like baptism, proselytizing, and Graeco-Roman influences  Paul (5-67 CE) was the founder of normative Christianity, a separate religion; innovations including  Acceptance by pagans and gentiles  Freedom from Jewish law  The New Covenant: God has rejected the Jews and chosen the Christians  New theology of God: the Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
    28. 28. Meanwhile… The Birth of Christianity Religions of the Roman Empire In 30 CE  Normative Christianity grew quickly; it attracted many because  Baptism and faith were the only requirements Jewish Pagan Christian  Balanced between the more sophisticated monotheism and the generally accepted “paganism”  30 CE – first pope, St. Peter, becomes spiritual head of the religion
    29. 29. The Revolt Against Rome 66-73 CE: Great Revolt 68 CE: Destruction of Qumran 70 CE: Temple Destroyed  Proximate cause: Flavius, the emperor, disrespected Jewish sensibilities and a priest refused to offer a sacrifice on his behalf  Zealots supported the revolt while the Pharisees were split  After the revolt: 73 CE: Masada Captured  Jewish rule of Israel is over until 1948  Accommodation is the only way for Judaism to survive
    30. 30. A Departure from Temple Based Judaism  Mourning for the Temple must be permanent, but not constant  Pharisees gain power as rabbis become the prime leadership  Judaism can no longer rely on the Temple  Shift to only synagogues  “portable Judaism”
    31. 31. Dissatisfaction with Roman Rule  132-135 CE – Bar Kochba Revolt  Causes: Hadrian‟s rule was oppressive and the Jews‟ situation led to a messianic fervor  Impact: the Jews managed to hold off the Romans for a while and achieved some autonomy  Ultimately the revolt failed
    32. 32. Advances in Rabbinic Literature  220 CE – Mishnah codified by Rabbi Yehuda HaNasih  He aimed to make a framework, not a complete, definitive code, for Jews in the diaspora and for future generations
    33. 33. The Early Church and the Jews  Early Fourth Century CE – Rome adopts Christianity and Constantine moves the capital to Constantinople  Constantine kept Judaism a religio licita (permitted) as Jews are needed for the Doctrine of the Witness  Evidence of Christian superiority  Witnesses to the Bible and Jesus  Vulgate is a Latin translation of the Bible to further marginalize the Jews  361-363 CE – Julian the Apostle rejects Christianity and wishes to return to paganism; strengthens the Jews to weaken Christianity; perishes in a fire
    34. 34. Meanwhile… Developments in the 5th Century  Fifth century CE – Midrash put together; very important for diaspora Jewry as it contributed to Oral Law and clarified aspects of Written Law  Midrash Aggadah: narrative expansions  Midrash Halacha: laws and legal notes  475-476 CE – Germanic tribes and other eastern invaders bring an end to the Roman Empire
    35. 35. Jews and the Birth of Islam  Mohammed (572-632 CE) was born in Mecca; he preaches monotheism  Mohammed taught that the Torah is distorted  Islam descends from Ishmael instead of Yitzchak  Judaism and Islam share a similar calendar, law code, and are both strictly monotheistic
    36. 36. Jews and the Birth of Islam  Mohammed tries to convert Jews in Mecca to Islam, prompting some to convert and others to leave  Major conflicts between religions even though Judaism aligns closer to Islam than Christianity  Torah corrupted?  Land conflict  632 CE – Mohammed dies  638 CE – Palestine becomes a Muslim territory  750 CE – Muslim empire expands from Persia to Spain
    37. 37. Jews Under the Islamic Empire  Some Jews in Babylonia after the first exile (these Jews created the Babylonian Talmud)  A handful of Jews were in Rome and would later settle in Europe  Majority of Jews are under Muslim rule  Pact of Umar ensures minorities like Jews and Christians safety and protection but requires that they stay separate and quiet about their religions  Dhimmi status allows Jews to preserve their religion safely but assigns Jews second class status
    38. 38. Eleventh Grade Curriculum Medieval Christendom to American Jewish History
    39. 39. Jews in Medieval Christendom  1040–1105 – Rashi, and French rabbi, lived and contributed greatly to commentaries  Jewish life precarious under charters; life at the whim of the current ruler  Two periods of anti-Semitism in medieval Jewish history  Up to 13th century (Jews widely tolerated this)  13th to 15th centuries (increasing due to political, economic, ecological stress)  Blood libels targeted Jews  Accusations of host desecration  Expulsion
