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    Modern world history textbook social tb Modern world history textbook social tb Document Transcript

    • Senior Consultants Roger B. Beck, Ph.D. Roger B. Beck is Distinguished Professor of African, World, and 20th Century World History at Eastern Illinois University. Having taught at international schools in Tokyo, Paris, and London, Dr. Beck also supervised student teachers and taught Social Studies Methods at Eastern for many years. In addition to a long teaching career at high school, college, and graduate school levels, Dr. Beck has published extensively, including authoring The History of South Africa and co-authoring the college world history text A History of World Societies. He has also published more than 100 book chapters, journal articles, and book reviews. He is a recipient of two Fulbright fellowships, and is an active member of the African Studies Association and the World History Association. Linda Black, B.A., M.Ed. Linda Black teaches World History at Cypress Falls High School in Houston, Texas, and has had a distinguished career in education as a teacher of world history, American history, and Texas history. In 1993–1994, Mrs. Black was named an Outstanding Secondary Social Studies Teacher in the United States by the National Council for the Social Studies. In 1996, she was elected to the Board of Directors of the National Council for the Social Studies. She is an active member of that council, the Texas Council for the Social Studies, and the World History Association. She served on the College Board Test Development for Advanced Placement World History from 1995 to 2003. Larry S. Krieger, B.A., M.A., M.A.T. Larry S. Krieger is the social studies supervisor for grades K-12 in Montgomery Township Public Schools in New Jersey. For 26 years he has taught world history in public schools. He has also introduced many innovative in-service programs, such as “Putting the Story Back in History,” and has co-authored several successful history textbooks. Mr. Krieger earned his B.A. and M.A.T. from the University of North Carolina and his M.A. from Wake Forest University. Phillip C. Naylor, Ph.D. Phillip C. Naylor is an associate professor of history at Marquette University and teaches European, North African, and West Asian undergraduate and graduate courses. He was the director of the Western Civilization program for nine years where he inaugurated a “transcultural approach” to the teaching of the traditional survey. He has authored France and Algeria: A History of Decolonization and Transformation, coauthored The Historical Dictionary of Algeria, and coedited State and Society in Algeria. He has published numerous articles, papers, and reviews, and produced CD-ROM projects. In 1996, Dr. Naylor received the Reverend John P. Raynor, S.J., Faculty Award for Teaching Excellence at Marquette University. In 1992, he received the Edward G. Roddy Teaching Award at Merrimack College. Dahia Ibo Shabaka, B.A., M.A., Ed.S. Dahia Ibo Shabaka is the director of Social Studies and African-Centered Education in the Detroit Public Schools system. She has an extensive educational and scholarly background in the disciplines of history, political science, economics, law, and reading, and in secondary education, curriculum development, and school administration and supervision. Ms. Shabaka has been a teacher, a curriculum coordinator, and a supervisor of social studies in the Detroit Secondary Schools. In 1991 she was named Social Studies Educator of the Year by the Michigan Council for the Social Studies. Ms. Shabaka is the recipient of a Fulbright Fellowship at the Hebrew University in Israel and has served as an executive board member of the National Social Studies Supervisors Association. Copyright © 2009 by McDougal Littell, a division of Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Maps on pages A2–A47 © Rand McNally & Company. All rights reserved. Warning: No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission of McDougal Littell unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. With the exception of not-for-profit transcription in Braille, McDougal Littell is not authorized to grant permission for further uses of copyrighted selections reprinted in this text without the permission of their owners. Permission must be obtained from the individual copyright owners as identified herein. Address inquiries to Supervisor, Rights and Permissions, McDougal Littell, P.O. Box 1667, Evanston, IL 60204. Acknowledgments begin on page R135. ISBN-10: 0-547-03475-X ISBN-13: 978-0-547-03475-1 Printed in the United States of America. X 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9–DJM–12 11 10 09 08 iv This text contains material that appeared originally in World History: Perspectives on the Past (D.C. Heath and Company) by Larry S. Krieger, Kenneth Neill, and Dr. Edward Reynolds.
    • Consultants and Reviewers Content Consultants The content consultants reviewed the content for historical depth and accuracy and for clarity of presentation. Jerry Bentley Don Holsinger Wolfgang Schlauch Scott Waugh Department of History University of Hawaii Honolulu, Hawaii Department of History Seattle Pacific University Seattle, Washington Marc Brettler Patrick Manning Department of History Eastern Illinois University Charleston, Illinois Department of History University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, California Department of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies Brandeis University Waltham, Massachusetts World History Center Department of History Northeastern University Boston, Massachusetts Steve Gosch Department of History University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois Department of History University of Wisconsin at Eau Claire Eau Claire, Wisconsin Richard Saller Susan Schroeder Department of History Loyola University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois Multicultural Advisory Board Consultants The multicultural advisers reviewed the manuscript for appropriate historical content. Pat A. Brown Mary Ellen Maddox Jon Reyhner Ysidro Valenzuela Director of the Indianapolis Public Schools Office of African Centered Multicultural Education Indianapolis Public Schools Indianapolis, Indiana Black Education Commission Director Los Angeles Unified School District Los Angeles, California Associate Professor and Coordinator of the Bilingual Multicultural Education Program Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, Arizona Fresno High School Fresno, California Ogle B. Duff Associate Professor of English University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Teacher Review Panels The following educators provided ongoing review during the development of prototypes, the table of contents, and key components of the program. Patrick Adams Craig T. Grace Harry McCown Linda Stevens Pasadena High School Pasadena, Texas Lanier High School West Austin, Texas Hazelwood West High School Hazelwood, Missouri Central High School San Angelo, Texas Bruce Bekemeyer Katie Ivey Terry McRae Leonard Sullivan Marquette High School Chesterfield, Missouri Dimmitt High School Dimmitt, Texas Robert E. Lee High School Tyler, Texas Pattonville High School Maryland Hts., Missouri Ellen Bell Gary Kasprovich Joseph Naumann (retired) Carole Weeden Bellaire High School Bellaire, Texas Granite City High School Granite City, Illinois McCluer North High School Florissant, Missouri Margaret Campbell Pat Knapp Sherrie Prahl Fort Zumwalt South High School St. Peters, Missouri Central High School St. Louis, Missouri Burgess High School El Paso, Texas The Woodlands High School The Woodlands, Texas Nancy Coates Eric R. Larson Dorothy Schulze Belleville East High School Belleville, Illinois Clark High School Plano, Texas Health Careers High School San Antonio, Texas Kim Coil Linda Marrs Liz Silva Francis Howell North High School St. Charles, Missouri Naaman Forest High School Garland, Texas Townview Magnet Center Dallas, Texas Rita Wylie Parkway West Sr. High School Ballwin, Missouri v
    • Reviewers (continued) Teacher Consultants Glenn Bird Paul Fitzgerald Myra Osman Springville High School Springville, Utah Estancia High School Costa Mesa, California Michael Cady Craig T. Grace Homewood Flossmoor High School Flossmoor, Illinois North High School Phoenix, Arizona Lanier High School West Austin, Texas William Canter Joy McKee Guilford High School Rockford, Illinois Lamar High School Arlington, Texas Nancy Coates Terry McRae Belleville East High School Belleville, Illinois Robert E. Lee High School Tyler, Texas Dorothy Schulze Health Careers High School Dallas, Texas Linda Stevens Central High School San Angelo, Texas The following educators wrote activities for the program. Charlotte Albaugh Jan Ellersieck Robert Parker Grand Prairie High School Grand Prairie, Texas Ft. Zummalt South High School St. Peters, Missouri St. Margaret’s High School San Juan Capistrano, California Mark Aguirre Craig T. Grace Janet Rogolsky Scripps Ranch High School San Diego, California Lanier High School West Austin, Texas Sylvania Southview High School Sylvania, Ohio Sharon Ballard Korri Kinney Dorothy Schulze L.D. Bell High School Hurst, Texas Meridian High School Meridian, Idaho Health Careers High School San Antonio, Texas Bryon Borgelt Jerome Love Evelyn Sims St. John’s Jesuit High School Toledo, Ohio Beaumont High School St. Louis, Missouri Skyline Center High School Dallas, Texas William Brown (retired) Melissa Mack Brenda Smith Northeast High School Philadelphia, Pennsylvania St. Margaret’s High School San Juan Capistrano, California Colorado Springs School District 11 Colorado Springs, Colorado Haley Brice Clark Harry McCown Linda Stevens DeBakey Health Prof. High School Houston, Texas Hazelwood West High School Hazelwood, Missouri Central High School San Angelo, Texas John Devine Terry McRae Leonard Sullivan Elgin High School Elgin, Illinois Robert E. Lee High School Tyler, Texas Pattonville High School Maryland Heights, Missouri Karen Dingeldein Joseph Naumann (retired) Linda Tillis Cudahy High School Cudahy, Wisconsin McCluer North High School Florissant, Missouri South Oak Cliff High School Dallas, Texas Joanne Dodd Theresa C. Noonan Andrew White Scarborough High School Houston, Texas West Irondequoit High School Rochester, New York Morrow High School Clayton, Georgia vi
    • Reviewers (continued) Student Board The following students reviewed prototype materials for the textbook. LaShaunda Allen Iman Jalali Nicholas Price Weston High School Greenville, MS Glenbrook North High School Northbrook, IL Brandy Andreas Vivek Makhijani Central Lafourche Senior High School Mathews, LA Rayburn High School Pasadena, TX Durfee High School Fall River, MA Adam Bishop Todd McDavitt Jordan High School Sandy, UT Derby High School Derby, KS Jennifer Bragg Teniqua Mitchell Midlothian High School Midlothian, VA Linden-McKinley High School Columbus, OH Nicole Fevry Cicely Nash Midwood High School Brooklyn, NY Edmond Memorial High School Edmond, OK Phillip Gallegos Brian Nebrensky Hilltop High School Chula Vista, CA Hillsboro High School Hillsboro, OR Matt Gave Jesse Neumyer Stevenson Senior High School Sterling Heights, MI Cumberland Valley High School Mechanicsburg, PA Blair Hogan Nora Patronas Leesville Road High School Raleigh, NC Alba High School Bayou La Batre, LA Ngoc Hong Lindsey Petersen Watkins Mill Senior High School Gaithersburg, MD Stoughton High School Stoughton, WI Ben Richey Fort Vancouver High School Vancouver, WA Karen Ryan Silver Creek High School San Jose, CA Matt Shaver Weatherford High School Weatherford, TX Richie Spitler Atlantic High School Port Orange, FL Jessie Stoneberg Burnsville High School Burnsville, MN Kelly Swick Ocean Township High School Oakhurst, NJ Jason Utzig Kenmore East High School Tonawanda, NY Justin Woodly North Cobb High School Kennesaw, GA vii
    • 4 million B.C.–200 B.C. Beginnings of Civilization Introduction World Atlas Strategies for Taking Standardized Tests A1 PART 1: Strategies for Studying History PART 2: Test-Taking Strategies and Practice S2 S6 ● S1 CHAPTER 1 Prehistory–2500 B.C. The Peopling of the World 1 Human Origins in Africa ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Culture HISTORY THROUGH ART: Cave Paintings 2 Humans Try to Control Nature 3 Civilization Tutankhamen death mask (page 39) CASE STUDY Ur in Sumer ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Civilization ● 2 5 6 12 14 19 21 CHAPTER 2 3500 B.C.–450 B.C. Early River Valley Civilizations 1 City-States in Mesopotamia 2 Pyramids on the Nile HISTORY IN DEPTH: Pyramids and Mummies SOCIAL HISTORY: Work and Play in Ancient Egypt 3 Planned Cities on the Indus SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Plumbing in Mohenjo-Daro 4 River Dynasties in China ● 26 29 35 39 42 44 47 50 CHAPTER 3 2000 B.C.–250 B.C Hebrew Flood Story art (page 83) People and Ideas on the Move 58 1 The Indo-Europeans 2 Hinduism and Buddhism Develop 3 Seafaring Traders 61 66 72 75 77 80 83 HISTORY IN DEPTH: Phoenician Trade 4 The Origins of Judaism ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Judaism DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: The Flood Story ● CHAPTER 4 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. First Age of Empires 1 The Egyptian and Nubian Empires HISTORY IN DEPTH: Egyptian Influence on Nubian Culture 2 The Assyrian Empire 3 The Persian Empire GLOBAL IMPACT: Empire Building 4 The Unification of China HISTORY IN DEPTH: The Great Wall of China Great Wall of China (page 108) viii COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: Ancient Civilizations 86 89 92 95 99 102 104 108 112
    • 2000 B.C.–A.D. 700 New Directions in Government and Society ● CHAPTER 5 2000 B.C.–300 B.C. Classical Greece 1 Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea 2 Warring City-States HISTORY IN DEPTH: Festivals and Sports 3 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age HISTORY THROUGH ART: Greek Art and Architecture 4 Alexander’s Empire 5 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture ● 120 123 127 130 134 140 142 146 CHAPTER 6 500 B.C.–A.D. 500 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity 1 The Roman Republic 2 The Roman Empire SOCIAL HISTORY: Life in a Roman Villa 3 The Rise of Christianity 4 The Fall of the Roman Empire DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: The Fall of the Roman Empire 5 Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Western Civilization SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: The Colosseum ● 152 155 160 166 168 173 177 178 180 182 Roman fresco, Pompeii, Italy (page 167) CHAPTER 7 400 B.C.–A.D. 550 India and China Establish Empires 186 1 India’s First Empires 2 Trade Spreads Indian Religions and Culture 189 193 198 200 204 HISTORY THROUGH ART: Hindu and Buddhist Art 3 Han Emperors in China GLOBAL IMPACT: Trade Networks ● CHAPTER 8 1500 B.C.–A.D. 700 African Civilizations 1 Diverse Societies in Africa SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: African Ironworking 210 213 218 Asoka’s lions (page 190) 2 Migration CASE STUDY Bantu-Speaking Peoples 3 The Kingdom of Aksum ● 220 225 CHAPTER 9 40,000 B.C.–A.D. 700 The Americas: A Separate World 1 The Earliest Americans 2 Early Mesoamerican Civilizations HISTORY THROUGH ART: Olmec Sculpture 3 Early Civilizations of the Andes HISTORY IN DEPTH: Nazca Lines COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: Classical Ages 232 235 240 244 246 248 252 Kuba mask, Africa (page 224) ix
    • 500–1500 An Age of Exchange and Encounter ● CHAPTER 10 600–1250 The Muslim World 260 1 The Rise of Islam SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Astronomy 263 266 269 273 275 WORLD RELIGIONS AND ETHICAL SYSTEMS 282 ANALYZING ARCHITECTURE: The Dome of the Rock 2 Islam Expands 3 Muslim Culture Dome of the Rock (page 266) Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Confucianism 284 286 288 290 292 294 ● CHAPTER 11 500–1500 Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact 1 The Byzantine Empire ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy 2 The Russian Empire HISTORY THROUGH ART: Russian Religious Art and Architecture 11th century Byzantine cross (page 301) 3 Turkish Empires Rise in Anatolia ● 298 301 305 307 312 314 CHAPTER 12 600–1350 Empires in East Asia 1 Tang and Song China SOCIAL HISTORY: Tang and Song China: People and Technology 2 The Mongol Conquests HISTORY IN DEPTH: A Mighty Fighting Force 3 The Mongol Empire 4 Feudal Powers in Japan HISTORY IN DEPTH: Japanese Samurai 5 Kingdoms of Southeast Asia and Korea Tang and Song China, movable type (page 329) x 320 323 328 330 332 335 339 342 344
    • ● CHAPTER 13 500–1200 European Middle Ages 1 Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms 2 Feudalism in Europe ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Feudalism 3 The Age of Chivalry SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Castles and Siege Weapons 4 The Power of the Church ● 350 353 358 361 364 366 370 CHAPTER 14 800–1500 The Formation of Western Europe 1 Church Reform and the Crusades HISTORY IN DEPTH: Gothic Architecture DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: The Crusades 2 Changes in Medieval Society 3 England and France Develop 4 The Hundred Years’ War and the Plague GLOBAL IMPACT: The Spread of Epidemic Disease ● 376 379 381 386 387 393 398 400 Illuminated manuscript (page 354) CHAPTER 15 800–1500 Societies and Empires of Africa 406 1 North and Central African Societies 2 West African Civilizations 409 413 420 422 426 HISTORY THROUGH ART: Benin Bronzes 3 Eastern City-States and Southern Empires ANALYZING ARCHITECTURE: Great Zimbabwe COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: Trade Networks 430 Emperor Charlemagne (page 357) Benin sculpture (page 421) xi
    • 500–1800 Connecting Hemispheres ● CHAPTER 16 500–1500 People and Empires in the Americas 1 North American Societies 2 Maya Kings and Cities HISTORY THROUGH ART: Maya Architecture 3 The Aztecs Control Central Mexico HISTORY IN DEPTH: The Aztec Calendar 4 The Inca Create a Mountain Empire SOCIAL HISTORY: Incan Mummies ● 438 441 446 450 452 457 459 464 CHAPTER 17 1300–1600 European Renaissance and Reformation Elizabeth I of England (page 493) 1 Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance HISTORY THROUGH ART: Renaissance Ideas Influence Renaissance Art 2 The Northern Renaissance SOCIAL HISTORY: City Life in Renaissance Europe 3 Luther Leads the Reformation ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Protestantism 4 The Reformation Continues DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: The Reformation ● 468 471 478 480 486 488 491 495 501 CHAPTER 18 1300–1700 The Muslim World Expands 1 The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire 2 Cultural Blending CASE STUDY The Safavid Empire 3 The Mughal Empire in India Safavid shah (page 506) HISTORY THROUGH ART: Cultural Blending in Mughal India ● 504 507 512 516 522 CHAPTER 19 1400–1800 An Age of Explorations and Isolation 1 Europeans Explore the East SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: The Tools of Exploration 2 China Limits European Contacts HISTORY IN DEPTH: The Forbidden City 3 Japan Returns to Isolation ● 526 529 531 536 538 542 CHAPTER 20 1492–1800 The Atlantic World 1 Spain Builds an American Empire DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: The Legacy of Columbus Early globe (page 529) 2 European Nations Settle North America 3 The Atlantic Slave Trade 4 The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade GLOBAL IMPACT: Food Exchange ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Mercantilism xii COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: Methods of Government 550 553 560 561 566 571 572 574 578
    • 1500–1900 Absolutism to Revolution ● CHAPTER 21 1500–1800 Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Absolutism 2 The Reign of Louis XIV HISTORY IN DEPTH: The Palace at Versailles 3 Central European Monarchs Clash 4 Absolute Rulers of Russia SOCIAL HISTORY: Surviving the Russian Winter 5 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy ● 586 589 594 596 600 603 608 612 614 CHAPTER 22 1550–1789 Enlightenment and Revolution 1 The Scientific Revolution 2 The Enlightenment in Europe DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: European Values During the Enlightenment 3 The Enlightenment Spreads 4 The American Revolution ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Democracy ● 620 Louis XIV of France (page 588) 623 629 635 636 640 643 CHAPTER 23 1789–1815 The French Revolution and Napoleon 1 The French Revolution Begins 2 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: The Guillotine DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: The French Revolution 3 Napoleon Forges an Empire 4 Napoleon’s Empire Collapses 5 The Congress of Vienna ● 648 651 656 659 662 663 668 672 Early telescope (page 626) CHAPTER 24 1789–1900 Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West 1 Latin American Peoples Win Independence GLOBAL IMPACT: Struggling Toward Democracy 2 Europe Faces Revolutions ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Nationalism 678 681 684 687 688 3 Nationalism HISTORY THROUGH ART: Revolutions in Painting 692 698 702 COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: Political Revolutions 706 CASE STUDY Italy and Germany 4 Revolutions in the Arts Riots in Paris (page 690) xiii
    • 1700–1914 Industrialism and the Race for Empire ● CHAPTER 25 1700–1900 The Industrial Revolution 1 The Beginnings of Industrialization GLOBAL IMPACT: Revolutions in Technology 714 717 719 2 Industrialization CASE STUDY Manchester ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Industrialization 3 Industrialization Spreads 4 Reforming the Industrial World ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Capitalism vs. Socialism DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: Industrialization ● 723 727 729 734 737 741 CHAPTER 26 1815–1914 An Age of Democracy and Progress Singer sewing machine (page 720) 1 Democratic Reform and Activism 2 Self-Rule for British Colonies SOCIAL HISTORY: Life in Early Australia 3 War and Expansion in the United States 4 Nineteenth-Century Progress SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Edison’s Inventions ● 744 747 751 756 758 762 763 CHAPTER 27 1850–1914 The Age of Imperialism 770 1 The Scramble for Africa 2 Imperialism 773 CASE STUDY Nigeria ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Imperialism DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: Views of Imperialism Marie Curie (page 765) 3 Europeans Claim Muslim Lands 4 British Imperialism in India 5 Imperialism in Southeast Asia ● 779 780 785 786 791 796 CHAPTER 28 1800–1914 Transformations Around the Globe 1 China Resists Outside Influence 2 Modernization in Japan HISTORY THROUGH ART: Japanese Woodblock Printing 3 U.S. Economic Imperialism SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Panama Canal 4 Turmoil and Change in Mexico COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: Scientific and Technological Changes England as an octopus in an American political cartoon (page 785) xiv 802 805 810 814 816 820 822 830
