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  1. 1. By: Beth Barger
  2. 2. Down Syndrome Definition  Down Syndrome is a genetic disorder in which a person is born with an extra copy of chromosome 21.  Normally each egg & sperm cell contain 23 chromosomes  The union of these create 23 pairs or 46 total chromosomes  Occasionally, an egg or sperm cell does not develop properly & contributes 24 chromosomes instead of 23
  3. 3. Down Syndrome  English physician John Langdon Down first characterized down syndrome as a distinct form of mental disability in 1862  He noticed that all kids with down syndrome had the same facial features 
  4. 4. Who does it affect…  Down Syndrome affects people of all ages, races, religious backgrounds and economic situations  There is no definite way of knowing which parents will have a cell that contains 24 chromosomes  For every 800 babies born only 1 will have down syndrome  It occurs in all races, social classes and in all countries throughout the world
  5. 5. Features of Down Syndrome  May have eyes that slant upward  Small ears that fold over at the top  Small mouth, making the tongue appear large  Small nose, with a flattened nasal bridge  Some babies may have short necks, small fingers, and small hands  Adults are often short with unusually limber joints
  6. 6. Treatment Options  There is no cure for down syndrome  However, children born with the condition can lead productive lives but will just be at a delayed pace  Children with down syndrome can attend school and many join regular classes  They are also usually able to participate in recreational, vocational and social activities in their communities
  7. 7. Affects on child in classroom  Children with down syndrome can have hearing and sight problems, low muscle tone, speech intelligibility, memory problems and increased sensitivity to loud noises and vibrations  Not all children with down syndrome will experience other health related problems  Individuals with Down syndrome have varying degrees of abilities, skills, behavior and physical development. Their learning deficits result from different learning styles rather than learning impediments.
  8. 8. How Does Teacher Meet Needs…  Low Muscle Tone  Allow extra time to complete task  Support fine motor development use with wrist and finger strengthening activities  Provide opportunities for self-help skills (ex buttons and zippers)
  9. 9. Continued…  Speech Intelligibility  Due to down syndrome children often exhibit great differences between receptive (understanding) and expressive (spoken language production) language abilitity  Teacher needs to recognize situational factors (impatient listener, embarrassment, lack of confidence)  Teach peers how to engage in meaningful interactions  Use simple questions and allow ample response time
  10. 10. Continued…  Memory  Most students with down syndrome will have short term or working memory difficulties  Teacher need to allow more time to learn and allow more practice to apply knowledge  Present all information clearly
  11. 11. Continued…  Vision  place student at front of class  Speak directly to student  Use visual aids (ex write on the boards)  Use larger font
  12. 12. Continued…  Compact ear, nose, and throat  Due to compact ear, nose, and throat there can be increased sensitivity to loud noises and vibrations  Teachers need to be aware of noises in and around classrooms  If appropriate allow the child to wear headphones
  13. 13. Teacher Expectations  Teachers expectations with children with down syndrome should be to have goals that are achievable, measured, and meaningful all while based on students individual achievement level
  14. 14. References &rls=en&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=mVVfUoTPI4q4AOzzoHQCg&ved=0CAkQ_AUoAQ&biw=1439&bih=695