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  • 1. By: Beth Barger
  • 2. Down Syndrome Definition  Down Syndrome is a genetic disorder in which a person is born with an extra copy of chromosome 21.  Normally each egg & sperm cell contain 23 chromosomes  The union of these create 23 pairs or 46 total chromosomes  Occasionally, an egg or sperm cell does not develop properly & contributes 24 chromosomes instead of 23
  • 3. Down Syndrome  English physician John Langdon Down first characterized down syndrome as a distinct form of mental disability in 1862  He noticed that all kids with down syndrome had the same facial features 
  • 4. Who does it affect…  Down Syndrome affects people of all ages, races, religious backgrounds and economic situations  There is no definite way of knowing which parents will have a cell that contains 24 chromosomes  For every 800 babies born only 1 will have down syndrome  It occurs in all races, social classes and in all countries throughout the world
  • 5. Features of Down Syndrome  May have eyes that slant upward  Small ears that fold over at the top  Small mouth, making the tongue appear large  Small nose, with a flattened nasal bridge  Some babies may have short necks, small fingers, and small hands  Adults are often short with unusually limber joints
  • 6. Treatment Options  There is no cure for down syndrome  However, children born with the condition can lead productive lives but will just be at a delayed pace  Children with down syndrome can attend school and many join regular classes  They are also usually able to participate in recreational, vocational and social activities in their communities
  • 7. Affects on child in classroom  Children with down syndrome can have hearing and sight problems, low muscle tone, speech intelligibility, memory problems and increased sensitivity to loud noises and vibrations  Not all children with down syndrome will experience other health related problems  Individuals with Down syndrome have varying degrees of abilities, skills, behavior and physical development. Their learning deficits result from different learning styles rather than learning impediments.
  • 8. How Does Teacher Meet Needs…  Low Muscle Tone  Allow extra time to complete task  Support fine motor development use with wrist and finger strengthening activities  Provide opportunities for self-help skills (ex buttons and zippers)
  • 9. Continued…  Speech Intelligibility  Due to down syndrome children often exhibit great differences between receptive (understanding) and expressive (spoken language production) language abilitity  Teacher needs to recognize situational factors (impatient listener, embarrassment, lack of confidence)  Teach peers how to engage in meaningful interactions  Use simple questions and allow ample response time
  • 10. Continued…  Memory  Most students with down syndrome will have short term or working memory difficulties  Teacher need to allow more time to learn and allow more practice to apply knowledge  Present all information clearly
  • 11. Continued…  Vision  place student at front of class  Speak directly to student  Use visual aids (ex write on the boards)  Use larger font
  • 12. Continued…  Compact ear, nose, and throat  Due to compact ear, nose, and throat there can be increased sensitivity to loud noises and vibrations  Teachers need to be aware of noises in and around classrooms  If appropriate allow the child to wear headphones
  • 13. Teacher Expectations  Teachers expectations with children with down syndrome should be to have goals that are achievable, measured, and meaningful all while based on students individual achievement level
  • 14. References &rls=en&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=mVVfUoTPI4q4AOzzoHQCg&ved=0CAkQ_AUoAQ&biw=1439&bih=695