    • 1900–1945 The World at War ● CHAPTER 29 1914–1918 The Great War 1 Marching Toward War 2 Europe Plunges into War HISTORY IN DEPTH: The New Weapons of War SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Military Aviation 3 A Global Conflict DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: Views of War 4 A Flawed Peace ● 838 841 845 848 850 851 857 858 Machine gun (page 848) CHAPTER 30 1900–1939 Revolution and Nationalism 1 Revolutions in Russia ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Communism 864 867 872 2 Totalitarianism CASE STUDY Stalinist Russia ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Totalitarianism HISTORY THROUGH ART: Propaganda 3 Imperial China Collapses HISTORY IN DEPTH: The Long March 4 Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia ● 874 875 880 882 885 887 CHAPTER 31 1919–1939 Years of Crisis 1 Postwar Uncertainty SOCIAL HISTORY: Labor-Saving Devices in the United States 2 A Worldwide Depression 3 Fascism Rises in Europe ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Fascism 4 Aggressors Invade Nations ● 894 897 902 904 910 911 915 Mohandas K. Gandhi (page 866) CHAPTER 32 1939–1945 World War II 1 2 3 4 Hitler’s Lightning War Japan’s Pacific Campaign The Holocaust The Allied Victory GLOBAL IMPACT: Arming for War 5 Europe and Japan in Ruins COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: The Changing Nature of Warfare 922 925 931 936 940 946 948 954 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (page 932) xv
    • 1945–Present Perspectives on the Present ● CHAPTER 33 1945–Present Restructuring the Postwar World 1 Cold War: Superpowers Face Off SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: The Space Race 2 Communists Take Power in China 3 Wars in Korea and Vietnam 4 The Cold War Divides the World HISTORY IN DEPTH: How the Cold War Was Fought 5 The Cold War Thaws ● 962 965 971 972 976 982 983 988 CHAPTER 34 1945–Present Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin (page 965) The Colonies Become New Nations 994 1 The Indian Subcontinent Achieves Freedom 2 Southeast Asian Nations Gain Independence 997 1004 1010 1012 1017 1022 1024 SOCIAL HISTORY: Changing Times in Southeast Asia 3 New Nations in Africa 4 Conflicts in the Middle East HISTORY IN DEPTH: Signs of Hope 5 Central Asia Struggles ● CHAPTER 35 1945–Present Struggles for Democracy 1030 1 Democracy CASE STUDY Latin American Democracies 2 The Challenge of Democracy in Africa 3 The Collapse of the Soviet Union 4 Changes in Central and Eastern Europe HISTORY IN DEPTH: Ethnic Groups in the Former Yugoslavia Nelson Mandela (page 1044) 5 China: Reform and Reaction HISTORY THROUGH ART: Photojournalism ● 1033 1040 1046 1052 1057 1059 1064 CHAPTER 36 1960–Present Global Interdependence 1 The Impact of Science and Technology 2 Global Economic Development ANALYZING KEY CONCEPTS: Globalization DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: Economics and the Environment 3 Global Security Issues 4 Terrorism CASE STUDY September 11, 2001 5 Cultures Blend in a Global Age GLOBAL IMPACT: Rock ‘n’ Roll ISS satellite (page 1072) xvi COMPARING AND CONTRASTING: Nation Building 1068 1071 1075 1078 1081 1082 1087 1093 1094 1100
    • Skillbuilder Handbook R1 Section 1: Reading Critically 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Determining Main Ideas Following Chronological Order Clarifying; Summarizing Identifying Problems and Solutions Analyzing Causes and Recognizing Effects Comparing and Contrasting Distinguishing Fact from Opinion R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 Section 2: Higher-Order Critical Thinking 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Categorizing Making Inferences Drawing Conclusions Developing Historical Perspective Formulating Historical Questions Making Predictions Hypothesizing Analyzing Motives Analyzing Issues Analyzing Bias Evaluating Decisions and Courses of Action Forming and Supporting Opinions Synthesizing R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 Section 3: Exploring Evidence: Print, Visual, Technology Sources 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Analyzing Primary and Secondary Sources Visual, Audio, and Multimedia Sources Using the Internet Interpreting Maps Interpreting Charts Interpreting Graphs Analyzing Political Cartoons Section 4: Creating Presentations 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Writing for Social Studies Creating a Map Creating Charts and Graphs Creating and Using a Database Creating a Model Creating/Interpreting a Research Outline Creating Oral Presentations Creating Written Presentations Primary Source Handbook Rig Veda, Creation Hymn Bible, Psalm 23 Confucius, Analects Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War Plato, The Apology Tacitus, Annals Qur’an Sei Shonagon, The Pillow Book Magna Carta Popol Vuh Niccol` Machiavelli, The Prince o Sir Thomas More, Utopia James Madison, The Federalist, “Number 51” R22 R23 R24 R25 R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36 R37 R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44 R45 R46 R47 R48 R49 R50 R51 R52 Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, Memoirs of Madame Vigée-Lebrun Sadler Committee, Report on Child Labor Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address Elizabeth Cady Stanton, The Natural Rights of Civilized Women Woodrow Wilson, The Fourteen Points Elie Wiesel, Night Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and James D. Houston, Farewell to Manzanar Nelson Mandela, Inaugural Address Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have a Dream Cesar Chavez, An Open Letter R53 R54 R55 R56 R57 R58 R59 R60 R61 R62 R63 Economics Handbook R64 Glossary R76 Spanish Glossary R92 xvii
    • Patterns of Interaction Video Series Each video in the series Patterns of Interaction relates to a Global Impact feature in the text. These eight exciting videos show how cultural interactions have shaped our world and how patterns in history continue to the present day. Volume 1 Building Empires Volume 3 Struggling Toward Democracy The Rise of the Persians and the Inca Revolutions in Latin America and South Africa Watch the Persian and Incan empires expand and rule other peoples, with unexpected results for both conquered and conquering cultures. Examine the impact of democratic ideas that incite people to join revolutions in 19th-century Latin America and 20th-century South Africa. Trade Connects the World Technology Transforms an Age Silk Roads and the Pacific Rim The Industrial and Electronic Revolutions Explore the legendary trade routes of the Silk Roads and the modern trade in the Pacific Rim, and notice how both affect much more than economics. See how another kind of revolution, caused by innovations in industry and communication, brings change to the modern world. Volume 2 The Spread of Epidemic Disease Volume 4 Arming for War Bubonic Plague and Smallpox Modern and Medieval Weapons Look for sweeping calamities and incredible consequences when interacting peoples bring devastating diseases to one another. The Geography of Food The Impact of Potatoes and Sugar Cultural Crossroads Notice how the introduction of new foods to a region provides security to some and spells disaster for others. The Bubonic Plague that swept repeatedly was a killer disease Death, some The bubonic plague, or Black irds of the population in world. It wiped out two-th through many areas of the Southwest Asia, and then tions of Muslim towns in of China, destroyed popula areas tion. ird of the European popula decimated one-th ls 1 The horse-riding Mongo Route of the Plague likely carried infected fleas and rats in their food d supplies as they swoope into China. ASIA EURO PE 3 ATLANTIC OCEAN Genoa 2 SOUT HWES T ASIA l 3 In 1345–1346, a Mongo PACIFIC OCEAN CHINA INDIA 0 0 AFRIC A 1,000 Miles 2,000 Kilometers army besieged Kaffa. A year later, Italian merchants returned to g Italy, unknowingly bringin the plague with them. Patterns of Interaction video series Disease Spreads a bacillus that were infested with Black rats carried fleas bathe, almost Because people did not called Yersinia pestis. people threw In addition, medieval ary all had fleas and lice. the streets. These unsanit garbage and sewage into their The fleas g grounds for more rats. ng streets became breedin to person, thus spreadi by rats leapt from person carried incredible speed. the bubonic plague with nic Plague Symptoms of the Bubo in the lymph nodes, buboes (BOO•bohz) • Painful swellings called armpits and groin particularly those in the skin or blackish spots on the • Sometimes purplish and in most cases, death fever, chills, delirium, • Extremely high Death Tolls, 1300s 20–25 million Western Europe 25 million China, India, other Asians = 4 million xviii merchants along the trade routes of Asia to est southern Asia, southw Asia, and Africa. MONG OLIA Kaffa Alexandria 400 Chapter 14 2 The disease came with 1 ic Disease: The Spread of Epidem ox Bubonic Plague and Smallp has been a very The spread of disease interacting with tragic result of cultures and time. Such one another across place influenza have diseases as smallpox and sometimes—as killed millions of people, destroying with the Aztecs—virtually civilizations. known 1. Hypothesizing Had people c plague, the cause of the buboni done to slow what might they have its spread? page R15. See Skillbuilder Handbook, s of today 2. Comparing What disease c the buboni might be compared to plague? Why? Watch how warring peoples’ competition in military technology has resulted in a dangerous game of developing bigger, better, and faster weaponry throughout the ages. The United States and the World Observe how universal enjoyments like music, sports, and fashion become instruments of cultural blending worldwide. The disk icon in the Global Impact feature provides you with a link to the Patterns of Interaction video series.
    • Features Industrializ ation Industrializat ion is the proc ess of developin produce goo ds. This proc g industries ess not only that use mac also transform revolutionize hines to s social cond s a country’s itions and class economy, it structures. Effects GROWTH OF CITI ES MANCHESTER of Industria lization • Industry creat ed many new jobs. • Factories were dirty, unsafe, and dangerou • Factory boss s. es exercised harsh discipline Long-Term Effec . t Workers won higher wage shorter hour s, s, better cond itions. 1800 500 400 300 200 100 Population (in ▼ This engr aving shows urban grow and industrial th pollution in Manchester. thousands) 344 74 0 ▼ • Cities lacke d sanitary code s or building • Housing, wate controls. r, and social services were • Epidemics scarce. swept throu gh the city. Long-Term Effec t Housing, diet, and clothing improved. 1870 BIRMINGHAM • Factory work ers were overw orked and unde • Overseers and skilled work rpaid. ers rose to lowe class. Factory r middle owners and merchants form middle class ed upper . • Upper class resented those in middle class became weal who thier than they were. Long-Term Effec t Standard of living generally rose. • Factories brou ght job seek ers to cities. • Urban areas doubled, triple d, or quadruple • Many cities d in size. specialized in certain indu Long-Term Effec stries. t Suburbs grew crowded cities as people fled . 1800 1870 GLASGOW 500 400 300 200 100 ▼ 305 361 491 574 594 643 688 727 737 780 872 875 911 1078 351 0 ▼ 6 21 80 180 thousands) 90 Population (in thousands) 522 77 0 1800 ▼ Culture Civilization Judaism Western Civilization Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy Feudalism Protestantism Mercantilism Absolutism Democracy Nationalism Industrialization Capitalism vs. Socialism Imperialism Communism Totalitarianism Fascism Globalization Population (in 500 400 300 200 100 1870 LONDON 4000 Population (in thousands) 3000 3,890 2000 1000 0 1,117 1800 1870 Source: Europ ean Statistics, 1750– Historical 1975 1. Recognizi ng RESEARCH LINKS For more on industrializatio n, go to class zone .com Effec some advantage ts What were s and disadvanta of industrial ges ization? See Skillbuilder Handbook, page R6. 2. Making Infer ences Many nations arou nd the world today are trying industrialize. to What do you think they hope to gain from that proce ss? 727 727 Hammurabi’s Code of Laws The Ten Commandments Assyrian Sculpture A Husband’s Advice Resisting Mongol Rule Rebelling Against the Mongols Daily Life of a Noblewoman Daily Life of a Peasant Woman The Magna Carta Mansa Musa’s Kingdom Islamic Law in Mogadishu The Market at Tlatelolco Tenochtitlán—A Bustling City The Renaissance Man The Renaissance Woman 33 79 97 129 310 310 368 368 395 416 424 455 455 473 473 The Conquest of Constantinople The Horrors of the Middle Passage Laws Protect Freedom Laws Ensure Security Starvation in Ireland Allied View of Armistice German Reaction to Armistice Satyagraha Nonviolence Writers of the “Lost Generation” The Palestinian View The Israeli View Ken Saro-Wiwa Training the Chinese Army The Aryan Caste System Nok Sculpture Pillars of Aksum A Bison Kill Site The Dome of the Rock Muslim Art Women of the Heian Court Chivalry Great Zimbabwe Perspective 64 217 228 238 266 277 341 365 426 474 Peasant Life “Right Leg in the Boot at Last” Motion Studies Warlike Japan Juárez: Symbol of Mexican Independence Guernica Military Rule and Democracy Glasnost 509 569 631 631 754 855 855 888 888 898 1020 1020 1042 1061 481 695 700 812 824 918 1037 1047 Using Primary and Secondary Sources The Flood Story The Fall of the Roman Empire The Crusades The Reformation The Legacy of Columbus European Values During the Enlightenment 83 177 386 501 560 The French Revolution Industrialization Views of Imperialism Views of War Economics and the Environment 662 741 785 857 1081 635 xix
    • Features Work and Play in Ancient Egypt Bull Leapers of Knossos Life in a Roman Villa Chinese Society Collecting Water Muslim Prayer Tang and Song China: People and Technology An Age of Superstition Surnames 42 73 166 202 215 268 328 371 388 Plumbing in Mohenjo-Daro The Colosseum African Ironworking Astronomy Castles and Siege Weapons The Tools of Exploration 47 182 218 275 366 531 Time Line of Planet Earth The Neolithic Ice Man Pyramids and Mummies The Rosetta Stone Lady Hao’s Tomb Phoenician Trade Egyptian Influence on Nubian Culture 9 15 39 40 52 75 Negotiating Conflict in Stateless Societies Islam in West Africa Iroquois Women Incan Mummies City Life in Renaissance Europe China’s Population Boom Surviving the Russian Winter Bread Nationalistic Music 410 417 445 464 486 540 612 655 689 The Guillotine Edison’s Inventions Panama Canal Military Aviation The Space Race 108 130 165 247 248 332 342 92 lendar The Aztec Ca intricate. days was very the ved em of tracking system was deri The Aztec syst Aztec calendar a believe that the main calendars: Archaeologists cs followed two solar system. The Azte agricultural or from the Maya 20 days and an es to 360 days. 13 months of tice that this com sacred one with (No ths of 20 days. known as one with 18 mon five-day period had an unlucky long.) Every 52 The Aztecs then calendar 365 days a great ing their solar the same day, and nemontemi, mak would start on calendars years, the two sion. marked the occa ceremony of fire Building the Taj Mahal ▲ Aztec Gods d many different gods. They hipe life. The Aztecs wors dar and daily of the Aztec calen nding, were a vital part rent gods depe tribute to diffe ous The Aztecs paid th, year, and religi day, week, mon n here is in part, on the The god show calendars. cycle of the Aztec tiuh. a sun god, Tona ▲ ne Aztec Sunsto main ceremonial plaza of ed in the sures 13 Originally locat dar stone mea vered the Aztec calen Tenochtitlán, tons. It was unco and weighs 24 it is called, feet in diameter Sunstone, as in 1790. The t the days that in Mexico City mation abou th of infor gods contains a weal c months, the d the Azte ils. began and ende many other deta the days, and associated with of the t’s rendition This is an artis . In the the Sunstone inner circle of god Tonatiuh. center is the und res that surro The four squa ols of the glyphs or symb Tonatiuh are of the eding the time four ages prec , and Rain. , Water, Wind Aztecs: Tiger ols outside the symb In the ring just ents ages, 20 segm of the previous made up 20 days that its represent the Each day had Aztec month. an watched and a god who own symbol ted to The symbol poin over the day. the jaguar. here is Ocelotl, Visual Sources R: Interpreting Aztecs put SKILLBUILDE you think the tone? izing Why do r of the Suns 1. Hypothes god, in the cente Tonatiuh, a sun reasons. Aztec Explain your ng How is the g and Contrasti we use today? 2. Comparin the calendar different from calendar ar? How is it simil ricas 457 ires in the Ame People and Emp xx 756 793 849 879 902 907 1010 1055 1074 659 763 820 850 971 The Great Wall of China Festivals and Sports Gladiator Games Headhunters Nazca Lines A Mighty Fighting Force Japanese Samurai Life in Early Australia Social Class in India The Frozen Front Ukrainian Kulaks Labor-Saving Devices in the United States Life in the Depression Changing Times in Southeast Asia The Romanian Language Molecular Medicine Some 20,000 workers labored for 22 years to build the famous tomb. It is made of white marble brought from 250 miles away. The minaret towers are about 130 feet high. The building itself is 186 feet square. The design of the building is a blend of Hindu and Muslim styles. The pointed arches are of Muslim design, and the perforated marble windows and doors are typical of a style found in Hindu temples. The inside of the building is a glittering garden of thousands of carved marble flowers inlaid with tiny precious stones. One tiny flower, one inch square, had 60 different inlays. INTERNET ACTIVITY Use the Internet to take a virtual trip to the Taj Mahal. Create a brochure about the building. Go to classzone.com for your research. The Medieval Manor Gothic Architecture Craft Guilds Muslim Scholars The Longbow Queen Amina’s Reign The Aztec Calendar Building the Taj Mahal A Ship’s Rations The Forbidden City Zen Buddhism Pirates Slavery The Palace at Versailles Emancipation Inventions in America Acadians to Cajuns Social Darwinism Winston Churchill and the Boer War Suez Canal The Armenian Massacre The New Weapons of War The Long March Investing in Stocks Jewish Resistance Berlin Airlift The Red Guards How the Cold War Was Fought Genocide in Rwanda Signs of Hope Destroying the Past Ethnic Groups in the Former Yugoslavia 362 381 388 391 402 418 457 520 532 538 547 563 567 600 691 720 752 766 778 789 844 848 885 906 938 969 975 983 1016 1022 1026 1057
    • Renaissance Ideas Influence Renaissance Art Cave Paintings 12 140 Greek Art and Architecture Hindu and Buddhist Art 198 Olmec Sculpture 244 Russian Religious Art and Architecture 312 Benin Bronzes 420 Maya Architecture 450 Renaissance Ideas Influence Renaissance Art 478 Cultural Blending in Mughal India 522 Revolutions in Painting 702 Japanese Woodblock Printing 814 Propaganda 880 Photojournalism 1064 The Renaissance in Italy produced extraordinary achievements in many different forms of art, including painting, architecture, sculpture, and drawing. These art forms were used by talented artists to express important ideas and attitudes of the age. The value of humanism is shown in Raphael’s School of Athens, a depiction of the greatest Greek philosophers. The realism of Renaissance art is seen in a portrait such as the Mona Lisa, which is an expression of the subject’s unique features and personality. And Michelangelo’s David shares stylistic qualities with ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. ▼ Classical and Renaissance Sculpture Michelangelo Influenced by classical statues, Michelangelo sculpted David from 1501 to 1504. Michelangelo portrayed the biblical hero in the moments just before battle. David’s posture is graceful, yet his figure also displays strength. The statue, which is 18 feet tall, towers over the viewer. RESEARCH LINKS For more on Renaissance art, go to classzone.com ▲ Portraying Individuals Da Vinci The Mona Lisa (c. 1504–1506) is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, who, at 16, married Francesco del Giocondo, a wealthy merchant of Florence who commissioned the portrait. Mona Lisa is a shortened form of Madonna Lisa (Madam, or My Lady, Lisa). Renaissance artists showed individuals as they really looked. 478 Chapter 17 Chad Discovery Iraq’s Ancient Treasures at Risk Scorpion King Buddhism in the West Modern Marathons Entertainment in India: Bollywood Bantu Languages: Swahili Turkey Acupuncture Two Koreas Epic Films The Royal Road The Jewish Diaspora The Spread of Buddhism Papermaking Trade Networks: Silk Roads A Road Paved with Gold: Aksum to Rome The Thousand and One Nights The Incan System of Record Keeping Pythagorean Theorem 11 23 37 71 133 195 223 317 325 347 367 102 170 197 203 204 227 276 20 148 Shakespeare’s Popularity Women Leaders of the Indian Subcontinent Trading Partners Kabuki Theater U.S. Democracy Cybercafés Left, Right, and Center Congress of Vienna and the United Nations Child Labor Today Communism Today 483 The Bubonic Plague Swahili The Printing Press Jesuit Missionaries The Columbian Exchange Tulip Mania The French Revolution Struggling Toward Democracy Revolutions in Technology 400 427 484 500 572 592 644 The Epic Pyramids Warriors and Animal Symbols 179 242 454 519 535 545 617 637 657 Northern Ireland Today Special Economic Zones Tiananmen Square A New War Crimes Tribunal Vietnam Today The Taliban The Coldest War 755 806 883 950 981 987 999 675 728 738 Industrialization in Japan The Women’s Movement Western Views of the East The Influenza Epidemic Fascism in Argentina The Atomic Bomb Rock ‘n’ Roll 732 749 813 853 914 946 1094 Other Renaissances East Meets West International Baseball 477 611 1094 684 719 xxi