    40. 40. Jews in Medieval Christendom  Christians saw Jews as a necessary witness (Doctrine of the Witness) of God‟s New Covenant with the Christians  Jewish autonomy: Jews lived in a corporate unit while struggling with rabbinic authority  “Don‟t tell them because they may come to do wrong acts on purpose instead of by accident”  authority was weak  Cultural cross pollination between Jews and Christians  1290-1492 – All of Western Europe [with the exception of Italy] expelled Jews
    41. 41. Expulsions Sparked Jewish Migration Jews fled Central and Western Europe Arrived in the Polish-Lithuanian Empire Arrived in the Ottoman Empire
    42. 42. Jews in the Polish-Lithuanian Empire  Conditions deteriorated in Southern and Western Europe; after expulsion many fled to Poland  Polish nobles invited them to manage their estates  Jews had strong legal status in Poland; less precarious life  Jewish life flourished and Jews had autonomy  Yiddish remained the predominant language  Minimal integration  Council of Four Lands – representative communal organization  1648-1649 – Chimielnicki massacres leads to the murder of ¼ of the Jewish population in Poland  Peasant uprising targeting nobles
    43. 43. Meanwhile… Jews Flee to the Ottoman Empire In Spain…  1391 – Pogrom like attacks on Jews, sometimes forcing Jews to convert  1478 – Spanish Inquisition targets New Christians (Jews who converted insincerely)  1492 – Alhambra Decree expels Jews from Spain; most go to Portugal In Portugal…  1497 – Jews face forced coversion  1506 – Conversos flee to the Ottoman Empire
    44. 44. Meanwhile… Jews in the Ottoman Empire  The Ottoman Empire, and Islamic Empire, historically had good associations with the Jews  Jewish communities left to themselves  Similar status to dhimmi  Great commercial freedom; religious autonomy  Kabbalah emerges  Shabbetai Tzvi – false messiah of the period; clear that he is false when he dies
    45. 45. Era of Mercantilism  16th century – early 18th century  Mercantilism – the state exists to make money  Jews start to return to countries from which they were expelled  Jews create successful communities with some former conversos and some Ashkenazim; very close knit and not integrated with other communities; only economically integrated  Relationship with State is good; see Jews as useful and doesn‟t expel them any more; corporate community structure
    46. 46. The Birth of Chassidism  1700-1760, in Poland  BeSHT, a mystical healer with revolutionary ideas, emerges in Poland and begins the Chassidic movement  Maggid of Mezrich, the BeSHT‟s student, sent out disciples to attract people to Chassidism  Emphasis on prayer, joy, kindness toward fellow Jews, kavanah (intent with mitzvot), the centrality of the rebbe, etc.  After 1760, Mitnagdim emerge in opposition to Chassidism; they felt that Chassidism was anti-intellectual and anti-halakhic
    47. 47. Haskalah: The Jewish Enlightenment  Transition between mercantilist ideas (Jews are useful) to Enlightenment ideas (Jews are human and have some intrinsic value)  Early 18th – mid 19th centuries  Only affected Germany and only spread among the elite and well educated  Yiddish was not accepted; only German and Hebrew  Later movement spreads Jewish enlightenment thought to Eastern Europe in a different form  Yiddish is adopted as Jews prefer it to Russian and Hebrew is a dead language
    48. 48. Moses Mendelssohn  Father of the Jewish enlightenment  Encourages Jews to modernize:  Speak the vernacular (German)  Have secular educations  Join accepted trades  Be better, more loyal, more integrated citizens of their states  Declared that states had to be more accepting of Jews in return (tolerance, humanism)
    49. 49. Meanwhile… Colonial Jewry 1654-1820  1654 – Recife 23; 23 Jews come to the British North American colonies  1776 – 2000 Jews in the United States  High assimilation, low observance, pockets/communities  Primarily Sephardic
    50. 50. First Period of Emancipation  1750-1789 – Pre-emancipatory period  Affected by Enlightenment ideas  French Revolution occurs during this time  Rational humanitarianism is a belief that it is useful for a society to enfranchise its members to create a productive society; this led to emancipation