    • Features (continued) The Leakey Family Hammurabi Siddhartha Gautama King Solomon Hatshepsut Confucius, Laozi Pericles Socrates Plato Aristotle Alexander Hannibal Julius Caesar Augustus Asoka Chandragupta Maurya Ibn Rushd Empress Theodora Ivan III Malik Shah Tang Taizong Wu Zhao Genghis Khan Kublai Khan Marco Polo Benedict Scholastica Richard the Lion-Hearted Saladin Eleanor of Aquitaine Joan of Arc Sundiata Mansa Musa 7 34 68 81 90 105 135 139 139 139 143 158 161 162 190 190 279 303 311 315 324 324 331 337 337 355 355 384 384 394 403 415 415 Unit 1 Ancient Civilizations 112 Unit 3 Trade Networks 430 Unit 4 Methods of Government 578 Unit 5 Political Revolutions 706 Unit 6 Scientific and Technological Changes Greece Pericles, shown at left, led the city-state of Athens during its golden age. The ancient Greeks of Athens and other cities created art, literature, philosophy, and political institutions that have influenced the world for thousands of years. Rome 500 B.C.–A.D 476 Han China ▼ ▼ Some scholars theorize that the sculpture at right shows the face of an Olmec ruler. The Olmec people left no written records. Even so, their civilization influenced the art, religion, architecture, and political structure of peoples who followed them in Mesoamerica. Liu Bang, shown at right, seized control of China and founded the Han Dynasty. He and his successors ruled a vast empire, which saw the growth and spread of Chinese culture. Even today, many Chinese call themselves “the people of Han,” a tribute to the lasting cultural impact of this period. Gupta India A.D. 320–550 ▼ Olmec 252 Unit 2 Comparing & Contrasting xxii Han China 202 B.C.–A.D. 220 Olmec 1200–400 B.C. Rome The emperor Augustus, whose statue is shown at left, ruled for about 40 years during Rome’s 200year golden age. First a republic and then an empire, Rome controlled the Mediterranean region and a large part of Europe. Roman government, law, society, art, literature, and language still influence much of the world, as does the Christian religion Rome eventually adopted. Greece 750–300 B.C. 1100 765 782 799 818 825 826 842 859 859 868 877 890 912 912 927 934 944 974 978 985 989 989 1000 1006 1013 1019 1044 1044 1048 1048 1051 1062 1084 A classical age usually has two important characteristics: • The society reaches a high level of cultural achievement, with advances in technology and science and the creation of impressive works of art. • The society leaves a strong legacy for future ages, not only in the region where it is located but also in other parts of the world. In this feature, you will study similarities and differences among five classical ages that you learned about in Unit 2. 954 Unit 8 Nation Building Marie Curie Samori Touré Queen Liliuokalani José Martí Porfirio Díaz Emiliano Zapata Kaiser Wilhelm II Woodrow Wilson Georges Clemenceau V. I. Lenin Joseph Stalin Mustafa Kemal Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler Winston Churchill General Douglas MacArthur General Dwight D. Eisenhower Mao Zedong Ho Chi Minh Fidel Castro Imre Nagy v Alexander Dubcek Jawaharlal Nehru Aung San Suu Kyi Jomo Kenyatta Golda Meir Nelson Mandela F. W. de Klerk Mikhail Gorbachev Boris Yeltsin Vladimir Putin Jiang Zemin Mother Teresa Lasting Achievements 830 Unit 7 The Changing Nature of Warfare 460 472 475 475 489 494 496 510 518 530 539 557 598 606 606 609 630 633 639 641 653 653 658 664 683 683 696 699 735 736 740 748 761 ▼ 252 ▼ Unit 2 Classical Ages Pachacuti Medici Family Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Buonarroti Martin Luther Elizabeth I John Calvin Suleyman the Lawgiver Akbar Prince Henry Kangxi Francisco Pizarro, Atahualpa Louis XIV Maria Theresa Frederick the Great Peter the Great Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft Catherine the Great Thomas Jefferson Louis XVI Marie Antoinette Jean-Paul Marat Napoleon Bonaparte Simón Bolívar José de San Martín Otto von Bismarck Ludwig van Beethoven Adam Smith Karl Marx Jane Addams Queen Victoria and Prince Albert Abraham Lincoln Gupta India Chandragupta II, shown on this coin, was one of the rulers of India’s Gupta Empire. They oversaw an age of peace, prosperity, and artistic creativity. During this time, Hinduism and Buddhism took full form in India and spread through trade to other regions. 1. Which of these societies controlled the most territory? the least? Explain how the size of a society’s territory might affect its ability to leave a legacy. 2. Which classical ages had religion as an important part of their legacy? Why does religion have such an impact on societies? 253
    • Historical and Political Maps Unit 1 Prehistoric World to 2500 B.C. Early Human Migration, 1,600,000–10,000 B.C. Agriculture Emerges, 5000–500 B.C. Four River Valley Civilizations The Fertile Crescent, 2500 B.C. Ancient Egypt, 3000–2000 B.C. Ancient India, 2500–1500 B.C. Ancient China, 2000–200 B.C. World Climate Regions The Ancient World, 1500 B.C.–250 B.C. Indo-European Migrations, Starting about 1700 B.C. The Patterns of Ancient Trade, 2000–250 B.C. Canaan, the Crossroads, 2000–600 B.C. Ancient Empires, 700 B.C.–221 B.C. Kush Empire, 700 B.C. Assyrian Empire, 650 B.C. Persian Empire, 500 B.C. A Ride Along the Royal Road The Qin Dynasty, 221–202 B.C. Ancient Civilizations 3 10 17 27 30 36 45 51 57 59 Tropic of Cancer Gulf of Me xic o Lake Texcoco 96 101 102 108 112 261 264 299 302 308 309 321 330 334 340 345 349 351 Chichén Iztá Yucatán Peninsula Palenque Tikal Piedras Negas 250 Miles 0 0 500 Kilometers Copán PACIFIC OCEAN 90°W 171 175 187 191 196 201 201 204 211 214 222 226 231 233 237 241 247 251 253 Teotihuacán Valley of Mexico 100°W 121 124 132 137 144 153 159 163 Uxmal 20°N Tula Tlacopan Tenochtitlán 93 Unit 3 Muslim World, 1200 Trade Routes, A.D. 570 Three Empires: Byzantine, Russian, Seljuk, c. 1100 Constantinople, A.D. 550 The Viking Invasions of Eastern Europe, 820–941 The Khanate of the Golden Horde, 1294 East and Southeast Asia, 900–1200 The Steppe The Mongol Empire, 1294 Japan to 1300 Southeast Asia, 900–1200 Population Density: Tang Dynasty Europe, c. 500 Teotihuacán Civilization, 200 B.C.–A.D. 700 Maya Civilization, 200 B.C.–A.D. 900 Toltec Civilization, A.D. 900–1100 Aztec Civilization, A.D. 1400–1521 62 75 78 87 Unit 2 Greek City-States, 750 B.C. Mycenaean Greece, c. 1250 B.C. The Persian Wars, 490–479 B.C. Peloponnesian War, 431–404 B.C. Alexander and His Successors, 336–300 B.C. The Roman World, 265 B.C.–A.D. 117 Punic Wars, 264–146 B.C. Trade in the Roman Empire, A.D. 200 Spread of Christianity in the Roman World to A.D. 500 Invasions into the Roman Empire, A.D. 350–500 India and China, 321 B.C.–A.D. 9 Indian Empires, 250 B.C.–A.D. 400 Asian Trade Routes, A.D. 400 Han Dynasty, 200 B.C.–A.D. 220 Former Han, 200 B.C. Silk Roads Spread of Iron-Working, 500 B.C.–A.D. 700 Vegetation Regions of Africa Bantu Migrations, 3000 B.C.–A.D. 1100 Aksum, A.D. 300–700 Land Area of Africa American Civilizations, 1200 B.C.–A.D. 700 Migration Routes, 40,000–10,000 B.C. Olmec Civilization, 900 B.C. Early Civilizations, 1200 B.C.–A.D. 700 Early America, 1200 B.C.–A.D. 700 Territory Controlled by Classical Societies Mesoamerican Civilizations, 200 B.C.–A.D. 1521 10°N Charlemagne’s Empire, 768–843 Invasions in Europe, 700–1000 The Holy Roman Empire, 1100 Europe, 14th Century The Crusades, 1096–1204 Route of the Plague Africa, 800–1500 Selected African Societies, 800–1500 Empire of Ghana, A.D. 1000 Empire of Mali, A.D. 1400 Empire of Songhai, A.D. 1500 East African Trade, 1000 Western Africa, 2003 Trade Routes: Africa, Asia, Europe, 1500 356 359 372 377 383 400 407 411 414 414 414 423 429 430 Unit 4 The Americas, 800 B.C.–A.D.1535 North American Culture Areas, c. 1400 Mesoamerican Civilizations, 200 B.C.–A.D. 1521 South American Culture Areas, 100–1535 Europe, 1500 Religions in Europe, 1560 Spread of Protestantism Empire Builders, 1683 Ottoman Empire, 1451–1566 Safavid Empire, 1683 Growth of the Mughal Empire, 1526–1707 Early Explorations, 1400s Europeans in the East, 1487–1700 Japan in the 17th Century European Claims in America, 1700 European Exploration of the Americas, 1492–1682 Europeans in North America, 1754 and 1763 Triangle Trade System, 1451–1870 Four Governments 439 442 447 461 469 497 497 505 508 514 517 527 534 543 551 555 564 568 578 xxiii
    • Historical and Political Maps Unit 5 (continued) Unit 7 587 590 604 610 616 619 621 642 649 666 670 674 677 679 Europe, 1914 The Balkan Peninsula, 1914 World War I in Europe, 1914–1918 Galipoli Campaign, 1915 The World at War, 1914–1918 Europe Pre-World War I Europe Post-World War I Southwest Asia, 1926 Russian Revolution and Civil War, 1905–1922 The Long March Oil Fields, 1938 Expansion in Europe, 1931–1939 Aggression in Africa, 1935–1939 Aggression in Asia, 1931–1937 European and African Battles, 1939–1945 World War II: German Advances, 1939–1941 World War II in Asia and the Pacific, 1941–1945 Battle of Midway, June 1942 World War II: Allied Advances, 1942–1945 The D-Day Invasion, June 6, 1944 Nazi Labor and Death Camps 684 685 694 697 Unit 6 715 730 745 753 759 760 771 777 777 781 783 787 789 792 797 801 803 808 839 843 846 851 852 860 860 865 870 885 891 895 917 917 923 926 933 933 942 944 953 Unit 8 The D-Day Invasion, June 6, 1944 English Channel London UNITED KINGDOM Portsmouth 21st ARMY GROUP COMMANDER OF GROUND FORCES Montgomery Portland Torquay U.S. 1st ARMY Bradley Calais 0 AH UT ACH BE Ste.-Mère Eglise POINTE-DU-HOC Vierville Colleville Isigny Trévières 10 Miles Carentan 0 100 Miles FRANCE 0 La Madeleine 0 ish Engl nel C h a n Cherbourg BRITISH 2nd ARMY Dempsey Dover Straits of Dover 50˚ N Quinéville 2˚ E 819 820 963 966 969 977 979 983 984 995 998 1005 1014 1014 1018 1025 1031 1035 1041 1041 1049 1054 1057 1069 1077 1085 0˚ Cold War Enemies, 1949 Superpower Aims in Europe Divided Germany, 1948–1949 War in Korea, 1950–1953 War in Vietnam, 1957–1973 How the Cold War Was Fought Cold War Hot Spots, 1948–1975 New Nations, 1946–1991 The Indian Subcontinent, 1947 Southeast Asia, 1945–1975 Africa, 1955 Africa, 1975 The Middle East, 1947–present Central Asia Types of Government, 2003 Latin America, 2003 Africa, 1967 Regions of Nigeria, 1967 The Breakup of the Soviet Union, 1991 Major Industries of Germany, 2003 Ethnic Groups in the Former Yugoslavia World Migration, 2002 World Trading Blocks, 2003 World AIDS Situation, 2004 2˚ W Industry in Europe, 1870 The Growth of Railroads in the United States Western Democracies, 1900 Australia and New Zealand to 1850 U.S. Expansion, 1783–1853 Civil War in the United States, 1861–1865 Colonial Claims, 1900 Imperialism in Africa, 1878 and 1913 Traditional Ethnic Boundaries of Africa Nigeria, 1914 Resistance Movements in Africa, 1881–1906 Ottoman Empire, 1699–1914 Suez Canal Western-Held Territories in Asia, 1910 Colonies in Southeast Asia, 1895 The British Empire, 1900 Colonial Powers Carve Up China, 1850–1910 China: Spheres of Influence and Treaty Ports, c. 1900 The Spanish-American War, 1898: the Caribbean and the Philippines Panama Canal 4˚ W Europe, 1650 Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588 Europe After the Thirty Years’ War, 1648 The Expansion of Russia, 1500–1800 The English Civil War, 1642–1645 Modern European Monarchs, 2003 Centers of Enlightenment, c.1740 North America, 1783 Napoleon’s Empire, 1810 War in Europe, 1805–1813 Napoleon’s Russian Campaign, 1812 Europe, 1810 and 1817 Great Britain and France, 1810 Revolutions, 1848 Enlightenment Ideas Spread to Latin America, 1789–1810 Latin America, 1800 and 1830 The Unification of Italy, 1858–1870 The Unification of Germany, 1865–1871 to St.-Lô OMAHA BEACH GOLD BEACH JUNO BEACH Arromanches Courseulles Bayeux SWORD BEACH Lion 20 Kilometers 200 Kilometers Allied forces Flooded areas Glider landing areas xxiv Caen Planned drop zones
    • Charts and Graphs Charts Chinese Writing Language Family Resemblances The Four Noble Truths Alphabets—Ancient and Modern The Sacred Writings of Judaism Chinese Ethical Systems Characteristics of Civilizations Forms of Government Athenian and United States Democracy Greek Astronomy Comparing Republican Governments Roman Emperors, A.D. 37–A.D. 180 Multiple Causes: Fall of the Western Roman Empire Comparing Two Great Empires: Han China and Rome Migration: Push-Pull Factors The Effects of Agriculture Cultural Achievements Basic Differences Between Sunni and Shi’a Muslims Muslim Population, 1990s A Comparison of World Religions and Ethical Systems The 11th Century: Comparing Two Churches Five Empires Inventions of Tang and Song China The Commercial Revolution The Development of England and France If the Plague Struck America Today Population in Europe, 1000–1340 Selected African Societies, 800–1500 East African Trade Goods Major Trade Networks Rise and Fall of the Maya Rise and Fall of the Aztecs Rise and Fall of the Inca Causes of the Reformation Religious Beliefs and Practices in the 16th Century Cultural Blending Key Characteristics Changing Idea: Scientific Method 53 61 69 74 80 106 114 128 134 147 157 164 174 206 221 239 254 271 281 296 305 319 328 390 397 401 405 411 423 432 449 458 463 488 491 513 578 626 Graphs Agricultural Revolution Topography Major Movie Producers, 2000 Cities, A.D. 900 World Population’s Religious Affiliations Population of Three Roman Cities Death Tolls, 1300s The Division of Christianity Comparison of Empires The Growth of Early Modern China Native Population of Central Mexico, 1500–1620 Africans Enslaved in the Americas, 1451–1870 Debt of the Royal Family, 1643–1715 Average High Temperature for January, Russian Cities Average High Temperature for January, U.S. Cities Voters in the 2000 U.S. Presidential Election Percent of Income Paid in Taxes Beheading by Class The Divisions in Spanish Colonial Society, 1789 British Cotton Consumption, 1800–1900 Growth of Cities The Growth of Cities, 1700–1900 Expansion of Suffrage in Britain 17 121 195 273 282 375 400 491 525 540 556 568 602 613 613 643 652 659 681 719 727 743 748 Changing Idea: The Right to Govern Major Ideas of the Enlightenment Changing Idea: Relationship Between Ruler and State Changing Idea: Colonial Attachment to Britain Enlightenment Ideas and the U.S. Constitution Eligible Voters Population of France, 1787 Positive and Negative Results of Nationalism Types of Nationalist Movements Causes of the Revolutions Effects of Revolutions Capitalism vs. Socialism Rise of Mass Culture Forms of Imperialism Imperial Management Methods Reforms of Mexican Constitution of 1917 Two Top Fighter Planes: A Comparison The Treaty of Versailles: Major Provisions Causes and Effects of Two Russian Revolutions, 1917 Evolution of Communist Thought Key Traits of Totalitarianism Characteristics of Fascism Jews Killed Under Nazi Rule Hiroshima: Day of Fire Costs of World War II: Allies and Axis Superpower Aims in Europe Chinese Political Opponents, 1945 Major Strategies of the Cold War U.S.–Soviet Military Power, 1986–1987 Making Democracy Work Differences Among the Ethnic Groups Mao’s Attempts to Change China Internet Users Worldwide, 2007 Arguments For and Against Economic Globalization International Casualties of Terrorism, 1997–2002 National Characteristics 629 632 638 642 643 643 652 688 692 708 710 737 767 780 780 827 850 861 871 872 875 911 939 946 949 966 973 983 993 1033 1057 1059 1073 1078 1089 1102 The Great Famine, 1845–1851 Australia’s Population Civil War Deaths Independent African Countries Tolls Collected on the Panama Canal, 1916–1920 World War I Statistics The Buildup of the Soviet Economy, 1928–1938 Oil Output, 1910–1940 Mechanical Washing Machines Shipped Persons Employed as Private Laundress Stock Prices, 1925–1933 Unemployment Rate, 1928–1938 World Trade, 1929–1933 Military Casualties, World War I and World War II Countries Aided by the Marshall Plan, 1948–1951 Poverty Levels in Asia ASEAN Exports, 1990–2001 Brazilian Economy, 1955–2000 Population Living in Poverty, 2001 Some Major Internet Nations, 2007 Multinational Corporations, 2002 Total Attacks, 1982–2002 Number of Refugees, 1992–2002 754 757 760 780 829 856 878 893 903 903 906 908 908 958 968 1002 1011 1036 1038 1073 1076 1089 1099 xxv
    • Time Lines, Infographics, and Political Cartoons Time Lines Chapter 1 Hominid Development Time Line of Planet Earth Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Civilizations of the Ancient World Chapter 5 Alexander’s Empire and Its Legacy, 336–306 B.C. Chapter 6 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity Chapter 7 India and China Establish Empires Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Classical Ages Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Chapter 12 Dynasties of China, 500–1400 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Henry VIII Causes Religious Turmoil Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Three Worlds Meet, 1492–1700 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Major Steps in the Scientific Revolution Chapter 23 Chapter 24 Political Revolutions Chapter 25 320 338 350 376 406 438 468 322 342 345 352 361 361 362 366 378 381 390 400 247 262 285 287 289 291 293 295 Chinese Inventions Japanese Samurai Southeast Asia, 900–1200 Western European Peasants, 1100s European Feudalism Japanese Feudalism The Medieval Manor Castles and Siege Weapons Crusade Party Gothic Architecture The Commercial Revolution Route of the Plague If the Plague Struck America Today Trade in the Sahara The Lost-Wax Process Types of Trade Networks The Printing Press The Division of Christianity The Tools of Exploration Zheng He’s Treasure Ship The Forbidden City The Columbian Exchange Mercantilism Organization of the Ottoman Government Organization of the Tokugawa Shogunate Absolutism 501 652 668 695 709 741 769 785 Warlike Japan Roosevelt Corollary Czechoslovakia’s Iron Curtain Philippine Islands Military Rule and Democracy Glasnost Intensive Communism Unit Ship of Fools 2 8 9 26 58 86 113 120 145 152 184 186 208 210 232 252 260 298 318 492 504 526 550 573 586 620 626 648 678 706 714 Chapter 26 Chapter 27 Chapter 28 Scientific and Technological Changes Chapter 29 Chapter 30 Chapter 31 Aggression in Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1931–1939 Chapter 32 Technology of War Chapter 33 The Space Race Chapter 34 A Turbulent History The Israeli-Palestinian Struggle Chapter 35 South Africa, 1948–2000 Chapter 36 Five Developing Nations 744 770 802 830 838 864 894 916 922 954 962 971 994 1001 1021 1030 1045 1068 1100 Infographics Table of “Components of Culture” How Culture Is Learned Characteristics of Civilization in Sumer The City of Ur The Mighty Nile Pyramids and Mummies Monsoon Winter and Summer Dynastic Cycle in China Merchant Ships The Great Wall of China Greek Astronomy A Roman Villa The Colosseum Chinese Society Hunter-Gatherer Community Vegetation Regions of Africa African Ironworking Mammoth hunt Migration Routes Early Civilizations, 1200 B.C.–A.D. 700 Alexandria Major Buddhist Sects Major Christian Sects Major Hindu Sects Major Islamic Sects Major Jewish Sects The Five Relationships 6 6 21 22 36 39 45 54 75 108 147 166 182 202 212 214 218 234 237 401 408 421 431 484 491 531 537 538 572 574 580 580 594 Political Cartoons Seven-Headed Martin Luther The Three Estates “Little Johnny Bull” “Right Leg in the Boot at Last” Political Cartoons, 1789 and 1765 Political Cartoon A Court for King Cholera “The Devilfish in Egyptian Waters” xxvi 812 821 967 1029 1037 1047 1067 1081 The Palace at Versailles Expansion of U.S. Voting Rights Conquerors of the Bastille Parade The Guillotine Napoleon’s Russian Campaign, 1812 Bonds That Create a Nation-State Model of a Revolution The Day of a Child Laborer, William Cooper Effects of Industrialization An Age of Inventions China and Japan Confront the West Panama Canal Cross-Section Impact of Technological Change Scientific Change Key Traits of Totalitarianism Characteristics of Fascism Global Corporation Ozone Levels International Terrorist Attacks Destruction in New York City and the Pentagon 600 643 650 659 670 688 707 724 727 764 811 820 832 834 875 911 1078 1080 1089 1090
    • Primary and Secondary Sources Chapter 1 Chapter 9 Mary Leakey, quoted in National Geographic, 7 Richard E. Leakey, The Making of Mankind, 9 Robert Braidwood, quoted in Scientific American, 16 Richard E. Leakey, The Making of Mankind, 25 Thomas Canby, “The Search for the First Americans,” National Geographic, 236 Walter Alva, “Richest Unlooted Tomb of a Moche Lord,” National Geographic, 249 Brian Fagan, quoted in The Peru Reader, 251 Chapter 2 Code of Hammurabi, (trans. L. W. King), 33 Herodotus, The History of Herodotus, 38 Duke of Shao, quoted in The Chinese Heritage, 54 “Hymn to the Nile,” from Ancient Near Eastern Texts, 57 Chapter 3 Krishna, speaking in the Mahabharata, 65 Svetasvatara Upanishad. IV. 3–4, 67 Buddha, from Samyutta Nikaya, 69 Herodotus, in History, Book IV (5th century B.C.), 74 Genesis 12:1–2, 77 Deuteronomy 5:6–22, 79 From The Torah, 83 From The Epic of Gilgamesh, 83 From The Fish Incarnation of Vishnu, 83 1 Samuel 8:4–8, 85 Chapter 4 Chapter 10 Qur’an sura 96:1–5, 265 Khalid Ibn al-Walid, quoted in Early Islam, 270 Muhammad, quoted in The Sayings of Muhammad, 274 Ikhwan As-Safa, quoted in The World of Islam, 279 Abd Al-Latif, quoted in A History of the Arab Peoples, 281 World Religions and Ethical Systems Dhammapada 365, 285 Acts 16:30–31, 287 From the Rig Veda 1.125.5, 289 Qur’an sura 31:20, 291 Deuteronomy 6:4, 293 Confucius, Analects 1.16, 295 Karen Armstrong, A History of God, 297 Chapter 11 Piankhi, monument in Cairo Museum, 93 Nahum 3:7, 3:18, 97 Ezra 1:2–3, 100 Confucius, Analects, 2.7, 105 Laozi, Dao De Ching, Passage 37, 106 Confucius, Analects, 2.3, 111 Theodora, quoted by Procopius in History of the Wars, 303 Saint Basil, quoted in The Letters, 304 From The Primary Chronicle, 308 From Medieval Russia, 310 Jalaludin Rumi, from Unseen Rain, 315 Wassaf, quoted in The Mongol Empire, 317 Zenkovsky, Medieval Russia’s Epics, Chronicles, and Tales, 319 Chapter 5 Chapter 12 Pericles, an Athenian statesman, 122 Edith Hamilton, “Theseus,” Mythology, 122 Thucydides, a historian, 122 Homer, Iliad (tr. Ian Johnston), 126 Xenophon, The Economist, Book 10 (tr. H. G. Dakyns), 129 Pericles, “The Funeral Oration,” from The Peloponnesian War, from Thucydides, 135 Plutarch, Parallel Lives: Marcellus, 148 Aristotle, Politics, 151 Tu Fu, “Moonlight Night,” 326 Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo, 337 Sung Lien, quoted in The Essence of Chinese Civilization, 349 PRIMARY SOURCE The same moon is above Fuzhou tonight; From the open window she will be watching it alone, The poor children are too little to be able to remember Ch’ang-an. Chapter 6 Livy, The Early History of Rome, 155 Tiberius Gracchus, quoted in Plutarch, The Lives of Noble Greeks and Romans, 160 Luke, 6:27–31, 169 St. Augustine, The City of God, 172 Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 177 Arther Ferrill, The Fall of the Roman Empire, 177 Finley Hooper, Roman Realities, 177 St. Jerome, quoted in Rome: A Profile of a City, 312–1308, 177 Virgil, Aeneid, 179 Tacitus, Annals, 181 Decree from the Roman Province of Asia, 185 Chapter 7 Megasthenes, in Geography by Strabo, 190 Quote from The Wonder That Was India, 194 Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian, 202 Ban Gu and Ban Zhao in History of the Former Han Dynasty, 204 Asoka, in A History of Modern India, 209 Chapter 8 Djeli Mamoudou Kouyate, from Sundiata, an Epic of Old Mali, 216 Cosmas, quoted in Travellers in Ethiopia, 226 King Ezana of Aksum, quoted in Africa: Past and Present, 226 From Travellers in Ethiopia, 231 Her perfumed hair will be dampened by the dew, the air may be too chilly on her delicate arms. When can we both lean by the wind-blown curtains and see the tears dry on each other’s face? TU FU, “Moonlight Night” Chapter 13 Einhard, Life of Charlemagne, 356 William Langland, Piers Plowman, 363 From The Song of Roland, 367 From Women in Medieval Times, 368 Pope Gregory, cited in Basic Documents in Medieval History, 372 Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, 375 Chapter 14 Emperor Alexius Comnenus, quoted in The Dream and the Tomb by Robert Payne, 382 Pope Urban II, quoted in World Civilizations–Sources, Images, and Interpretations, 386 William of Tyre, quoted in The Medieval Reader, 386 Saladin, quoted in The Dream and the Tomb, 386 The Magna Carta, 395 Giovanni Boccaccio, The Decameron, 399 Edward I of England, from a letter, 405 xxvii
    • Primary and Secondary Sources Chapter 15 Al-Bakri, quoted in Africa in the Days of Exploration, 414 Ibn Battuta, quoted in Africa in the Days of Exploration, 416 From the Kano Chronicle, 418 Ibn Batutta, Travels of Ibn Batutta, 424 Chapter 16 From the Popol Vuh, 448 Crónica Mexicayotl, 454 Hernando Cortés, Letters of Information, 455 Bernal Díaz, The Conquest of New Spain, 455 From In the Trail of the Wind, 467 Chapter 17 Baldassare Castiglione, The Courtier, 473 Isabella D’Este, Letters, 473 Giovanni Boccaccio, Preface, Decameron, 476 Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, 476 Vittoria Colonna, Poems, 477 Thomas More, Utopia, 482 Christine de Pizan, The Book of The City of Ladies, 482 William Shakespeare, Hamlet, 483 Martin Luther, quoted in The Protestant Reformation by Lewis W. Spitz, 490 Katherina Zell, quoted in Women of the Reformation, 498 Ignatius of Loyola, Spiritual Exercises, 498 Martin Luther, quoted in A World Lit Only By Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance, 501 Steven Ozment, Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution, 501 G. R. Elton, Reformation Europe, 501 Hans Brosamer, “Seven-Headed Martin Luther” (1529), 501 Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, 503 Chapter 18 Kritovoulos, History of Mehmed the Conqueror, 509, 525 Chapter 19 Afonso de Albuquerque, from The Commentaries of the Great Afonso Dalbuquerque, 533 Qian-Long, from a letter to King George III of Great Britain, 540 Matsuo Basho, from Matsuo Basho, 544 Anonymous Japanese Writer, quoted in Sources of Japanese Tradition, 545 Kangxi, quoted in Emperor of China: Self-Portrait of K’Ang-Hsi, 549 Chapter 20 Christopher Columbus, Journal of Columbus, 553 Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea, 560 Bartolomé de Las Casas, quoted in Columbus: The Great Adventure, 560 Suzan Shown Harjo, “I Won’t Be Celebrating Columbus Day,” Newseek, Fall/Winter 1991, 560 Olaudah Equiano, quoted in Eyewitness: The Negro in American History, 569 Bernardino de Sahagun, quoted in Seeds of Change, 573 Thomas Mun, quoted in World Civilizations, 575 John Cotton, quoted in The Annals of America, 577 Chapter 21 Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote de la Mancha, 592 Jean Bodin, Six Books on the State, 595 Duke of Saint-Simon, Memoirs of Louis XIV and the Regency, 599 Frederick II, Essay on Forms of Government, 606 From the English Bill of Rights, 619 xxviii (continued) PRIMARY SOURCE Soldiers! I am pleased with you. On the day of Austerlitz, you justified everything that I was expecting of [you]. . . . In less than four hours, an army of 100,000 men, commanded by the emperors of Russia and Austria, was cut up and dispersed. . . . 120 pieces of artillery, 20 generals, and more than 30,000 men taken prisoner—such are the results of this day which will forever be famous. . . . And it will be enough for you to say, “I was at Austerlitz,” to hear the reply: “There is a brave man!” NAPOLEON, quoted in Napoleon by André Castelot Chapter 22 Galileo Galilei, quoted in The Discoverers, 625 Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, 631 Baron de Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws, 631 Voltaire, Candide, 635 Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, 635 William Hogarth, Canvassing for Votes (painting), 635 Preamble, Constitution of the United States of America, 647 Chapter 23 Comte D’Antraigues, quoted in Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution, 652 Maximilien Robespierre, “On the Morals and Political Principles of Domestic Policy,” 660 Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities, 662 Edmund Burke, quoted in Burke’s Politics, 662 Thomas Paine, from The Writings of Thomas Paine, 662 Napoleon, quoted in Napoleon by André Castelot, 665 Simón Bolívar, from Selected Writings of Bolívar, 677 Chapter 24 Otto von Bismarck, speech to the German parliament on February 6, 1888, 705 Chapter 25 Edward Bains, The History of Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain, 720 Elizabeth Gaskell, Mary Barton, 724 Hugh Miller, “Old Red Sandstone,” 728 Lucy Larcom, A New England Girlhood, 730 Alexis de Tocqueville, 1848 speech, 735 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 736 Mary Paul, quoted in Women and the American Experience, 741 Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, 741 Friederich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, 741 Walter Crane (political cartoon), 741 Charles Dickens, Hard Times, 743 Chapter 26 Emmeline Pankhurst, Why We Are Militant, 749 William Bennett, quoted in Narrative of a Recent Journey of Six Weeks in Ireland, 754 William Shorey Coodey, quoted in The Trail of Tears, 758 Seneca Falls Convention, “Declaration of Sentiments,” 769 Chapter 27 Cecil Rhodes, Confession of Faith, 775 Edward Morel, The Black Man’s Burden, 782 J. A. Hobson, Imperialism, 785 Dadabhai Naoroji, speech before Indian National Congress, 1871, 785
    • Primary and Secondary Sources Jules Ferry, quoted in The Human Record: Sources of Global History, 785 “The Devilfish in Egyptian Waters” (political cartoon), 785 Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, in a letter to Hasan Shirazi, April 1891, 790 Lord Kitchener, quoted in Asia and Western Dominance, 794 King Chulalongkorn, “Royal Proclamation in Education,” 798 Kwaku Dua III to Frederic M. Hodgson, 1889, 801 Chapter 28 Lin Zexu, quoted in China’s Response to the West, 806 Ponciano Arriaga, speech to the Constitutional Convention, 1856–1857, 824 From an article in the Tokyo Times, 829 Chapter 29 Frédéric Passy, quoted in Nobel: The Man and His Prizes, 842 Valentine Fleming, quoted in The First World War, 847 Shirley Millard, I Saw Them Die, 854 Harry Truman, quoted in The First World War, 855 Herbert Sulzbach, With the German Guns, 855 Woodrow Wilson, 1917 speech to Congress, 857 Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front, 857 Wilfred Owen, “Dulce et Decorum Est,” 857 Maurice Neumont, “They Shall Not Pass, 1914–1918” 857 From an editorial in Vossische Zeitung, May 18, 1915, 863 Chapter 30 Mao Zedong, quoted in Chinese Communism and the Rise of Mao, 884 Mohandas K. Gandhi, Chapter XVII, Hind Swaraj, 888 Mohandas K. Gandhi, The Origin of Nonviolence, 888 Mohandas K. Gandhi, Letter to Sir Daniel Hamilton, 893 Chapter 31 F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, 898 Franklin Roosevelt, First Inaugural Address, 909 Erich Ludendorff, letter to President Hindenburg, February 1, 1933, 912 Winston Churchill, speech before the House of Commons, October 5, 1938, 919 William Shirer, quoted in The Strenuous Decade, 921 Chapter 32 General Charles de Gaulle, quoted in Charles de Gaulle: A Biography, 927 Lieutenant John Spainhower, quoted in War Diary 1939–1945, 932 Ralph G. Martin, in The GI War, 935 M. I. Libau, quoted in Never to Forget: The Jews of the Holocaust, 937 Elie Wiesel, quoted in Night, 939 Simon Weisenthal, quoted in Never to Forget: The Jews of the Holocaust, 949 From The Christian Century, August 29, 1945, 953 Chapter 33 Winston Churchill, “Iron Curtain” speech, March 1946, 967 Harry S. Truman, speech to Congress, March 12, 1947, 968 Fidel Castro, quoted in an interview, October 27, 1962, 985 Robert McNamara, quoted in Inside the Cold War, 990 Ho Chi Minh, quoted in America and Vietnam, 993 Chapter 34 Zahida Amjad Ali, Freedom, Trauma, Continuities, 999 Jawaharlal Nehru, speech before the Constituent Assembly, August 14, 1947, 999 New York Times, June 28, 1998, 1001 Corazón Aquino, inaugural speech, February 24, 1986, 1006 Megawati Sukarnoputri, July 23, 2001, 1008 Fawaz Turki, quoted in The Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1020 (continued) Abraham Tamir, quoted in From War to Peace, 1020 Anwar Sadat, Knesset speech, November 20, 1977, 1020 Arthur James Balfour, in a letter to Lord Rothschild, November 2, 1917, 1029 Chapter 35 Ken Saro-Wiwa, A Month and a Day: A Detention Diary, 1042 David M. Kotz, “The Cure That Could Kill,” 1050 Xiao Ye, “Tiananmen Square: A Soldier’s Story,” 1061 Orville Schell, “The Coming of Mao Zedong Chic,” 1067 Chapter 36 Lester R. Brown, 1081 The Liberty Institute, 1081 Chris Madden (political cartoon), 1081 Josef Joffe, from “America the Inescapable,” 1099 Comparing & Contrasting Unit 1 Code of Hammurabi, adapted from a translation by James B. Pritchard, 115 From The Bible, 115 Confucius, the Analects, 115 Unit 2 Edgar Allan Poe, from “To Helen,” 255 Fa Xian, from The Travels of Fa Xian, 255 Pericles, Funeral Oration, 257 Henry C. Boren, Roman Society, 257 Rhoads Murphey, A History of Asia, 257 Unit 3 Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, The Discoverers, 435 Ibn Battuta, Ibn Battuta in Black Africa, 435 Fernão Lopes de Castanheda, History of the Discovery and Conquest of India, 435 Unit 4 Niccolò Machiavelli, The Discourses, 583 Garcilaso de la Vega, The Incas, 583 Unit 5 From the English Parliament’s Bill of Rights, 1689, 709 Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 710 Simón Bolívar, “The Jamaica Letter,” 711 Maximilien Robespierre, speech of February 5, 1794, 711 Unit 6 Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, 833 John Vaughn, “Thirty Years of the Telephone,” 833 Paul Johnson, The Birth of the Modern, 835 Unit 7 American Consul General at Beirut, letter to the U.S. Secretary of State, 1915, 957 Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz, 957 Sergeant Major Ernest Shepherd, A Sergeant-Major’s War, 958 U.S. Marine Corps correspondent, article, 958 Laura de Gozdawa Turczynowicz, When the Prussians Came to Poland, 959 Tatsuichiro Akizuki, Nagasaki, 1945, 959 Unit 8 David Lamb, The Africans, 1103 Ariel Sharon, inauguration speech, March 7, 2001, 1104 Abdul Kalam, inauguration speech, July 25, 2002, 1104 Vicente Fox, inauguration speech, December 1, 2000, 1104 Olusegun Obasanjo, inauguration speech, May 29, 1999, 1105 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, inauguration speech, January 20, 2001, 1105 xxix
    • World History Themes While historical events are unique, they often are driven by similar, repeated forces. In telling the history of our world, this book pays special attention to eight significant and recurring themes. These themes are presented to show that from America, to Africa, to Asia, people are more alike than they realize. Throughout history humans have confronted similar obstacles, have struggled to achieve similar goals, and continually have strived to better themselves and the world around them. Power and Authority History is often made by the people and institutions in power. As you read about the world’s powerful people and governments, try to answer several key questions. • Who holds the power? • How did that person or group get power? • What system of government provides order in this society? • How does the group or person in power keep or lose power? Religious and Ethical Systems Throughout history, humans around the world have been guided by, as much as anything else, their religious and ethical beliefs. As you examine the world’s religious and ethical systems, pay attention to several important issues. • What beliefs are held by a majority of people in a region? • How do these major religious beliefs differ from one another? • How do the various religious groups interact with one another? • How do religious groups react toward nonmembers? Revolution Often in history, great change has been achieved only through force. As you read about the continuous overthrow of governments, institutions, and even ideas throughout history, examine several key questions. • What long-term ideas or institutions are • being overthrown? • What caused people to make this radical change? • What are the results of the change? Interaction with Environment Since the earliest of times, humans have had to deal with their surroundings in order to survive. As you read about our continuous interaction with the environment, keep in mind several important issues. • How do humans adjust to the climate and terrain • where they live? • How have changes in the natural world forced • people to change? • What positive and negative changes have people • made to their environment? xxx
    • Economics Economics has proven to be a powerful force in human history. From early times to the present, human cultures have been concerned with how to use their scarce resources to satisfy their needs. As you read about different groups, note several key issues regarding the role of economics in world history. • What goods and services does a society produce? • Who controls the wealth and resources of a society? • How does a society obtain more goods and services? Cultural Interaction Today, people around the world share many things, from music, to food, to ideas. Human cultures actually have interacted with each other since ancient times. As you read about how different cultures have interacted, note several significant issues. • How have cultures interacted (trade, migration, or conquest)? • What items have cultures passed on to each other? • What political, economic, and religious ideas have cultures shared? • What positive and negative effects have resulted from cultural interaction? Empire Building Since the beginning of time, human cultures have shared a similar desire to grow more powerful—often by dominating other groups. As you read about empire building through the ages, keep in mind several key issues. • What motivates groups to conquer other lands and people? • How does one society gain control of others? • How does a dominating society control and rule its subjects? Science and Technology All humans share an endless desire to know more about their world and to solve whatever problems they encounter. The development of science and technology has played a key role in these quests. As you read about the role of science and technology in world history, try to answer several key questions. • What tools and methods do people use to solve the various • problems they face? • How do people gain knowledge about their world? How do • they use that knowledge? • How do new discoveries and inventions change the way • people live?
    • Geography Themes Geography is the study of the earth and its features. It is also an important part of human history. Since the beginning of time, all civilizations have had to control their surroundings in order to survive. In addition, geography has played a vital role in many historical events. Like history itself, geography reflects several key themes. These themes help us to understand the different ways in which geography has helped shape the story of world history. Location Location tells us where in the world a certain area is. Geographers describe location in two ways: absolute location and relative location. An area’s absolute location is its point of latitude and longitude. Latitude is the distance in degrees north or south of the equator. Longitude is the degree distance east or west of an imaginary vertical line that runs through Greenwich, England, called the prime meridian. An area’s relative location describes where it is in terms of other areas. In absolute terms, the middle of Singapore lies at 1°20' north latitude and 103°50' east longitude. This information allows you to pinpoint Singapore on a map. In relative terms, Singapore is an island country on the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula near where the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean meet. How might Singapore’s location on the sea have helped it develop into an economic power? Human/Environment Interaction h Jo Throughout history, humans have changed and have been changed by their environment. Because they live on an island, the people of Singapore have built a bridge in order to travel more easily to mainland Malaysia. In addition, Singapore residents have carved an inviting harbor out of parts of its coastline in order to accommodate the island’s busy ocean traffic. Singapore is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Many of its over four million citizens live in Singapore 5 Miles 0 the capital city, Singapore. The coun0 try’s population density is over 16,000 10 Kilometers persons per square mile. In contrast, the M A L AY S I A Sembawang United States has a population density St of around 80 persons per square mile. ra Woodlands it Kranji Punggol Reservoir Tekong What environmental challenges does 1°25'N Ubin Besar this situation pose? Serangoon Changi R. Serangoon S e l etar or Harbor SINGAPORE Changi International Airport Bedok Reservoir Jurong Bedok Ayer Chawan Jurong Islands 1°15'N Ayer Merbau n d a Sentosa an t P Bukum ela Keppel Harbor 103°50'E 103°40'E xxxii S Sin gap ore St ra it 104°E City of Singapore Urbanized area Other Singapore land International border Road
    • Region A region is any area that has common characteristics. These characteristics may include physical factors, such as landforms or climate. They also may include cultural aspects, such as language or religion. Singapore is part of a region known as Southeast Asia. The countries of this region share such characteristics as rich, fertile soil, as well as a strong influence of Buddhism and Islam. Because regions share similar characteristics, they often share similar concerns. In 1967, Singapore joined with the other countries of Southeast Asia to form the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. This body was created to address the region’s concerns. What concerns might Singapore have that are unique? Place Place, in geography, indicates what an area looks like in both physical and human terms. The physical setting of an area—its landforms, soil, climate, and resources—are aspects of place. So are the different cultures which inhabit an area. The physical characteristics of Singapore include a hot, moist climate with numerous rain forests. In human terms, Singapore’s population is mostly Chinese. How does Singapore’s human characteristic tie it to other countries? Movement In geography, movement is the transfer of people, goods, and ideas from one place to another. In many ways, history is the story of movement. Since early times, people have migrated in search of better places to live. They have traded with distant peoples to obtain new goods. And they have spread a wealth of ideas from culture to culture. Singapore, which is a prosperous center of trade and finance, attracts numerous people in search of greater wealth and new goods. What about Singapore’s geography makes it the ideal place for the trading of goods? xxxiii
    • Time While history is the story of people, it is also the examination of when events occurred. Keeping track of the order of historical events will help you to better retain and understand the material. To help you remember the order and dates of important events in history, this book contains numerous time lines. Below is some instruction on how to read a time line, as well as a look at some terms associated with tracking time in history. How to Read a Time Line years are counted down to the year 1 B.C., so 1200 B.C. is a century earlier than 1100 B.C. and so on. B.C. 1200 B.C. Olmec civilization arises. 900 B.C. Chavín culture emerges. The title conveys what material the time line is examining. 500 B.C. Zapotec establish Monte Albán. 200 B.C. Nazca culture emerges. 100 Moche culture arises. A.D. THE AMERICAS AFRICA, ASIA, AND EUROPE Around 1200 B.C. Egyptian Empire begins to decline. Specific titles explain the geographic area to which each line relates. 477 B.C. Golden Age of Greece begins. 202 B.C. Han Dynasty begins in China. Around A.D.120 Roman Empire reaches its height. Common Chronological Terms B.C. “Before Christ.” Refers to a date so many years before the birth of Jesus Christ. A.D. “Anno Domini” (“in the year of the lord”). Refers to a date so many years after the birth of Jesus Christ. BCE/CE “Before the Common Era” and “Common Era.” These terms correspond to B.C. and A.D., respectively. decade 10 years. (For example: The 1930s was a decade of economic depression in many parts of the world.) century 100 years. Note that the first century A.D. refers to the years 1 to 100. So, the twentieth century refers to the years 1901–2000. (For example: The fall of China’s Han Empire in A.D. 220 was an important event of the third century.) millennium 1,000 years. (For example, January 1, 2001, is the start of a new millennium.) age/era xxxiv Broad time period characterized by a shared pattern of life. Ages and eras usually do not have definite starting or ending points. (For example: The Stone Age began around 2 million years ago and lasted until about 3000 B.C. It refers to the period when humans used stone, rather than metal tools.)