    51. 51. Second Period of Emancipation  1789-1871 – Emancipatory period  Started with France and ended with Germany  Non-Jewish enlightened thinkers are reluctant to extend rights despite enlightenment thought
    52. 52. Emancipation in France  1790 - Sephardim (seemingly more sophisticated) are emancipated before Ashkenazim  1791 - Berr Isaac Berr wrote “A Letter to my Fellow Citizens” telling the Ashkenazim of Alsace Lorraine how to integrate to make the French like them; actually targeted the French  1806 – Napoleon convenes the Assembly of Jewish Notables to answer 12 questions on behalf of the Jewish community; sends a message to Napoleon, the French, the Jewish people, and the world  1807 – Napoleon convenes the Sanhedrin to ratify the Assembly‟s answers, setting a standard for the international Jewish community and yielding more control to Napoleon
    53. 53. Emancipation in Germany  To attain emancipation, Jews had to become cultural Germans  Religious reform  Aesthetic – organs, vernacular sermons  Ideological – “temples,” removing Hebrew, Temple references, sacrifice references, abandoning ritual halakha  1818 – first Reform Temple: Hamburg Temple
    54. 54. Neo-Orthodoxy: A Reaction to Reform in Germany  In Germany, Rabbi Samson Rafael Hirsch (1808-1888) led this new movement in response to Reform‟s declaration that ritual law was no longer binding  Encouraged aesthetic reform and secular education  Did not encourage getting rid of messianism, abandoning Israel, removing Hebrew
    55. 55. Incarceration in Russia  1796 – Catherine creates the Pale of Settlement to avoid integration with the Jews; here the Jews are forced to lived  1827 – cantonism, a policy of forced conscription for Jews in the French army, led to many conversions and young Jews dying  Crown schools were created by the czars to appear as Jewish day school but actually encourage assimilation and conversion  Jews were not welcome to integrate; did not want to integrate; were too big of an impoverished population  Led to the formation of political movements like socialism, nationalism, and Eastern European Zionism (1870s)
    56. 56. Third Period of Emancipation  1871-1945 – Backlash period  Jews integrated but still not liked  Resurgence of anti-Semitism in this period  1881, Poland – Alexander II assassinated and rumors blame Jews, leading to pogroms  prompts a massive migration of Eastern European Jews west to the US and Palestine from 1881-1924  1894 – Dreyfus Affair: French Jewish soldier unfairly convicted of treason  Inspires Herzel to push for a Jewish state because assimilation is not working
    57. 57. Meanwhile… German Migration 1820-1880  Population increases from 5,000 to 250,000  60% German, 40% Eastern European  First rabbi, rabbinical school (Hebrew Union College)  Minimal rabbinic authority
    58. 58. Meanwhile… Eastern European Migration 1880-1924  Population increases from 250,000 to 5.5 million  Quota Act restricts vast waves of immigrants  Yiddish emerges in the US  1902 – JTS founded  1916 – YU founded
    59. 59. Emancipation Turns to AntiSemitism Turns to Nazism  1902 – Protocols of the Elders of Zion: created by the Russian secret police; a fake account of Jews planning to take over the world  1911 – Bellis Affair: Jews is accused of ritually murdering a Christian boy Western Europe Eastern Europe Created advocacy organizations for Jews in trouble Lots of political activity •Socialists •Zionists •Anarchists Emigration in mass numbers Sent monetary aid to E.E. Jews Wary that E.E. Jews‟ status would jeopardize their status in Western civilization
    60. 60. World War I  August 1, 1914 – November 11, 1918  1.5 million Jews in armies across Europe  Jews excited for war effort; excited to show loyalty to countries
    61. 61. The Holocaust 1933 – Hitler comes to power without being elected by a majority; overstepped his authority November 9-10, 1938 – Kristallnacht; “The Night of the Broken Glass” September 21, 1939 – Heydrich Order calls for Jews to become concentrated in areas near railroads for the purpose of deportation The Holocaust begins in 1939 1941-1942 – The term “final solution” is used as extermination is decided upon 1945 – The Holocaust ends after 6 million Jews have perished
    62. 62. Meanwhile… Interwar & WWII Years 1924-1945  Jewish community nervous by the tumult across seas  In the US, Jews remain reasonably comfortable and safe
    63. 63. The End Until the twelfth grade curriculum: “Zionism & Israel”