    • Place You are about to examine not only thousands of years of history, but nearly every region of the globe. To help you visualize the faraway places you read about, this book contains numerous maps. Many of these maps contain several layers of information that provide a better understanding of how and why events in history occurred. Below is a look at how to read a map in order to obtain all of the rich information it offers. How to Read a Map 120°E 80°E The title explains what Beijing area and events the map covers. an g w He R .) Western-Held Territories in Asia, 1910 N TA HA NI S R. d us FG In si Per an G ARABIA H A Delhi ul f Ga AY NE ng e White lines denoteang i gJ national boundaries.R.) an e T IBE T AS PA z Ch ngt a (Y BHUTAN L s R. TAIWAN Calcutta (Japan) Rangoon 0 South China Sea SIAM Bangkok ENC H FR C H I N A DO Bay of Bengal 1,000 Miles 2,000 Kilometers Based on an estimation from the map, Manila is located at about 12° north latitude and 120° east longitude. BRITISH N. BORNEO MALAY BRUNEI STATES SARAWAK Singapore A scale tells the map’s proportion relative to the area’s actual size. It is used to measure the approximate distance between two points on the map. Longitude line PHILIPPINES PACIFIC OCEAN Manila Saigon The compass rose indicates the direction of the map. CEYLON 0 (Britain) Hanoi Madras INDIAN OCEAN Tropic of Cancer Hong Kong BURMA The legend or key explains A r a b i a n Bombay the symbols, lines, and speS colors on the map. cial e a Latitude line (Portugal) IN France Germany Great Britain The Netherlands United States JAPAN East China Sea Macao BRITISH INDIA Tokyo Yellow Sea CHINA AL 40°N KOREA (Japan) H u ell o (Y IM The locator globe shows where in the worldPERSIA the map area is. Sea of Japan (Britain) D Batavia U TC H Borneo EA ST INDIE 0° Equator S Equator New Guinea Common Geographic Terms equator the line of latitude midway between the North and South poles latitude imaginary lines that circle the globe from east to west, measuring an area’s distance north and south of the equator longitude imaginary lines that circle the globe from north to south, measuring an area’s distance east or west of the prime meridian prime meridian the line of longitude at 0° that runs through Greenwich, England hemisphere half the globe. The globe can be divided into Northern and Southern hemispheres (separated by the equator) or into Eastern and Western hemispheres (separated by the prime meridian). xxxv
    • How Do We Know? Do you like puzzles? If so, you are in luck. You are about to encounter the greatest puzzle there is: history. The study of history is much more than the recollection of dates and names. It is an attempt to answer a continuous and puzzling question: what really happened? In their effort to solve this puzzle, historians and researchers use a variety of methods. From digging up artifacts, to uncovering eyewitness accounts, experts collect and analyze mountains of data in numerous ways. As a result, the history books you read more accurately depict what life was like in a culture 5,000 years ago, or what caused the outbreak of a devastating war. The following two pages examine some of the pieces used to solve the puzzle of history. Clues from an Ancient Girl In 1995, an anthropologist discovered the mummified and frozen remains of a teenage girl in the Andes Mountains of South America. Scientists believe that she is about 500 years old and was a member of the Inca Empire. Because much of her remains are well preserved, scientists hope she will provide them with new information about one of the Americas’ most powerful ancient cultures. An analysis of her stomach content may provide information about the Inca diet. Some of her DNA remains intact, which will help scientists determine whether she has any living descendants. Her clothing, believed to belong to the upper class, should shed new light on how noble Inca women dressed. xxxvi
    • Modern Science The ever-improving field of science has lent its hand in the search to learn more about the past. Using everything from microscopes to computers, researchers have shed new light on many historical mysteries. Here, a researcher uses computer technology to determine what the owner of a prehistoric human skull may have looked like. Written Sources Historians often look to written documents for insight into the past. There are various types of written sources. Documents written during the same time period as an event are known as primary sources. They include such things as diaries and newspapers. They also include drawings, such as the one shown here by Italian painter and inventor, Leonardo da Vinci. His rough sketch of a helicopter-type machine tells us that as early as the late 1400s, humans considered mechanical flight. Material written about an event later, such as books, are known as secondary sources. Some written sources began as oral tradition— legends, myths, and beliefs passed on by spoken word from generation to generation. Digging Up History Researchers have learned much about the past by discovering the remains of ancient societies. Spearheads like these, which date back to around 9,500 B.C., were found throughout North America. They tell us among other things that the early Americans were hunters. These spearheads were once considered to be the earliest evidence of humankind in the Americas. However, as an example of how history continues to change, scientists recently found evidence of human life in South America as early as 10,500 B.C. xxxvii
    • Contents World: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . A2 World: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . A4 North America: Political . . . . . . A6 North America: Physical . . . . . . A7 Asia: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A20 Australia and Oceania . . . . . . . A22 Ancient World in the 7th Century B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . A23 Industrialization of Europe 1910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A33 Europe 1922–1940 . . . . . . . . . . A34 Africa About A.D. 1400 . . . . . . . A36 Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean: Political . . . . . . A8 South America: Political . . . . . . A10 South America: Physical . . . . . . A11 Europe: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . A12 Europe: Physical . . . . . . . . . . . . A14 Africa: Political. . . . . . . . . . . . . A16 Africa: Physical. . . . . . . . . . . . . A17 Asia: Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A18 Roman Empire About A.D. 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . A24 European Partition of Africa: 19th Century . . . . . . . . . A37 The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires in the 16th and 17th Centuries . . . . . . . . . . A26 Resistance to Colonialism 1870–1930 . . . . . . . A38 Middle East/Israel Political . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A40 Revolutions in the Atlantic World 1776–1826 . . . . . . . . . . . A28 Latin America 1800–1850 . . . . . A30 Latin America 1850–1900 . . . . . A31 Eastern Southern Asia A.D. 750 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A42 Asia 1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A44 Industrialization of Europe 1815 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A32 Russia and the Former Soviet Union. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A46 Complete Legend for Physical and Political Maps Symbols Lake Type Styles Used to Name Features C H IN A Salt Lake O N TA R I O Seasonal Lake River Waterfall Canal Mountain Peak Highest Mountain Peak PUERTO RICO (U.S.) Country State, Province, or Territory Possession A T L A N T I C Ocean or Sea O C E A N A l p s Borneo Physical Feature Island Boundaries International Boundary Cities Los Angeles Calgary City of 250,000 to 1,000,000 population Secondary Boundary City over 1,000,000 population Land Elevation and Water Depths Land Elevation Haifa Paris City under 250,000 population National Capital Meters 3,000 and over Vancouver 9,840 and over 2,000 - 3,000 6,560 - 9,840 500 - 2,000 1,640 - 6,560 200 - 500 Secondary Capital (State, Province, or Territory) Feet 0 - 200 656 - 1,640 0 - 656 Water Depth Less than 200 Less than 656 200 - 2,000 656 - 6,560 Over 2,000 Over 6,560 A1
    • A2 World: Political
    • World: Political A3
    • A4 World: Physical
    • World: Physical A5
    • ks Va ld Wh iteh ors e E 15 A 0˚ F Edm IC ria Sea onto ttle N on n ewa ch Ne n lso Regina 0˚ Winnipeg o y Vega s 14 0˚ Ark a n s Kansas City as a Albuquer que Red St. Louis Oklahoma City N fC Herm er osillo Houston Gr nd a lif Culiacán San Antonio o Ca E X Chihuahua Ri of Torreón e Monterrey ni a I C or O National Capital Dallas Ciudad Juárez M anc lf ic o Gu Tro p City over 1,000,000 population Lake Michiga n Memphis GULF OF MEXICO Cancún Veracruz 0 0 0˚ 130˚ 200 300 400 600 900 800 1200 1000 Miles 1500 Kilometers O C E A N Equ Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection 10˚ ik ˚ in Wash lk Norfo M BER BAHA MAS ic Trop 100˚ 90˚ K.) au Nass r ance of C N 20˚ NICA DOMI UBLIC UERTO P P RE O CUBA RIC ) (U.S. AITI to o A H San g JAMAIC t-au- Domin Por nce n Kingsto Pri Belmopan a Panam City Golfo de á Panam VENE COLO MBIA 80˚ ZUEL A á Bogot E H AM SOUT 110˚ (U. UDA C T I 30˚ A N AT L A N onville Jacks C E O tte ator 120˚ A6 600 40˚ York New elphia d D.C. Phila ton g land San Salvador La EL SALVADOR Nicaragua Managua COSTA RICA San José PA N A M A PA C I F I C hn t Jo fax Hali N BEA ARIB C HONDURAS SEA a cas Tegucigalp GUA Cara 10˚ CARA go de NI BE LI ZE Guatemala City Joh St. ton Miami Havana n's f lf o ce Gu wren La St. Charlo Atlanta New Orleans Tampa ˚ 50 Bos Cleve Nashville GUATEM ALA City under 250,000 population ie Er ke La ati Cincinn o Mérida Acapulco City of 250,000 to 1,000,000 population hi San Luis Potosı ´ Guadala jara León Mexico C ity Puebla Secondary Capital (State, Province, or Territory) 10˚ o Phoenix ijuan 20˚ ad C o Ang e San les Dieg o T r lo O Las Los ssissippi sco Detroit Milwaukee Omaha U N I Chicago T E D S T A T E S Denver Indianapolis o Mi nci al Montré a nto ToroL.Ontario d la Sain Ottaw La ke ron Hu 30˚ Fra Minneapolis Grea Salt t Lake ent Queb Superi ke or La d Billings ram éc Thunder Ba 50˚ nd un wfo Ne Lake Winnipeg M iss ou ri ane A D A tlan Sac 20 ˚ A Saskato Spok m b ia Por San c Circle Hudson Bay C lu Reyk jav knife n Calg ary Van cou ver Vic to N ICEL AND Yellow u C I d ce 40˚ C C a th en O Gr S l ae a t L a kv e e Pe a c e A n od G wr ˚ ea P Is la La 0 16 Jun Island . a nzie sk ( 40 ˚ la E 60˚ B a f f in Gre B e aa t Lak r e cke ez fA GR ay St fo Ma ul Victori a an G 50˚ Ba B ffin 30 irb 0˚ 17 ands Fa Isl e ag or ch An an Sa sk at ti Ban Isla ks nd on S. U. u Arcti ˚ 40 an Devon Island Y l uk abe Eliz en lands Is b Pr u B dh ay oe e Qu E g A ea Se ufo a rt 100˚ th De N L nm A ar N k) D B ˚ 60 Isl ˚ ere 120 ai B ering r St d 0˚ t rin Be ea S ˚ 180 e 0˚ 0˚ le A R C T I C 14O C E A N Ellesm A 70˚ North Pole 16 North America: Political 180˚ c Arctic Cir 170˚ RUSSI 80˚ 80˚ 70˚ ASIA 60˚ RICA IL BRAZ 0˚ 70˚
    • M is ver s 0˚ ja er Ri o C o a a ˚ 30 Fa rv el UDA ic Trop ie HAITI nt a Yucatán Peninsula JAMAIC A BBE CARI SEA A 400 600 900 800 1200 1000 Miles 1500 Kilometers 10˚ Lago de a Nicaragu V UEL ENEZ O C E A N PA N A M A Golfo de á Panam COLO 100˚ A MBIA E H AM SOUT 110˚ 20˚ COSTA RICA Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection 120˚ r ance N NICARAGU 600 K.) TO PUER(U.S.) ICO R A EL SALVADOR (U. of C N NICA DOMI UBLIC EP R CUBA ator 130˚ MAS Miami Or 200 300 pe s Th e es Everglad M BER C I 30˚ N T A AT L N E A O C BAHA dre a Gulf of Campeche PA C I F I C 0 .C. nD ngto Cape ras Hatte BE LI ZE GUATEM ALA HONDURAS 0 Ca . i Wash C a p e e ra l Canav Gr c Ma Oc Sierra O I iCntal de E X ni l 0˚ Ca p wr La p Havana 6,560 Equ Ic e 40 ˚ p 656 200 2,000 en ce A GULF OF MEXICO e Water Depth 0 0 0˚ o Houston nd Mexico City 0 0 10˚ e 656 or 1,640 200 dr 500 Cabo S an Lucas lif 6,560 Ma ia Ca orn 9,840 2,000 rra lif Land Elevation Meters Feet 3,000 Si e of Ca 20˚ M anc lf Ba fC n York c Gu N ic o hi Mi Tro p ark Oz eau t Pla s Red N ew l a ns a Nia la Ark St. 40˚ ie Er ke La a Color P l a t ea d o au Chicago O C do ra i ˚ 50 od eC Cap s tario Fall L.On gara S T A T E S n 14 lo ur i Mt. 14,4Whitney 4,41 94 Ft. 8m o U N I T E D Den so ssissippi Ra de ca Grea Salt t Lake e al Montré a Ottaw La k a eles a Ang ak l Los d eva S ie rr a N 30˚ Gre Bas at in P an Coast R ges Ca s o Sn t Grea s Lake ron Hu cin Superi ke or La t ndo nco h i e l d e Me 50˚ f lf o ce Gu wren La ny Al a pe Bla n S e Ca pe d Bay a Lake Winnipeg r Ca mbia lan James G o lu i d un wfo Ne ta er n ewa ch A D A ba Sa sk at ouv s i n t a u n M o C N n ng e N 0˚ N n Lake Michiga n Van c A onto d IC Edm o els a Van co Isla uver nd pe Ca er cy M Bay Churchill n 15 A F Lake Athabasc a C a E I Pe a c e d sule Péningava d'Un Hudson C C nzie 40˚ C Q Ch ueen a Isla rlott nds e y c k R o O A n Foxe Basin Gr S l ae a t L a kv e e e Mountains P ors ˚ E Is la 60˚ St cke 0˚ 16 Coast eh 20 Isl Island Gre B e aa t Lak r e Ma e hit De N L nm A ar N k) D pe Ca dair A B a f f in ng 50˚ 10˚ ˚ 40 d an Victori a ffi ts . 0˚ 17 20 . M ch Alask 6,19,320 cKi a R 4m F nle Alask or t. y a Peninsula a ag e 1 Mt. 9, Lo G 55 g ul 5 1 a f o ,9 F n f A 59 t. la m sk a W Ba ( M M K u sk ok w im t An Devon Island Ban Isla ks nd ia Ba Cap th e urs t ge E h S. U. an nB GR ay in ks land s R 100˚ th la oo Y e Is ea Se ufo a rt Pr u B dh ay oe on be l i z as n E ee Island Qu B ˚ 60 P Br uk an ˚ ere t r g Al ti 120 ai t gS t in ow Po ar r B Berin Arcti c Circle ICEL AND Norweg ian Sea 0˚ rin Be ea S ˚ 180 u 0˚ 16 0˚ int Po pe Ho cle 170˚ A R C T I C 14O C E A N Ellesm A 70˚ North Pole North America: Physical 180˚ Arctic Cir RUSSI 80˚ 80˚ 70˚ ASIA 60˚ 90˚ 80˚ RICA IL BRAZ 0˚ 70˚ A7
    • 110˚ ORNIA 100˚ Los A ngeles Tijuan ARIZO NEW M EXICO a Mexic C A L IF O R N IA Isla Ced ros l f G u BAJA N ali Nogales Ciudad Juárez SONO I T E D S T A T E S MISS I S S I P P I El Paso CHIHUA ALABAMA LOUISIANA o f HUA Houston Chihuahu a n o r i f a l Nuevo Laredo COAHUIL his NU EV O LE ÓN i a Torreón Culiacán ZA CA TE CA Zacatecas AGS S León Toluca Mexico Cit y M IC HO AC ÁN Mérida Xalapa Veracruz Gulf of TLAX. D.F. MO R. GU ER RE RO Chilpancingo Acapulco Puebla VE RA CR UZ P UEB LA Cancún YU CAT Á N Pachuca Coatzacoalcos Isla Cozumel Campeche Cam pec he QUI N TA N A ROO CAM P E C HE TA B A S C O n MÉ X. tá Querétaro GT O. QR O. HG O. Morelia ca C OL IM A Irapuato u a JA LI SC O Tampico Y Guadalajar n e ntes a d S AN LU IS PO TO SÍ Aguascalie O F M E X I C O C Ciudad Victoria TA M AU LI PA S San Luis Potosí rta G U L F l Tepic Monterrey Matamoros MEXICO Durango N AY A R IT Puerto Valla Reynosa Saltillo a Islas Marías Isla San Benedict o Isla Soco rro A DURANGO Los Moc S IN A L O A Mazatlán 20˚ New Orleans de an Gr C Ciudad Obregón BAJA C A L IF O S U R R N IA llagigedo Isla Roca Partida TENNESSEE ARKANSAS RA illo Islas Revi KENTUCKY T EXAS Hermos Tropic La Paz of Can cer 90˚ OKLAHOMA NA U 30˚ MISSOURI Rio Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean: Political CALIF Chetumal Villahermosa Oaxaca Belmopan OAXACA Tuxtla Gutiérrez BELIZE CH IA PA S Golfo de Tehuantepec Tapachula Gulf of Honduras San Pedro Sula GUATEM ALA Guatemala City HONDUR AS Tegucigalpa San Salvador EL SALVADOR León 10˚ P A C I F I C National Capital Managua Lago de Nicaragua O C E A N Secondary Capital (State, Province, or Territory) COSTA City over 1,000,000 population N City of 250,000 to 1,000,000 population City under 250,000 population 0 0 100 200 200 300 400 400 Miles Isla del Mapelo (Col.) 600 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. . Lambert Conformal Conic Projection 110˚ A8 100˚ 90˚ R
    • Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean: Political 70˚ 80˚ V I R G I N I A 60˚ NORTH CAROLINA S SOUTH CAROLINA BERMUDA (U.K.) 30˚ G E O R G IA A N O C E N T I C A T L A FLORIDA Freeport Lake Okeechobee Miami Strai f ts o BAHAMAS Nassau Eleuthera C Tropic of Cat Island a r i d Andros Flo W Havana e Santa Clara Isla de la Juventud Abaco s Camagüey C U B A S ISL AN DS TUR KS AND CA ICO (U.K .) t I Guantánamo Santiago de Cuba (U.K.) Montego Bay JA MAI CA 20˚ Great Inagua Holguín CAYMAN ISLANDS ancer Kingston n Santiago d i e s Santo San Domingo Juan HA ITI Port-auPrince DO MI NIC AN RE PU BL IC BR ITI SH VIR GIN VIR GIN AN DS ISL AN DS ISL (U.S.) AN GU IL LA ) (U .K. re Basseter PUERTO RICO ) TT S SA IN T KI S AN D NE VI (U.S. M ON TS ER (U.K .) AN TI GU A AN D BA RB UD A n's oh Saint J RAT PE GU AD EL OU r.) (F A DO M IN IC u Rosea E M AR TI NI QU (F r.) A N C A R I B B E CENT SA IN T VIN E AN D TH ES GR EN AD IN Saint s George' AR UB A (N eth.) NICARAG UA Isla de San Andrés (Col.) Curaçao Bonaire NE TH ER LA ND AN TIL LE S Maracaibo San José RICA Panama Canal PANAMA Panama City CI A SA IN T LU own Bridget BA RB AD OS gstown Castries S E A S GR EN AD A Spain BAGO Port of D A N D TO T R IN ID A O rinoco A Z U E L V E N E etown Georg GUYA Isla de Coiba NA SU RI NA M A C O L O M B I Bogotá O ri oc n 80˚ 10˚ Caracas Lago de Maracaibo Golfo de Panamá Kin 70˚ o E L BRAZI 60˚ A9
    • Havana 90˚ 80˚C 70˚ U B A er Maracaibo Barranquilla Cartagena Barquisimeto Cúcuta PANAMA Medellín Caracas Valencia Or i TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO noco Ciudad Guayana VENEZUELA Bucaramanga Magd ale na COSTA RICA 10˚ ATLANTIC OCEAN Antilles CARIBBEAN SEA NICARAGUA 10˚ Georgetown Paramaribo GUYANA Cayenne Bogotá SURINAME FRENCH GUIANA COLOMBIA Cali 40˚ 20˚ GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR 50˚ Le PUERTO RICO (U.S.) JAMAICA BELIZE HONDURAS MEXICO DOMINICAN REPUBLIC HAITI M E R IC A NORTH A 20˚ 60˚ ss South America: Political G U LF OF M E X IC O Macapá N J ur Santarém Ta ós d M pa j Equator Belém São Luis s Fortaleza Imperatriz B R A Z I L Teresina Pôrto Velho E ali Recife Maceió R Cusco BOLIVIA Lake Titicaca Cuiabá La Paz Cochabamba Santa Cruz Arequipa Uberlândia Salta io n Ambros Isla Sa(Chile) nte Rio de Jan eiro São Paulo 20˚ Curitiba Caxias do Sul ná A E Pôrto Alegre Córdoba Santa Fe Rosario URUGUAY Valparaíso Mendoza Santiago Buenos Aires I (C La Plata T go Archipiéla dez án Juan Fern hile) N Concepción 30˚ Montevideo Río d e la N Plat a Mar del Plata Bahía Blanca E G C ˚ 100 IC CIF PA AN CE O H 30˚ I L N (C Vitória Campinas Asunción San Miguel de Tucumán Felix Isla Sanle) hi a ar P ar a corn f Capri Belo Horizo ná P PA R A G U AY o Tropic r Montes Claros Campo Grande Antofagasta 10˚ Salvado Brasília Goiânia Sucre 20˚ Aracaju Feira de Sant ana U Lima 10˚ 0˚ Natal ay P Trujillo uá a ei r azon Uc Chiclayo Manaus n azo a Am Iquitos Am To c a n t i n Guayaquil P u t u m ayo ro EC UA DO R J ap u r á eg 0˚ Quito Galapagos Islands (Ec.) Chiloé 40˚ R National Capital de Archipiélago os los Chon Secondary Capital (State, Province, or Territory) ATL AN TI OCE AN C Comodoro Rivadavia A 40˚ City over 1,000,000 population City of 250,000 to 1,000,000 population West Falkland as Punta Aren 0 50˚ 0 200 300 400 600 600 900 FALKLAND ISLANDS (U.K.) Strait of Magellan East City under 250,000 population 800 1200 Falkland Tierra del Fuego (U.K .) 1500 Kilometers South Shetland A10 100˚ S San outh d Isla wich n (U. ds Drake Passage Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection 110˚ 50˚ Sou Geor th gia 1000 Miles 90˚ 60˚ 80˚ 70˚ 60˚ Islands (U.K.) 50˚ South Island Orkney s (U.K.) 40˚ 30˚ K.) 20˚ 10˚
    • 90˚ 80˚C G r e a t e r 20˚ DOMINICAN REPUBLIC A n t i l l e s 20˚ NICARAGUA Caracas ale na k Cristóbal Colón Pea 18,948 Ft. 5,775m PANAMA Magd Gulf of Panama L n la Or os ATLANTIC OCEAN Antilles CARIBBEAN SEA COSTA RICA 10˚ 40˚ Le PUERTO RICO (U.S.) GUATEMALA EL SALVADOR 50˚ er JAMAICA E BELIZof Honduras Gulf HONDURAS MEXICO HAITI 60˚ ss M E R IC A NORTH A 70˚ U B A South America: Physical G U LF OF M E X IC O inoc TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO o 10˚ VENEZUELA GUYANA FRENCH SURINAME GUIANA Cape Orange Bogotá COLOMBIA N Ju Manaus ruá jó B a s i n i ra de A M Selvas Ilha de Marajó azo n s Amazon Ta n azo Am To c n t i n a Am á a J ap u r Pu t u m a y o ro 0˚ Chimborazo 20,703 Ft. 6,310m EC UA DO R eg Galapagos Islands (Ec.) pa Equator 0˚ Belém s B R A Z I L U Recife ali Co rd o cisc Brasília BOLIVIA 1,640 200 656 40˚ Chiloé 0 0 656 200 Rio de Janeiro Tropic of Cap ricorn ac Ch ná 30˚ N Buenos Aires Río d e la Pam p as Plat a San Matías Gulf Península Valdés 40˚ ATL AN TI OCE AN C San Jorge Gulf Water Depth 0 0 Point Medanoso Grand Bay 6,560 2,000 São Paulo I 6,560 500 H 9,840 2,000 R G E 3,000 N Santiago Mt. Aconcagua 22,831 Ft. 6,959m I (C Land Elevation Meters Feet ˚ 100 20˚ URUGUAY T L go Archipiéla dez án Juan Fern hile) C 30˚ IC CIF PA EAN OC an E A (Chile) a P ar a lado Mt. Ojos del Sa 22,615 Ft. 6,893m Felix Isla San ar A (Chile) N Isla osio San Ambr P PA R A G U AY Gr orn Capric A P a t a g o n i a of Tropic n d e s Ataca ma Desert 20˚ o ná al ient Or Mt. Sajama 21,463 Ft. 6,542m Ser ra do E ra lle i sp in Lake Titicaca 10˚ o Mt. Illampu 21,066 Ft. 6,421m Sã Lima Fran U s Mato Grosso Plateau haç o R e 10˚ E d n Mt. Huascará 22,133 Ft. 6,746m ay P n c West Falkland FALKLAND ISLANDS (U.K.) Strait of Magellan East Falkland Tierra del Fuego 0 50˚ 200 400 600 800 1000 Miles Cape Horn 50˚ Sou Geor th gia (U.K 0 300 600 900 1200 .) 1500 Kilometers Drake Passage Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection 110˚ 100˚ 90˚ 60˚ 80˚ 70˚ South Shetland 60˚ Islands (U.K.) 50˚ South Ork Islands (U ney .K .) 40˚ 30˚ S San outh d Isla wich n (U. ds K.) 20˚ 10˚ A11
    • Europe: Political 60 30˚ 0˚ 70˚ 10˚ 20˚ 10˚ 20˚ ˚ Hammerfest IC Re yk jav EL ík AN D Arc tic C ircle NO RWE GIAN SEA C n TLA sgo UNIT w NOR IRE THER LAN N D Stockholm Aber deen ND Edin ED a Sk burg N O h R T Bel KING S E A H I r i fast blin S s h DOM IRE ea LAN Live D Cor Man rpoo k ches l WA L ter C ES s B nn el Du St. Ge or ge irmi ' ngha Card m Plym outh Bruss els St r f Do ve r to ai Pari 600 Kilometers ña Gijó n 40˚ y o f B isc FRAN ay eaux ao Por Toulo use to UG Zagreb Po SA N M AR IN O Florence O Corsica Barc elona Rom VATICAN CI e TY Vale n M TYRR HENIAN SEA E D Algi A F ALGE RIA R I C A 0˚ Naples (It.) Cagliari M GIBR álaga A (U.K LTAR .) ers A Sardinia Palma a BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Sarajevo SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO IC Skopje S E ALBANIA MACEDONIA Bari Tiranë T d Belgrade CR OATIA A RT MONAC HUNGARY I PO ille Venice Y tar Milan Ljubljana R CO ral Budapest SLOVENIA L A12 ROC ille Turin Genoa cia Cór dob Sev IN AU ST RI A (Fr.) dri Bratislava ND A S PA SLOVAKIA Vienna LIECH. SWITZERLA va Kraków D an ub e Munich Nice Marse A Zara NDORRA goza Prague Stuttgart Bern Wroclaw CZ EC H RE PU BL IC Zürich Gene a Warsaw Dresden IT MO 10˚ Ma Ta g us ourg W is l NY D bon d GERMA POLAND Szczecin O d A AL doli ro Lis Eb Vall a E lb e Berlin Strasb CE Lyon Bord Bilb bat LIT HUA NIA Kaliningrad RUSSIA Gdansk ´ BELGIUM Rh ône oru Ra A B s ne Sei s Ba AC ir e Lo Nante Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. . Lambert Conformal Conic Projection Gib agen Cologn e Bonn Luxem bourg LUX. Frankfurt 400 Miles 300 400 of RK Copenh Hamburg ne Rhi 200 ait DENMA NETH ERLA Am NDS The sterdam Lon Hague do avre Str Vättern LAND Le H 200 Vänern Göteborg n glish Channel En City under 250,000 population 0 ak er City of 250,000 to 1,000,000 population ENG Th am es iff City over 1,000,000 population ˚ 100 rr ha Secondary Capital (State, Province, or Territory) 0 ge A Gla N 20 ot Oslo E N National Capital h n Berge S I SCO 50˚ Tampere lf T Gu A SW ED EN Y I C E N O R WA N T A C Umeå Trondhe im L O OE I (DenS LAND S .) B FA R L of T ˚ ia A 30 Tunis T U N IS I A 10˚ Palermo Sicily I T E Valletta Catania I O N I A N S E A R M ALTA R A N 20˚ E
    • 50˚ 60˚ nsk c hor a Murma ˚ 70˚ 80˚ 60 S EA Pe 80 Ob' WH IT Ir t E Oulu N or th er r vka Syk a U R I A S S ty n Dv in FIN LAN D sk ’ rm o zavked Petro h k gel’s han Ark ys La a Oneg Pe ov Kir Lake a Ladog 50 povets Chere ybinsk nd G u l f of Fi nla R Tallinn ES TO NIA k evs Izh y hni d Niz vgoro o N Res. slavl’ Yaro Lake s Peipu a Uf an’ z Ka Tver’ ara Sam Ok a ı R¯ ga LATV IA ow Mosc 70 rsburg St. Pete Helsinki A an’ Ryaz Vitsyebsk Vilnius Syr Darya es ezh U iv Khark KRAINE Dni epe r roDnip vs’k petro t Vo lga ns’k Luha K S al Ar an’ UZ akh tr As ets’k tov Ros Don S pol’ ro Stav odar v f Azo Sea o Odesa Cluj-Napoca P I n Kras A TU N y zny ea BE S KI R E KM S NI GEO RGI A an v Yere Plovdiv 60 t ba ga IJA RBA AZE A A Varna u Bak lisi Tbi NIA RME Sofia 40 N E C K B L A A S E TA S Danube pol’ Sevasto N h As Sim Bucharest TA Amu Dar ya Gro feropol’ ¸ Galati BU LG AR IA rad ZA A M OL DO VA ¸ ˘u ¸i Chi sin a Ias O KA AN T HS og Volg Rih Kryvyy zhzhya Mariupol’ Zapori Craiova ra l n Voro Kiev er ROM AN IA U Sa C D ni Vinnytsya v rato L n Do L'viv k ipets Homyel’ Chernobyl S za sk Bryan BELARUS I Pen Tula Minsk A N R. AZE n ra Istanbul Teh Thessaloníki a Ankar TURK EY IRA N AE G E A GREECE N E A A N IRA S Athens Crete S E A 30˚ N O RT H CYPRUS CYPRUS S a Nicosi Beirut YRIA Eu ph rates Q d hda Bag 30 Tig LEBAN r is ON 40˚ 50˚ A13 Europe: Political 70˚40˚ 30˚ t
    • 10˚ IC 10˚ 20˚ Fon AN tur D Arc tic C ircle rts orn e Kebnekaise 6,926 Ft. 2,111m ä en Lap Lu NO RWE GIAN SEA lv ey ds an Isl en T Su EL 0˚ t ˚ rn 20˚ Lo fo 60 Europe: Physical Ho 30˚ l ve eål n A Um Che v Hill iot s LAN D St. o Ge rg e' s ERLA r BELGIUM ck t la s B ore F e Dou tab ria n Mt ro AL UG a ia S E ALBANIA Vesuvius 4,190 Ft. 1,277m Pi E ers I T U N IS I A 10˚ Mt. Etna 10,902 Ft. 3.323m Sicily D I O N I A N S E A T E nd u . ts M M MACEDONIA s TYRR HENIAN SEA A F ALGE RIA R I C A 0˚ n A E S A (It.) Majorc IC I T A LY Sardinia a GIBR A (U.K LTAR .) h lf Gu n T Minorc Balkan SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO s A RT ic Rome s lp I e Island aric A R PO ar D IN a BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA in CO SA N M AR IN O A A14 ROC e (Fr.) n va D MO O Corsica Algi 10˚ MONAC RRA p ia CR OATIA s tar SLOVENIA Po A SLOVAKIA r ga HUNGARY u n n H ai at Pl re Dr G a s p l e ral A ee Ibiza Gib Mt. B 15,771lanc F 4,808m t. in of Mass if Cent ral AU ST RI A LIECH. n ait en ANDO Bal Str ra SWITZERLA n S PA Ju s Mor en sula ro S i e rra Peni n yr n Mts. ian Ta g us Eb Iber o a CZ EC H RE PU BL IC Danub e ND P Ib e ri a bon s. er CE e on cay Dor dog ne Du Lis Bis S y o f Rh ône Can 40˚ FRAN POLAND NY n ia em st oh re B Fo n Sei Ba O d LUX. P Paris a r i s Basin Loire GERMA E u r o a 600 Kilometers RUSSIA N o r t h e r n lb e Berlin r o f Do ve St t ai E NDS 400 Miles 400 ot B NETH Lon Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. . Lambert Conformal Conic Projection A sl Wi 200 Öland (Den.) don 300 RK er 200 DENMA ne Rhi 0 100 Vättern Bornholm Th am es glish Channel En 0 Vänern Gr Bri eat tai n C 6,560 2,000 r OM 656 200 er ag B ha Water Depth 0 0 N O R T KING S E A H D Iri S e as h 0 Sk nn el IRE ED ak I C 656 0 r älv en 200 UNIT N 1,640 D a l äl v e Stockholm ian mp ra ts. M 6,560 500 K la Ork Islanney ds G 9,840 2,000 ˚ es Land Elevation Meters Feet 3,000 20 C L I N id T SW ED EN Y of N O R WA Galdhø pigg 8,100 en Ft. 2,469m a åm 50˚ A Peninsula Gl E N br A C He O OE I (DenS LAND S .) an T L ä Scandinavi en FA R lv ˚ e T 30 R M ALTA R A N 20˚ E
    • id g O b' ˚ R e Mezen E Ir t ysh r IT U WH an SE P on land m A Kola sula Penin oy 80˚ ˚ 60 80 Ti 70˚ Pe nsk Murma 60˚ c hor a 50˚ a l n t Ka m a r e a h l r tU p o ( a on a Su kh N Lake a Ladog i n Lake a Oneg a n d U s va ) ls n Dv in u FIN LAN D o g ne O th er n or a M N s 50˚ Lake s Peipu Valdai Hills LIT HUA NIA cow Mos n a i P l tral Cen ian Russ and Upl n BELARUS D P rip y a t n ra l ie pe r C Lo wl E UKRAIN an Done d ts B asi pr ess N ion S al Ar UZ Dni epe r ea BE S KI TA N Amu Dar ya er A p De TA Dary a yr C ar as pi an S KH Vo lga n t C ZA KA Kiev es U n Do n p e a N em a I S A A Kh op ër LATV IA Ok a ES TO NIA Dn i A S I S R U sk Rybin es. R S nla n d G u l f of Fi 70 ˚ Helsinki a S th M OL DO VA ia n M ts I n C ri m e a la u Pe n in s Al ps . ROM AN IA P v f Azo Sea o R GEO u GIA Bak N R. AZE BU LG AR IA IJA RBA AZE IA EN ARM Peninsula A C K B L A be A S E IS E u Dan lbrus Mt. E10 Ft. 18,5 42m ,6 5 TU N EN ˚ 60 40˚ S n nia lva Transy A C a u c a s u s M RK N TA n ra Istanbul Teh TURK EY IRA N AE Mt. Olympus 9,570 Ft. 2,917m G E A GREE CE N IRA S E A N O RT H CYPRUS Rhodes A N Crete S E A 30˚ CYPRUS SYR IA Eu ph Q rates T ig LEBAN r is 30˚ ON 40˚ 50˚ A15 Europe: Physical 70˚ 40˚ 30˚
    • Alexandria Cairo Riyadh SAU DI AR AB IA ulf QATAR U.A.E ea NIGER Agadez Ub angi Uele Con o DEM. REP. OF CONGO Kigali Bujumbura Kinshasa UGANDA TANZANIA avango NAMIBIA 20˚ o Gaborone Li corn ne an h BOTSWANA Tropic of Capri MOZA MBIQU E p m Beira po Pretoria Johannesburg Orange C Harare ZIMBABWE Windhoek Antsiranana (Fr.) Lake Kariba bi Ok Mayotte Lake Nyasa Lilongwe am (U.K.) Ndola ZAMBIA Lusaka e i ez Za m b St. Helena 10˚ COMOR OS MALAWI qu Huambo OCEAN SEYCHELLES Dar es Salaam oz ATLANTIC 10˚ Mombasa Dodoma Kolwezi Lubumbashi ANGOLA Antananarivo MA DAG ASC AR MAURITIUS 20˚ Fianarantsoa Reunion (Fr.) Maputo SWAZILAND Maseru LESOTHO Durban SOUTH AFRICA 30˚ (Yem.) INDIAN OCEAN M Lobito Socotra n 0˚ (St. Helena) 10˚ de Mogadishu Nairobi BURUNDI Ascension of A Gulf SOMALIA KENYA Lake Victoria Lake Tanganyika Luanda DJIBOUTI Djibouti Lake Turkana RWANDA Mbuji- YEME N Dire Dawa Addis Ababa Kampala Kisangani Brazzaville ile TOGO eN Waw Lake Tana ETHIOPIA in Nile ta Moun N SUDAN er EQUATORIAL REP. OF GUINEA Libreville CONGO SAO TOME AND GABON PRINCIPE Equator ERITREA Asmara Omdurman Khartoum CHAD Blu ig er l Gao 20˚ OMA N l E W nG Port Sudan Nile MAL I N Lake Niamey Chad Abéché Bamako BURKINA FASO GUINEAOuagadougou Kano N'Djamena BISSAU GUINEA BENIN NIGERIA Conakry GHANA Abuja e Nig Freetown Lake nu Volta COTE Be SIERRA LEONE D'IVOIRE Cotonou CENTRAL AFRICAN Monrovia REPUBLIC Lagos CAMEROON LIBERIA Accra Bangui Abidjan Douala Yaoundé Malabo g GAMBIA rs ia Aswan Timbuktu SENEGAL KUWAIT Asyut Lake Nasser Tamanrasset Sénég a 30˚ JORDAN dS (M SA ST OR HA ER OC RA N CO ) EGYPT Suez MA UR ITA NIA Dakar 0˚ LIBYA Tropic of Cancer Nouakchott CA PE VE RD E 10˚ ISRAEL Re 20˚ Sabha ¯ In Salah IR A N IRAQ LEBANON Pe ALG ERI A El Aaiún ISTAN40˚ TURKMEN a S ea Banghazı ¯ ¯ TAN UZBEKIS A S I A SYRIA CYPRUS (Spain) AZER. Se Canary Islands r MALTA ane an Gulf of Tripoli Sidra Ghardaia GEORGIA ARM. TUR KEY GREECE Athens TUNISIA MOROCCO Bla ck Se a BUL. Aral 60˚ Sea KAZ. an Marrakec Qacentina Tunis 50˚ pi (Port.) 30˚ Oran 40˚ RUSSIA ALB. Med it e Algiers Raba Casablanca t Madeira Islands SERB. Rome SPAI N Gibraltar BOS. ITALY Madrid 30˚ UKRAINE ROMANIA as Strait of AUS. HUNG20˚ . EUROPE ATL ANT IC P O R TU G A L OCE AN Azore (Port.) s 10˚ CE C 40˚ 0˚ AN FR 10˚ r Africa: Political 20˚ 30˚ 30˚ Port Elizabeth Cape Town National Capital Tristan da p Cunha Grou (St. Helena) City over 1,000,000 population City of 250,000 to 1,000,000 population 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Miles 40˚ City under 250,000 population 40˚ . 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection 30˚ A16 20˚ 10˚ Prince Edward Islands (S. Af.) 0˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ Crozet Isla nds (Fr.) 40˚ 50˚ 60˚
    • Ub angi Uele Congo ll G r e a t R i f t Va a 10˚ G re at R t if ETHIOPIA Lake Turkana UGANDA KENYA Mt. Kenya 17,058 Ft. 5,199m Lake Victoria Kilimanjaro 19,340 Ft. 5,895m Serengeti BURUNDI Plain Masai Steppe Lake Tanganyika SEYCHELLES Zanzibar TANZANIA 0˚ INDIAN OCEAN Nairobi RWANDA z Cuan ey (St. Helena) Kasai go an Kw Ascension nSocotra d e (Yem.) of A Cape Gwardafuy LIA TOGO DEM. REP. OF CONGO Kinshasa DJIBOUTI Gulf MA ig er CAMEROON EQUATORIAL REP. OF GUINEA CONGO C o n g o SAO TOME AND GABON Basin PRINCIPE N ile CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC Mt. Cameroon 13,451 Ft. Gulf of Guinea Bioko 4,100m Equator eN Lagos LIBERIA As Sudd e nu Be Lake Tana Ethiopian Plateau in Nile ta Moun COTE D'IVOIRE SUDAN NIGERIA Jos Plateau te Nile Lake Volta YEME N W hi GHANA Ni BENIN ger GUINEA ERITREA Khartoum CHAD Lake Chad 20˚ OMA N Ennedi l N BURKINA FASO Nubian Desert Blu Dakar SAU DI AR AB IA ulf QATAR U.A.E SO e t y h nG Va a Lake Nasser r 11,204 Ft. 3,415m NIGER S SENEGAL e rs ia ea MAL I s ti es Tibassif M Mt. Koussi Aïr (Mts.) Sénég al SIERRA LEONE e Cairo Nile MA UR ITA NIA D KUWAIT EGYPT Libyan Desert a 30˚ JORDAN Pe LIBYA r a a IR A N ISRAEL Qattara Depression ar agg Ah ts. M ISTAN40˚ TURKMEN Se h an a pi S Tahat 9,541 Ft. 2,908m AZER. IRAQ LEBANON dS Ij af e en TAN UZBEKIS A S I A SYRIA CYPRUS S ea Aral60˚ Sea KAZ. TUR KEY Re Tropic of Cancer 20˚ 0˚ GEORGIA ARM. r (M OR OC CO ) GUINEABISSAU BUL. Gulf of Sidra ALG ERI A W ES TE RN SA HA RA GAMBIA r MALTA ane an tains TUNISIA Moun tlas A Great Great Eastern Western Desert Desert Canary Islands Cape Verde Bla ck Se a GREECE MOROCCO (Spain) 10˚ Med it Algiers e 50˚ as SPAI N (Port.) CA PE VE RD E BOS. SERB. 40˚ RUSSIA 30˚ UKRAINE ROMANIA ALB. Gibraltar Madeira Islands 30˚ 20˚ AUS. HUNG. ITALY (Port.) Strait of 10˚ EUROPE lle 0˚FR AN CE 10˚ C 40˚ 20˚ ATL ANT IC P O R TU G A L OCE AN Azores 10˚ 10˚ ANGOLA ATLANTIC ZAMBIA an ne l rt Cape of Good Hope e qu bi am Reunion (Fr.) 20˚ Barra Point Johannesburg Cape Sainte-Marie SWAZILAND sb er LESOTHO SOUTH AFRICA 0 Water Depth 0 0 m al Va Orange MAURITIUS MA DAG ASC AR M o Desert h oz BOTSWANA po Kalahari p 656 0 30˚ C ZIMBABWE Dese 1,640 200 Tropic of Capricorn 6,560 500 Victoria Falls Lake Kariba avango NAMIBIA 9,840 2,000 Ok b mi Na OCEAN 3,000 (Fr.) MOZA MBIQU E zi be m Za Cunene Li (U.K.) Land Elevation Meters Feet Cape Ambre Mayotte Lake Nyasa St. Helena 20˚ COMOR OS MALAWI g en ak Dr 30˚ Cape Agulhas 656 200 Tristan da p Cunha Grou (St. Helena) 6,560 2,000 0 200 400 600 800 40˚ 1000 Miles 40˚ . 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 Kilometers Prince Edward Islands (S. Af.) Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection 30˚ 20˚ 10˚ 0˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ 40˚ Crozet Isla nds (Fr.) 50˚ 60˚ A17 Africa: Physical 30˚
    • A18 Asia: Political
    • 30° ISLAND (U.S) S Sea City over 1,000,000 population UTIAN B e r in g Anadyr' ALE City of 250,000 to 1,000,000 population City under 250,000 population Pe Ka trop mc avl hat ovsk s k iy - 17 0° Kam Pen chatka i n su la Pal ana n Ya ad an a n g yan hen S g ijin Be njin Tia an Jin uan g Lhasa C ra i Hano f Gulf o Tonkin ne Andaman Sea g on ek Bangkok ND 180 nce r ic o f Ca N A E C A S S ine p ilip Ka 10° L nd an Isla n Luzo AM h VIETN LI PHI Sulu ty h Ci Ph i Min o Ch H ) AM GU S. (U. ES AT ST SIA ED E AT ON ER ICR ED M F Ph t trai NE PPI OF S 0° r ama r to S ua u Ceb AU PAL ao dan Min Eq ai tan l ma au Na Rab ao Sea Dav bes Cele Sea a ine New o anad M Gu EW AN PU EA PA GUIN 10° B YSIA MALA IA MALAYS (India) Kuala r Lumpu Medan pore m es Celeb rmasin Banja Sumatra ang 100° e rob detta on op P rai ma Sa Mo Cera o Borne Singa Palemb a se RUNEI Nicobar Islands ng vie Ka a Tal Seri dar Ban egawan B 90° ea ng iu ohs nS uzo n DIA CAMBO nom Pe Gulf of d Thailan AN TAIW th Sou i n a anila Ch M ang Sea Da N a Vienti THAILA NO ei Hain M Yangon M N ND E R L A (U.S.) H S RT I p Tai ou gzh n Gua g Hon g ning Nan Kon BNGL. LAOS hu us Ky IA u ho Fuz ng ing M YA NM AR u ok ik Sh ait Chon Kunm Dhaka ng Chittago san Str gqing an (Y Guiya ut ap Os Pu an ng ha Yel ea S J a ak TH SOU EA low KOR Ta iw gt ze ) du Cheng o Se a oy ag PAN N A ai gh t s S Ea na ng anji u Chi a N o han Hangzh Se Wu Xi'an N A C H I ul n ha Huan ou Lanzh H RT NO REA KO To R Taiy Hu an g IA 20° A C o ky ns Ho N g han hu of a Se pan Ja chu Ula (India) V tar aa anb Andaman Islands k to ro os po iv ap d la S bin r Ha O ar qih Qi A ta Chi Enisej M I Ho Irkutsk OL ONG do ai kk C Kh P Lena e Lakikal Ba r ba a Amur Kraynoyarsk m Brah F sk ov Angara BHUTAN I s Kuril Island lin ha Sa k A I S C uts k Ya Tro p k ° O Sea kh ot of sk Ma g 40° 50° 60° 70° ian Sea Ea st S iber Ne w Isl Siber and ian s a e Lena Asia: Political vS pte La National Capital ea D O I N aS rta Jav Jaka dung aya n Ba Surab va Ja 110° 120° I A S a E N anda Se OR B TIM Ar T EAS r o Tim or Ti m a Se 130° a a fur Se ral Co ea S a lf Gu f o taria n rpe A Ca LI S AU TR A 140° 20° 150° le svil n Tow A19
    • A20 Asia: Physical
    • 40° 50° 30° ° ic o f Ca Tro p N F id o A C E I ji Fu t. t. M 88 F m ,3 76 12 3,7 ku iko Sh TH SOUREA KO C 20° P O A o ky N PA JA N A u ush Ky R ai A Shan g st Ea na hi C a Se S NO 10° Str g AN TAIW Xi BHUTAN tra pu dd y BNGL. M YA NM AR of Gulf in Tonk Re d LAOS M d Hain e ko n Chi ng THAILA ND AM VIETN Bangkok Andaman Islands (India) F 0° ua AU PAL ao dan Sea Min Eq Sea Gulf of d Thailan MALAY PENINSULA EI YSIA MALA ALAYSIA M Str .o fM ala cca 100° s ebe Cel ea S BRUN pore Singa lu cc as m ea da S Ban A o Borne rta Java Jaka 110° D O I N N E I S A OR T TIM EAS r Timo o Ti m 120° 10° Cera bes e r a t G r e a n s l I Sea Java EW AN PU EA PA GUIN w Ne nea i Gu Cele a n d S u d s r to a Sulu OF S a Manil DIA CAMBO Sumatra 90° n ES AT ST SIA D E TE N RA RO DE MIC E o (India) t M Nicobar Islands Andaman Sea S. (U. Luzo I NE L IP P PHI lan an Is th Sou AM GU trai on S Luz lween Sa Irrawa ma Brah ) ne pi lip i Ph Sea Ta iw an an Ch ait (Y an g N A inling Shandi ) C H I Q tze M N ND E R L A (U.S.) H S RT I S gh n ha Huan nce r 180 ij hu ns To H RT NO REA KO ing Be Ho low Yel ea S Qilia n C I S ar Tat ge ter Khingan Ran of a n Se pa a J A ert a kk Ho IA OLI Des Gobi Kuril Islands Sa kh ali n tra ts. lin M Sikhote-A it a yR Grea . 6,560 O vo Amur e Lak kal Bai G MON ts 656 200 e Stano Sayan Mountain s i M 0 2,000 ng a i r e b i 17 0° B e r in g Sea Ka Penmchat insu ka la Se a kh o ot f sk nsk Mts. Lena ra Anga ta 656 Water Depth 0 0 nds S 1,640 0 rian A S I R U S Al A le u t ia n I sl an d s (U . S. ) Arctic Circle 60° 70° Ea st S iber Sea ian Ne w Isl Siber an ian ds a ya Asia: Physical ho tral Upla 6,560 500 200 Ve rk Sibe 9,840 2,000 r ka yr Taym ula s Penin Cen 3,000 ma Koly In d ig i e pt La e vS Land Elevation Meters Feet ea r S 130° fu ra ra Se a lf Gu f o aria t pen r Ca IA S AU TR AL 140° ral Co ea S 20° 150° A21
    • 20° an 40° 600 800 Miles 120° 130° it Bass Stra Sydney Canberra Mel 140° Tasmania 150° 160° Sea Tas ma n Brisbane 170° Mt. Cook 12,316 Ft. 3,754m South Island NEW ZEALAND (Austl.) NORFOLK ISLAND New Caledonia (FR.) NEW CALEDONIA A FIJI TUVALU 180° 180° ait SAMOA TONGA ds 170° Chatham Islan 170° Isla Southern Cook Islands .Z.) COOK ISLA NDS (N 9,840 1,640 2,000 500 0 656 150° 2,000 160° 6,560 200 Water Depth 0 0 0 656 6,560 3,000 200 s Hawaii Kiritimati Soc iety I A Tropic slands of C o apric o rn hi pe la g FREN POLYN CH ESIA Equator 140° 130° City under 250,000 population 120° City of 250,000 to 1,000,000 population City over 1,000,000 population 30° .K.) PITC A (U IRN 20° 10° 0° 10° 20° 130° Marqu esas Is. Tropic of Cancer 140° Secondary Capital (State, Province, or Territory) National Capital Austra l Is. I Tahiti O C E A N Land Elevation Meters Feet (N.Z.) NIUE nd 150° Australia and Oceania P A C I F I C ian 160° Hawai AMERICAN No rt he rn Co ok Is la nd s SAMOA TOKELAU (N.Z.) Kermadec Islan ds (N.Z.) Koro Sea (FR.) WALLIS AND FUTUNA Wellington Str N K I R I B AT I North Island Auckland 50° ok Co 110° Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection f uszko Mount Kosci 7,310 Ft. 29m bourne 2,2 ay 0 400 Mu rr I 200 400 600 800 1000 Kilometers 200 T 0 E t R N GE RA Bigh ralian t Aust Grea D G 30° G A IA ie ID ee I A TOR T VIC GREA SERT DE rr IN rt n Dese Ba V R VANUATU S NAURU E I Gibso at A s er t dy De R A L I t San G re a U S T A r E N SOLOMON ISLANDS N O Coral Sea A R S Carpentaria Cape York G re Peninsula Torres Strait Gulf of Sea L C MARSHALL ISLANDS 170° L ey Kimberl Plateau Arafura E Mount Wilhelm 14,793 Ft. 4,509m Solomon Sea Bism arck Sea M PAPUA NEW GUINEA Port Moresby New Guinea I FEDER ATED STATE S OF MICRO NESIA M 160° O Timor Sea EAST TIMOR Puncak Jaya 16,503 Ft. 5,030m PALAU (U.S.) GUAM (U.S.) NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS 150° N Timor as a Banda Se u ESIA cc Ceram Halmahera Mindanao ol INDON Ce le be s Se a Ce leb es Su lu Se a Sea Philippine 140° Y 20° Manila Luzon 130° E 10° 0° TAIWAN Taipei PH ILI PP INE S Mindoro 10° it ra 120° St Luzon Strait South China Sea i Ta w CHINA M s ng P nd li International Date Line ne la c Ar ar Li Is tu mo D A22 a Tu S
    • 10˚ 10˚ uro) AT L OCAN EA TIC N Du riu s (Do IBE RIA Ib e r( P y ee s 0˚ 10˚ Alps ET Padus (Po) Nicaea Athenop olis ro Ap LY I TA S N ria Ad en ni c ti ne s Neapolis Cyme Se a Taras a nub e) Ist e r GREECE Potidaea Epidamnus (D 20˚ EP IRU Corcyra Delphi S Achaean Olympia Abdera 30˚ Istrus Odessus Apollonia Tyra Bo r (D ysthen nie e per) s Olbia us or Teium sp a Cromna 40˚ is Tana s ts Amisu M Ta n n) o (D a Malati Marash . us ez Trap 50˚ A ca NI Ca u ME su s Mt. e Lak n Va UR AR T U AS at es r ˚ 60 CA SP rat Ara g Ti ri s IA gr Ur AM 40˚ IA EL a Sus 30˚ 20˚ n sia Per Gulf NIA ts . ME D M a Lars BY LO u BA N s ke La mia Ur IRE r u Nipp ylon BIA Bab N EM P Assu SY kin harru R Dur S h h emis Nineveh Cala AR sis Pha us as Pity curi Dios eotis e Ma v) Lak of Azo (Sea Sinope S TA U R IC NESUS C H E R S O E A ) Heraclea (C R IM US Tomi EUXIN PONTUS K SEA) (BLAC Bo Heracle m Gordiu Tyana us ASSYRI A h Carc Adana l Sama o Euphr Alepp s ascu Dam Sea ARA Phoenicians 40˚ Other Cities Dorian Etruscans Ionian Assyrian Empire Phoenician Colonies Parent locations in red Euboean Achaean Corinthian Greeks aria Sam salem Jeru h Dead Lachis Greek Colonies S IN A I PEN. ae Daphn Joppa Gaza Tyre Citium Byblos Sidon Tarsus N GATE CILICIA Ta u r Paphos Cyprus Astacus s Proponti Rhodes Miletus LY D IA Lampsacus Aenus Byzantium Aegean Olynthus Ionian Lesbos Phocaea Sardes Chalcis Clazomenae Athens Sea Euboean Corinthian Corinth Crete Gortyn S E A Sais LOWER Naucratis EGYPT Memphis EGYPT UPPER EGYPT s Syene Thebe N U B IA Za IA Sparta PELOPONNESUS Dorian MA GN A GR AEC IA Syracuse Rhegium Catana Elea Himera Acragas Selinus A Motya Tyrrhenian Sea Rome SCA RU Sardinia Alalia Corsica Mass ilia Mago Aphro disias Rhod e Empo riae gatha A Tarrac o ric Is. R Carales R Utica Carthage N Cyrene Tauchira Euhesperides LI B YA ract 1st Cata bel Abu Sim 30˚ A SE m Eb Sag untu re n Ancient World in the 7th Century B.C. 20˚ Tagus N) ea Bal Tharru s Reg. Hippo Dia. M E D I T E Hippo N E SI CI LY A Leptis Greater Syrtis AFR ICA 300 Miles 400 Kilometers Oea Hadrumetum Thapsus 200 Lesser Syrtis Sabrata 100 200 20˚ s ai PHOE NICI SY A RIA (SP AI P of H illars G ercu ade Abdera s les 30˚ 0 0 Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. . Equidistant Conic Projection e il N Rho d (Rh anus ône) A23 )
    • Roman Empire About A.D. 120 20˚ 10˚ 0˚ 10˚ T IRE LAN D I C N rac nt a Se bri a a Lig er n Br unu ica Guad ia a tum rdu ba TIC nda His A Ca rA ugu es bo lac a Com um um Po Aquil Vero n eia a Genu ium Bono Rave nna Flore ntia Ancon a COR SIC AN A SARD D INIA ME DI tha TE ge RR Rom e Capua Car sis A Cara N E A i Hadru A IA NU MI DIA m MODERN NAME ROMAN NAME Philippopo Brundis lis ium MACEDONI A Thessalonica Demetrias Aegean Sea ACHAIA Athens SE A er S yrti s Crete Gortyn Oea CR ET E AN D CY RE NE Cyrene Great er Sy r t is C Y R E N A I C A F R I C A Roman Empire Parthian Empire Armenia Temporarily held by Rome 20˚ A24 Serdica se MODERN NAME Londinium.............................London Lugdunum .................................Lyon Lugdunum Batavorum ...........Leiden Lutetia .......................................Paris Malaca ..................................Malaga Massilia...............................Marseille Mazaca Caesarea .................Kayseri Mediolanum .............................Milan Moguntiacum ..........................Mainz Nemausus...............................Nimes Olisipo ....................................Lisbon Patavium.................................Padua Salmantica ......................Salamanca Thessalonica .......................Salonika Toletum...................................Toledo Tolosa .................................Toulouse Valentia ................................Valencia Vindobona.............................Vienna Naissus Corinth Leptis Ancyra ...................................Ankara Aquincum ..........................Budapest Arelate.......................................Arles Augusta Treverorum.......Trier, Treves Augusta Vindelicorum .......Augsburg Augustodunum........................Autun Bononia ...............................Bologna Burdigala ...........................Bordeaux Caesar Augusta ...............Saragossa Camulodunum.................Colchester Carales..................................Cagliari Colonia Agrippina................Cologne Deva .....................................Chester Eburacum ..................................York Emerita Augusta ....................Merida Gades ......................................Cadiz Hispalis...................................Seville Lindum ..................................Lincoln DALMA TIA Narona Ionian Sea Roman City Names and Modern Equivalents ROMAN NAME D A C Viminiacium Sparta Less TUL ana) Sirmium Syracu metum Thapsu s AFRIC Sarmizegetusa (Colonia Ulpia Traj Rhegium age este IA ium na entum SIC ILY m Dyrrhach Messi Agrig Aquincu atic Sea Tarentu rhen ian Sea N Carth Thev ugad tum u be Corcyra Utica Cirta Tham Ty r les an US bae eii Carnun EPIR is Lam Adri Pomp Hipp Hippo Dia rr o Re gius hytus Sitif Salonae Ostia D Siscia nia Li silia S g u r i a n ea ona PANNON Patav a co ins GAE UM Vindo b Y s NORIC TIA Mas ds ric Islan Balea New RHAE ps iolan mau su Arela s te Nar Carpathians Au Vindegusta licoru m a Al Tarr a ntia lo niss um Ilerd Val e Vind o L la dun A Ma Lug cum Rh NY RMA UPPER GE IS ENS NARBON Ne sta stu s ne untia tum T pali esa re Mog ntora Med sa MAURETANIA At Arge ul a G E R M A N Y I BAE Ca s u IS a Tol e Co Mo ro BELG rum ICA ENS Vi st pina Trev e Tol o ) bro (E S P A I Ta gu s N IT a nt DUN ITAN IA y tic Em ANIA Au erit gu a sta na gis usta etia ( L o i r e) (Lost ER in 9 A .D.) Colo MAN nia Y Agrip UM IC YR ILL Nu NEN ma SIS nti a P an LUS Tin LOW ) a us er Ib ACO lm de ne on n ar (G um r Ga tur El be GER Aug Lut LUG AQU TAR R uro Sa Ga Lug Bata dunum voru m nel ala Do Mu m rdig As Sea lod ium G A Augustod U L unum Bu ac ar Po a Au rtu g s C usta ale o Chan um dum e in Se Ca sip Ebu Balti c n TAIN mu English S e a dria Lin BRI Ca inu N o s r t h f Ha a din Oli ton Wa ll o Dev A Lon 40˚ f An e N Wa ll o in E A Rh on e C L IN BRITA O T ALP PRO INE VS. A 30˚ 20˚ 60˚ 50˚
    • 40˚ Dn B a Roman Empire About A.D. 120 30˚ ie p er SARMATIA ta er st s Dn ie rn n Ta l Ara Sea ais ia Olbia n Lake Maeotis C Phanagoria 40˚ S s. Panticapeum A Mt I A P ias Dioscur BLACK SEA Odessus CAUCA N MOESIA be IA Tomi Da n u SU S Trapezus Heraclea Nicaea l Ha BITHYNIA Prusa ys PONTUS IA ARMEN A.D.) 14-117 (1 Ancyra Pergamum GALATIA Mazaca Caesarea ASIA LYCAONIA Iconium PISIDIA Halicarnassus AMPHYLIA LYCIA CILICIA Rhodes Tyana Laodicea Adana SOPH COMMAGENE Carrhae P EN E RhesaenaNisibis OSROENE Dura m Circesiu Palmyra Damascus Emesa (115.D.) A ME SO Euphra tes is SYRIA CYP RUS Ecba r Tig Apamea tana IA ASSYR 17 -1 Singara m Nicephoriu Antioch L. anus Mati Amida Edessa Tarsus Rhodes L. itis Thosp Melitene CAPPADOCIA Smyrna Sardes Ephesus ata Artax LE AR SSE ME R NIA Amisus Nicomedia A Byzantium THRACE SE Sinope PO Sidon Tyre TA M ZAGRUS M TS. cia Seleu hon Ctesip IA lon Baby Caesarea (115 -11 N I A T H R P A R E P I E M 30˚ Susa 7A .D.) SIA PALE STINE Alexandria B I A A R A Pe rsi an Gu lf e Arsinoe N il A AR A Petra Arsinoe BIA Pelusium Memphis PER PETRAEA Jerusalem Gaza Oxyrhynchus Antinoopolis EGYPT 0 100 200 300 Miles Ptolemais Coptos Thebes 30˚ Syene Red Sea Berenice 0 200 400 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. . Equidistant Conic Projection 40˚ 50˚ A25
    • The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires in the 16th and 17th Centuries 10° 0° 10° 20° 30° POLAND HOLY ROM AN EM PIRE 50° Dn epr AT L A N T I C OCEAN Budapest 1529 Mohács 1526 Venice Milan Genoa Ad Ackerman 1484 Crimea Belgrade 1521 ri at ic Se GAL Naples Kaffa 1475 Nikopolis 1396 Kosovo 1389, 1448 a Varna 1444 Black Sea Constantinople (Istanbul) 1453 Edirne 1360 Otranto P O RT U 40° Danu be Vienna 1529, 1683 F R ANC E Lepanto 1571 SPAI N Aegean Sea Bursa 1326 Ankara Sögüd ˇ 1402 Elbistan Malaga Granada Algiers Adana Tunis 1533, 1574 Rhodes Me Fez Crete diter 1522 Cyprus 1669 ranean Sea 1571 Beirut Tripoli 1551 Jerusalem 1516 Cairo 1517 30° Mughal Lands Conquered after 1635 Uzbek States in the 16th Century Ottoman Empire and its Dependencies in the 16th and 17th Centuries Area disputed with Safavids Safavid Empire in the 16th Century Area disputed with Uzbeks Kingdom of Babur in 1525 Area Disputed with Safavids and Uzbeks ile Ottoman Empire to 1481 N Ottoman Empire to 1360 20° Mughal Empire in 1635 Towns or Settlements Ottoman Capitals Main Portuguese Trade Settlements Safavid Capitals Towns with Large Portuguese Population Mughal Capitals 10° Mosul 1516 0 0 200 200 400 600 400 600 Chaldiran 1514 800 1000 Site and Date of Important Battle 800 Miles 1200 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. . Miller Equal Area Projection 0° 10° A26 Date of Control 0° 10° 20° 30°
    • 50° 70° 60° The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires in the 16th and 17th Centuries 40° 80° MU SC OVY Ural Vo lga n Do 50° Don-Volga Canal Project 1569 Azov Syr Aral Sea Da ry a (J a ) es rt xa Ca sp Ghujduvan 1512 Marv Astarabad Mashhad Shiraz 1504 Basra 1546 Pe Bandar ‘Abbas rs i an G ul Kabul Jam 1528 Lahore Qandahar Panipat 1526, 1556 Multan Kirman 1504 30° Delhi Kannauj 1540 Kelat 1595 Fatihpur Sikri Hurmuz SIND 1591 f Gulf of Oman Masqat Medina us KASHMIR 1586 Yazd 1504 Isfahan 1503 Balkh Harat 1510 d In Qazvin Hamadan 1503 Qum 1503 Kashan 1503 Baghdad 1534 40° Samarqand ) s s Damascus 1516 Bukhara xu (O ri ates a g Ti Eu ph r Kirmanshah 1503 D a Ardabil 1501 Tabriz 1501 Mosul 1516 Aleppo 1516 u a ry Erivan Chaldiran 1514 Marj Dabiq 1516 Am e n S Tiflis Bashkent 1473 ˛ Urganch ia Darband Trabzon 1461 Agra Lucknow Jaunpur Jodhpur Chanderi 1572 Cambay 1572 R Mecca Chavsa 1539 Patna GONDWANA Surat ed Diu Se 1538 Rissa Daman Ahmadnagar 1598 BERAR 1596 a Ramgir 1687 20° Bidar Arabian Sea Gulf Bijapur 1686 Goa Golconda 1687 Bay of Bengal Mangalore en of Ad 10° Cochin Ceylon (Sri Lanka) N Colombo INDIAN OCEAN 0° 40° 50° 60° 70° INDIAN 80° A27
    • A28 Revolutions in the Atlantic World 1776–1826
    • Revolutions in the Atlantic World 1776–1826 A29
    • 110° 100° 80° 90° TEXAS 40° 50° AT L A N T I C OCEAN U.S. annexation,1845 R 30° de an Gr vo a Br 1836 from Mex. .) Br 1821 From Sp. 1823 Tampico San Luis Potosí Ba Gulf of Mexico ( as MEXICO 20° U.S.,1822-25 Matamoros Havana U.S., 1848 U.S.,1800 1844 CUBA YUCATÁN 1847-53 México 30° m ha Monterrey Veracruz U.S.,1824 Santo Domingo 1844-61 Santiago JAMAICA 20° PUERTO RICO Virgin Is.(Den.) Port-au-Prince BELIZE San Juan HAITI 1848 1804 from Fr. DOMINICAN Guadeloupe Br.,1807-14 GUATEMALA HONDURAS 1815,1822 Br., 1806-20 REPUBLIC Martinique Guatemala Tegucigalpa 1846 C a r i b b e a n 1821 from Sp. 1844 from Haiti St Lucia San Salvador Barbados Sea Aruba EL SALVADOR León Bluefields Bonaire St Vincent MOSQUITIA Maracaibo Grenada NICARAGUA Curaçao (Miskito Tobago Caracas (CENTRAL AMERICAN STATES) San José Indians) Cartagena 1821 from Sp. Trinidad VENEZUELA COSTA RICA 1823 from Mexico Panamá 1819 from Sp. 1842 Angostura 1830 from 1838 From United Provinces Georgetown Gran Colombia of Central America Paramaribo BRITISH 1827-1829 GUIANA Cayenne Bogotá no DUTCH FRENCH co NUEVA GRANADA GUIANA GUIANA 1819 from Sp. 1830 from Gran Colombia 10° Ori Magda len a 10° 60° 70° U.S. 1846-48 io Quito Ne z Ama Ceará Lake Titicaca Iquique Independent state Jujuy Antofagasta British colony CHILE 1818 from Sp. 1830 French colony Spanish colony Valparaíso Santiago U.S. colony Concepción Disputed area Valdivia Latin American military forces c cis Fran 10° Diamantina 20° Rio de Janeiro São Paulo Asunción Tucumán LA PLATA 1835-45 1816 from Sp. 1826,1838-39 Pôrto Alegre Santa 1825-28 Córdoba Fé 1825-28 1843-45 URUGUAY Sp., 1828 from Brazil Mendoza 1814 from Rosario 1836-52 Montevideo Br.,1828,1843 Buenos R í od Aires e la Plata U.S.,1833 Fr.,1806-07,1845 Br.,1838,1845 aná Dutch colony 1831-35 Minas Novas PARAGUAY 1811 from Sp. Salta Copiapó o Bahia y agu Chuquisaca Potosí G RAN CH ACO 1836-39 Pa r 20° Mato Grosso a Tacna Arica BOLIVIA 1825 from Sp. 1839 La Paz Pernambuca São Cuzco Pisco To c a n t i n s u ACRE PERU 1821 from Sp. aia 1822 from Port. Callao Lima N Maranhão on BRAZIL li Ucaya ñón ra Trujillo U.S., Br., Fr., 1835-36 10° 40° Pará Ma PA C I F I C OCEAN 30° 0° gr o ECUADOR 1822 from Sp. 1830 from Gran Colombia Guayaquil Aragu Galápagos Is. (Ec.) Xing 0° Par Latin America 1800–1850 Gila 30° 40° U.S. or European intervention PATAGONIA (Mapuche Indians) Projected canals 0 Independence date and colonial power 50° 0 Br.,1833 U.S.,1831-32 200 400 400 800 A30 800 1000 Miles 1200 1600 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Pseudo-Cylindrical Projection Civil war Falkland Islands 120° 600 110° 100° 90° 80° 70° 60° South Georgia 50° 40° 30° 50°
    • 110° U.S., 1853 100° 80° 90° 60° 70° R io 30° Havana Sp.,1868 CUBA 1898 from Sp. U.S., 1891 DOMINICAN U.S.,1898 Fr.,1861-67 Santiago REPUBLIC San Juan Santo PUERTO RICO HAITI Domingo JAMAICA Virgin Is. (Den.) Veracruz BRITISH 1865 Port-auHONDURAS Guadeloupe Navassa I. (U.S.) Prince 1871 Br.,1896, 1899 Sp., 1861-65 Dominica U.S., 1853-54,1857,1894, México 1854, 1857-60, 1867, 1876 20° HONDURAS 1896,1898,1899 GUATEMALA1885 Martinique St. Lucia 1857 Guatemala C U.S.,1856,1860, a r i b b e a n Barbados St. Vincent San Salvador 1865,1868, S e a 1876 NICARAGUA Curaçao EL SALVADOR 1873,1885, 1855-57 Grenada 1897 1895,1898 Maracaibo Greytown Tobago San Juan del Sur Caracas 1857 Cartagena Trinidad VENEZUELA COSTA RICA Panamá 1858-63 Angostura 1870 PANAMA 1868-70 (Ciudad Georgetown Bolívar) Paramaribo BRITISH COLOMBIA GUIANA Cayenne 10° Ori dalen a 10° .) Br Tampico Sp.,1868-78, 1895-98 ( as MEXICO San Luis Potosí U.S.,1870 U.S., 1898 Gulf of Mexico Sp., Br., 1861-63 30° Ba m ha de an Gr o av Br U.S.,1859,1866, 1873,1876 Monterrey 20° 40° 50° AT L A N T I C OCEAN GADSDEN PURCHASE Latin America 1850–1900 Gila no Mag Bogotá DUTCH FRENCH GUIANA GUIANA co 1863-80,1899-1903 Quito Ne ECUADOR Pará (Belém) Manaus n Tabatinga Ceará (Fortaleza) BRAZIL Sp.,1866 CHILE Concepción co cis ná Pôrto Alegre 1855 1864-65, 1868 1851-52 Córdoba Santa Fé Mendoza Rosario Santiago Buenos Aires ARGENTINA 1889 Rio de Janeiro São Paulo 1865-70 U.S.,Br.,1858 Valparaíso 20° ra Asunción Tucumán U.S.,1891 1851, 1859, 1891 Diamantina 1855 Salta 30° Minas Novas Jujuy Copiapó Bahia (Salvador) y PARAGUAY Antofagasta PA C I F I C OCEAN Mato Grosso G RAN Sucre CH ACO Potosí 1879-83 Iquique 10° Sã 1867,1889-1903 BOLIVIA 1899 La Paz Tacna Arica 20° Pernambuco (Recife) o Fr an u Cuzco Lake Titicaca Pa Pisco ua Sp.,1864 ag N Xing ACRE PERU Callao Lima Par 10° 1867 To c a n t i n s ar li Ucaya ón añ M Trujillo Maranhão o Amaz aia Guayaquil 0° g ro Galápagos Is. (Ec.) Aragu 0° It.,1868 30° Fr.,Sp.,1855,1868 Br.,1858,1868 URUGUAY 1865,1892 Río de Montevideo U.S.,1855,1858,1868 la Plata 1852,1859, 1861,1890 U.S.,1852-53,1890 Valdivia Br.,Fr.,1852 40° 40° 1879 0 0 200 400 400 800 600 800 1200 1000 Miles 1600 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Pseudo-Cylindrical Projection PATAG O N I A 50° 50° Falkland Islands South Georgia 120° 110° 100° 90° 80° 70° 60° 50° 40° 30° A31
    • rid 400 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. . Lambert Conformal Conic Projection 200 0˚ 10˚ S E A Naples (16) 72,000 24,348,000 ITALIA N STATES 200,000 17,535,000 AUSTRIA (49) SERBIA (11) 20˚ O IT ow 40˚ Mosc E Paris Cities of 1,000,000 or more 5% or less of population in cities of 100,000 or more 6-10% of population in cities of 100,000 or more Railroads Ship tons in ports 40˚ Pig iron production in long or metric tons 4,200,000 Railroad mileage per million of population (52) 650,000 Population in 1850 Explanation of Figures Constantinople Cities from 500,000 to 1,000,000 Berlin Cities from 200,000 to 500,000 35,800,000 30˚ E O P U R E 60˚ 20% or more of population in cities of 100,000 or more 300,0 00 I (6N ) 0,000 57,20 60˚ 50˚ 40˚ 50˚ 50˚ Industrialization of Europe 1815 A S I R U S ople M Constantin A N E M P I R E GREECE 1,035,000 MONT ENEGR O WH rg tersbu Saint Pe WALLACHIA H U N G A R Y 13,192,000 A T 0 300 Miles 0 N (6) S W I T Z. Vienna E T M E 0 ,00 D I 00 2,5 T E R R A N E A N 0 2,393,000 600,000 (40) POLAND 4,850,000 00 A 0,0 2,00 B O 100 S P 15,674,000 A I 27,0 N 00 Mad 650,00 F R A N 35,800 C E ,000 (52) Paris GERMA N S TAT E S (106) O F 34,300,000 K D M . S I A P R U S Berlin 3,00 10˚ 200 0 ,00 on L 0 GA 0,00 4,20 0,00 0 C 000 BELGIUM 4,337, els (125) 255,00 0 Bruss 1,415, 00 DENMA 0 RK (13) 1,637,000 F I N L A N D 30˚ IA Lisb RTU 3,50 I 650,000 3,480,000 157,000 20˚ AV PO N T 00 1,3 LD 40˚ A N sterd am on Lond 3 N E T H ,057,000 ERL (35) A N D S Am ter Man ches 000 E A Birm ingh am 0 10˚ K IN N O R W AY G D O M O F AND SW 1,400,00 EDEN ,000 C L 12,000,000 l rpoo Live 1,300 O T lin Dub 0˚ N O R T H S E A 1,000,000 00, A 00 00,0 gow Glas 10˚ 1,7 50˚ 20 ˚ 27,7 U N 00,000 KIN ITED GD OM (24 3,5 0) ˚ 60 L 20˚ S NO RWE GIAN SEA I C T EA S A32 MO 0,00 0
    • T L A E N 20˚ 0 60 45,8 I ˚ C 00 Gla sg Belf ast 10˚ ow Edin burg h 10,245,000 0˚ N O R T H S E A 0 (730 1,850, ) 000 Turin 49,46 0,000 3,753,000 5,500,000 (1580) 604,000 SW ED EN NO RWE GIAN SEA 10˚ N O R WA Y 2,400,00 0 (810) Christia nia 2,80 Vienna 28,600,0 (490) 1,500,000 Trieste BOS NIA ,40 41 3,0 00 7,60 9,00 0 Naples Catania 20˚ Stockholm B A 3,100,000 A (320) Riga (730) 30˚ F I N L A N D E Konigsberg 00 14,0 27,8 ck s Bla lude ts) (Inc ea Por S Warsaw Lodz 12,100,000 POLAND Lemberg Budapest 502,000 SERBIA T (370) WH Kiev O d es sa IT E g 60˚ 0 00,00 119,0 3,040 ,000 I (2N) 40 ov Khark 50˚ P E R O E U 60˚ 20% or more of population in cities of 100,000 or more 11-20% of population in cities of 100,000 or more 6-10% of population in cities of 100,000 or more 5% or less of population in cities of 100,000 or more Lyon Cities from 500,000 to 1,000,000 Paris Cities of 1,000,000 or more Cities with less than 200,000 not shown Genoa Cities from 200,000 to 500,000 Explanation of Figures Railroad mileage per million of population Population in 1910 Pig iron production in long or metric tons Ship tons in ports (790) 61,362,000 30˚ 40˚ 4,000,000 39,600,000 A S I R U S ow rs b u r 40˚ EA S Mosc ete Saint P RUMANIA Buc hare st BULGARIA A N Smyrna E M P I R E Constantinople M GREECE 2,631,000 T MONTENEGRO O 20˚ O 00 20,900,000 AUSTRIA -HUNGARY (620) Stuttgart Munich Milan 34,700,000 E 350,000 Rome S A ITALY (310) e Genoa Florenc (770) S W I T Z. 0,00 Dub New DENMA 0 c lin Leed Bradfor astle (770) R K Copenhagen d s Live H rpo M anch ull o Birm Stolk Sheff ester 5,90 0,0 ingh e ie Kiel am Nottin ld N E T H E R 00 Hamb L urg (330) A N D S Leic gham Bris tol Lon Th 64,900,000 donester Hag e Breme Stettin Por n ts G E Ro mou tterda ue Amsterd am Hanover R M A N Y th Antw m Duss (600) Bruss erp dorfel- Duisburg13,100,0 Ma Berlin 31,803,000 els gdeberg Essen Dortmun 00 Lille d Leipzig 7,424, Wup 000 p Dresden B ELGIUM Cologn ertal eChemnitz Breslau Frankfu Prague Nuremb rt erg Paris ,00 62,0 F R A N C E 39 ,600,0 (790 00 4,000 ) ,000 Lyon Mars eille N 10˚ M E 00 8,0 D ,95 I T 51 E R R A Palermo N E A N na Bord eaux Barc elo cia Vale n N 61,3 138,909,000 OM U N 0,000 ITE D KIN GD N T (53 10,2 0) 00,0 00 A M adr id 4 370,0 0) 00 S P 19,200,000 A I (4 300 Miles 848 C 5,96 0,0 T U G 00 (330 A L ) 200 0˚ 30, O PO R Lisb on 100 400 Kilometers S Industrialization of Europe 1910 2 0˚ 50˚ A 40˚ 10˚ 0 200 Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. . Lambert Conformal Conic Projection 0 I C T L 50˚ 50˚ 40˚ A33
    • 10˚ A 20˚ RCTIC ik L A N D Far o e (De Islan n.) ds She Isla tland nds des Ork n Is. ey Berg O van Abe ger rdee ND N TLA sgo n Oslo Oc cu p Sta SCO Gla ied b R en o r t h S e a L A G T P lam anc a M ago n Flore M rs E D s rhen mo E te ctora R (Br.) Sea Corfu Ionia Syracu se A N E ia 1 9 2 0) e V SER BIA WALLACHIA an B ub e Nish MONTEDubro vnik (R NEGRO Novi Sistova Lagostaagusa) Cattaro Pazar (To Ital BULGAR y) Antivar Sofia i Va r Maritsa Philippopo e a Durazzo Tirana lis Bari Tarant DedeBrindisi MACEDONIA o Agach Kavola E Valona Salon ika GREECE Messolongi Cephalleni n Sea IA Yannina na Malta rote nce A Messi Fren ch P To F ra o a Patras Dardanelles Lesbos Aegean Sea Athens Sparta ( A L G E R I A Sarajev SICILY R L BOSNIA Belgrade nds T U N I S IT R U M A Sibiu Temisoara Isla ntains ian Paler S BUKOVINA Cluj TRANSYLVANIA va n Tunis Ty r Sa Ionia ce Mou e Naple Split Annexed by Hungary 1940 HUNGARYOradea O RUTHENIA Annexe Hungary d by Budapest 1939 r da ri n Zara Rom (To It inia aly) Caglia Algie na G IA Lemberg (Lwow) Tarnopol D (To orsica Franc e) Sard EA O C C O C cio ena Ora Anco un by H va Ajac U 1938 Kosice gary Mora nce Bar celo na c Islands ri nci Balea Spain) (To a Min orca Majo rca tag MAR N INO Przemysl KIA ALBANIA Atlas Toulo o Tesin Lublin 1938 Zagreb Mohacs Italy 19 e Bolog 24 na nna SA CROAT Rave Rem Y S 30˚ San xed Anne IA AT ran e bljana Trieste Venic Fi e um LM To F Nic Veron a A y 1938 Graz Dr av a TINO Lju Y R AR Po Parm Geno a a Turin chluss O VA Bratisla (Pressbuva rg) AUSTR I To ruck Ans German Brest Litovsk Cracow To Pol. ic O SH t n SILESIA unic h 1938 la V P O L A N D Breslau C Z E ue CHO SL Vienn a Innsb TREN Mila Val e Car ich L ˚ ba le .a tM Mun Züric den stu Posen Pilsen Prag at Ra M in) eille l Nazi-S Bialystok ovie by Ger t Pact Anne Vi many 1939 xed O unich 1 9 . at M Ger To ri A SP NI nob on Mars A Base SWIT Berne LIEh C Gen ZERLA eva ND H. Avig n ier A LS Nürn berg Stu BA sburg ttgart VARIA Danub e Stras A r tpell CE T gie Mon A Gre To G Mann Plebermany heim e 193scite 5 I diz YF 194 RAN CE 0 e eToulous e s ORR Lyo n VICH SAAR n ny Fonta 194 0 in es en ssa s rma 40 Main z DA P O R Sar s Verd u Ad adr S P id Tole do A I Co rdo N ba villeGuadalq ui vi r Gra nad a Gib (To ralt Gre ar Alm at Brit eria a yr AND Gu a dian a Ca 10 ne er Se Tan yon nd o Ta gu s Ba nta lid Sa U n Sa Bu rgo Vall s ad o ero Ebr bo Du x ne Lis au n ro Ga o bra éan Pari Grodno berg A N Y Dres Fran Weimar Leipzig kfur t EAST (Kaunas) PRUSSIA Tannen Berlin Kovno erg Danzig Stettin r Ge To Bo rde Orl Ge AIN L U X Oc .Ger. c. by E 19 ND USSR 1940 39 Potsdam n Ger. c. by 194 0 blea u F R A N Dijon C E Saône Lim og Ro che na ort im Loi re by Esse RR To Ger. 19 Königsb M G Eagdeburg Colo R M gne OcI U M LO lm Lub Brem Hamburgeck en r Hano Elb ver e b LIT HU AN IA Memel Annexed by L in La ied ls BELG s Rh on e ay cup sse Reim s ster dam m Bru 0 Annexed 1 9 1 9- tes run Co Nan s aille Oc lle Co Op Ver s nes zair e ien re n Ren Na er Am Hav Dov kirk Lille NDS 194 38 sc Le Cae Am Ger. MEMELA Bornho r de Bi 40˚ Dun e in Se St. l ERLA . by Rott hagen ine Rh nne E n g l i s h C l hann e Occ don Öland S e a Copen Kiel erda Lon am Riga gborg e Cha Bre Is. st Ba y of es NETH Gotland Hälsin oland AND am h rg Helg Tibe r out Aalbo K n ES Po MAR Occ Germ upied any by 1940 o Balti c org DEN WA L uth ˚ hn m Göteb s We tol rtsm mo 20 rd Th Bris Ply H f G ul Stockhol zo nbu G rgh Be lfas R E t A T Liv erp o rk ot . N Lee ds B RManchol est S Hu I T er heffieldll A Bir I Ca rdif Ox ENG ming N f fo L h Co fB Aland Is la Edi HF D RE STA ublinE TE Vaasa (Vasa) Uppsa w IRIS Gu lf o bri N ur He (C C N I E T E D A N S W E A Y L A ˚ C 0˚ 70˚ 10˚ jav 19 40 30 O 50˚ T yk E W A 20˚ Re C yG er m an y Europe 1922–1940 I 30˚ A N Crete Candia Tripoli TRIPO LITAN IA To Ita ly 0 0 100 200 200 L I B Y A 400 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. . Equidistant Conic Projection 0˚ A34 Bengazi 300 Miles 10˚ G u lf o f S id ra 20˚ CYRENAICA To Italy E G
    • 40˚ 70˚ 60˚ 50˚ 70˚ 80˚ Europe 1922–1940 30˚ OCEAN 90˚ Principal status quo powers Principal Revisionist powers Pechenga MAN CO Murmansk 1914 Boundaries O T ea KOLA PENINSULA Ceded to USSR 1940 Tornio 1922 Boundaries b AS S Pecho ra MUR L A N D ite Wh ngel a ch I N Dv in eg da Archa Vy erd Sv v oloto Leningrad (Petrograd) M v Kiro Vologda Annexed by USSR 1940 Ch Novgorod Nov izhni (N m Ka ñ Kaza Moscow Vilna Oka Tula Smolensk by USSR 1939 Pact v Minsk a Ur l v Tambo Orel et ip Bu Chernigov Kiev Dn i ep er g ies t Dn BIA ARA SS rut P BE VIA LDA MO Czernowitz er Kishinev Annexed USSR A N I A by1940 Odessa Kharkov Taganrog U K R A I N E Sea Cherson of Azov A UJ bañ Ku asnodar Kr ar) (Ekaterinod i ak m Ir as a r bitrat ed ils on L. ia Urm ASIA MINOR Smyrna Konia Aidin EX xed DR ET ALAnneANby TurkeyTA 1939 Latakia Nikosia Cyprus Homs A en F S Y R I line beatwseEstabl irut Limasol s Damascu ry. ies Bd ritor r Te N le i 30˚ Cairo Red Sea Q I R A ndent since 1932 Euph rates 60˚ N R DA anda te Dead Sea SJO Jerusalem Port Said ad Amman Br. M Jaffa TRAN LE ST INE PABr. Mandate Alexandria 30˚ Baghd Indepe Acre Independent Kingdom with British Protective Rights I A R S P E te da Fr. Man Be (Br.) SEA an r Tehe Mosul is Rhodes Aleppo r Tig E NES ECA n) DOD(Italia Adana Adalia Makri es Line of the treaty of Sevr ey rk Tu 921 n Sy e r i a and g. 1 Bdry etwe as E . b hed by Agree. Au stablis oran Lenk Tabriz ia W en e n t n d r y of A rm by Presid dsk novo Kras A Ankara (Angora) T U R K E iziY K l G Y P T Eriva B Brusa A N S T K E R T U SE Trebizond Baku N Samsun ou k Petrovs IA Poti Batum (Constantinople) Gallipoli Grozn STAN DAGHE nt Derbe REPUBLIC OF GEOR LIC G K u IA REPUB Tiflis ra OF N A BLIC ERBAIJ AZ REPU OF Kars IA ARMEN n Sukhumi Eregli Skutari Terek P Midia Enos Istanbul ilovsk Vorosh opol) (Stavr ikidze Ordzhon vkaz) (Vladika Sinope rus spo Bo 40˚ S DOB R an A Novorossiisk (Anapa) al Ar ea S Astrakh Burgas Adrianople ˚ Rostov BLACK SEA Varna B 70 S Ruschuk To Bulgaria 1940 ARIA U S k rad taling Poltava Kirovograd (Elizavetgrad) Dnepropetrovsk (Ekaterinoslav) Sevastopol Constantsa P R E I C Ors C Braila E T V I S O O F O N U NonI D Galatz Silistra To L Volga Zhitomir g Kursk r i s . and B r. M he d by Ag andate ree. De c. Annexed Nazi-Sovie Pr Bucharest k Urals v Sarato Voronezh mo Ak Is Ku S T L I A C I S O alov Chk Penza Pinsk k gn Ma yshe Kuib Riazan Mogilev Briansk n sta ors itog Ufa Vitebsk Borisov ai a ia Bela Kalinin (Tver) W. Dv in a ) gorod Gorkii by USSR A k ins l l Yaroslav Volg a Pskov LAT VIA 50˚ sk bin elia EST ON IA hi m Finland Revel (Tallion) sk lov Viborg Kronstadt of 80 Irtis h bo l Helsingfors (Helsinki) Lake Ladoga ˚ Kam a C US ed SR ed 19 to 40 F Lake Onega I A A R A B 40˚ IT K U WA Kuwait P e r sia n G 50˚ u l f A35
    • 10° 0° Granada 20° Algiers Tunis Constantine Strait of Gibraltar Oran Taugiers Ceuta Qayrawan Tlemcen Fez Tetuan Rabat Z AY YA N I D 50° NASRIDS Mediterranean Sea HAFSIDS Tripoli MARINIDS Barqa Alexandria Marrakech Sijilmasa 30°Canary Islands MAMLUKS Tuat Tindouf Jerusalem Surte Ghadamès Awjila Zawila Auqilah Cairo Siwa Asyut Persian Gulf N il Taghaza Kukiya Ch Zaria Be Oyo Ife ue ar i V ngi Kibiro 800 Miles Kasai Loango 400 600 Mpinda Co Mbanza Kongo KONGO I 0° IL INDIAN Manda Lamu OCEAN Gedi Malindi EAST AFRICAN Mombasa Pemba Zanzibar Lake Tanganyika TRADING S TAT E S (Unguja) Mafia Sanga Ivuna Kilwa Karonga R 10° Bunkeya 10° Comoros Glass Kw a Ingombe Ilede Chedzurgwe Great Zimbabwe Gold Iron Jewelry, trinkets Cattle Salt Copper Slaves Tin Volhitrandriana Madagascar Quelimane Sofala Mo z a m b i q ue C ha nne l Tanarive Ambohimanga 20° Manekweni Mapungubwe Kola nuts Ceramics po po Mawudzu Inyanga Zimbabwe Khami Ivory Cataract (rapids) Tete Hunguza Sena GRE AT ZIMBABWE 20° 0° Mozambique Zambezi Li m Dynastic group Lealui o nd HAFSIDS Foodstuffs State or Empire 10° Major trade route Vohemar Kapeni State, empire, or dynasty with Muslim leader 20° K O N G O 10° Lake Malawi 0° Southern limits of Muslim influence, about 1400 Textiles Phalaborwa a Va an Or Inhambane l ge 30° 30° 10° A36 Baraawe uf Luanda Lake Victoria go go an Kw Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Robinson Projection Bigo Ntusi Uvinza 800 1000 Kilometers n 200 Obbia Tana SW N 0 10° Mogadishu Rubaga Lualaba mi ma Lo O C E A N Lake Turkana il e ria N Lake Albert AT L A N T I C ba Ju Uba o ict a ag San Congo 600 Berbera Harar S he be le Bioko 400 ADAL Igbo Ukwu Ke 200 Zayla Bouar Bono Manso Benin City 0 Sana Debra Birhan Socotra Gu l f o f A de n Adefa SOLOMONID ETHIOPIA Begho BENIN 0° Aden AH a Vo l t Salaga Kano YEMEN Aksum Lake Tana le Ni HAUSA S TAT E S Nupe Ouémé Bandama Kong Abesehr L ake Chad e Blu er Kankan Katsina iji ig Kouroussa Debarwa A LW A Sennar e l Ouagadougou Bobo Dioulasso Soba Darfur Njimi N Djenné Segu Mali Kangaba 10° KANEMBORNU SONGHAI Nioro Kirina Bamako ia Berber Gao MALI MeroeA ra ga mb Kabara Timbuktu Ghana Dongola Takedda a tb Walata ne Red Sea Sawakin Bilma Tademakka A R A B I A Mecca Wh ite Nil Tichitt Ga Aydhab Ibrim Daw Selima n 20° Takrur Aswan Murzuq Chinguetti Akjoujt Se Ghat Taurirt Tavdeni Idjil Awlil e Africa About A.D. 1400 10° 30° 40° 50°
    • 10˚ 0˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ 40˚ Aral Sea 50˚ EUROPE C as Bla ck Sea pi 40˚ 20˚ NOR TH ATL ANTI C OCE AN AZORES an 40˚ Se Port. a M e d Algiers FRENCH COLONY OF ALGERIA CO OC OR1 F M191 30˚ til Sp. r a n e a n A S I A S e a Tripoli Barca Bengazi 1830 S 30˚ Alexandria Cairo T R I P O L I Suez Canal 1869 A Vifayet of Ottoman Empire until 1911-12 Pe O n TE ent u NA end TA dep UL In CANARY IS. e Fr. Prot. since 1881 rs EGYPT 1849-1 855 Aduwa Gondar L. Assab é F R E N C H ke 186 Anglo-Ger. Tr. 1890 1885 (TRANSVAAL) Johannesburg Pretoria BECHUANALAND al Va IV N t y, 1 SO 8 9 M 1 lly Pro A oc t. 1 LI cu 88 L pie 9 A ND d in 18 98 Jub LIA On ly ITA A ne sto RIC l ne h R an ST EA 189 S C A ted ple G A que A oz Con Fre D A nch st C om e qu bi am 20˚ Lourenco Marques SWAZILAND COLONY OF NATAL Durban BASUTOLAND 30˚ N COLONY ne I CAPE 18 30˚ 49 & II 18 5 4 Bloemfontein o GE AN TE OR STA E FRE int Orange British Colony 1885 -P rpa Se Luderitz Bay (Angra Pequena) Tamatave Antananarive o SOUTH AFRICAN REP. BECHUANALAND PROTECTORATE M AFRICA op mp Li “Southern Limit of Arms and Spiritous Liquors Zone” C Quelimane An g Anglo-Ger. Agree. 1890 Chartered, 1889 Conquered Matabeleland, 1893 Mozambique Livingstone III RT . 9 -7 ing Br. 1878 1 189 56 Liv SOUTHWEST WALFISH BAY Liv Anglo-Port. Bdy. zi be 8 Victoria Zam II 1 Falls ne sto 77 lo Anglo-Port. Agree. 1891 1891 BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA CO. 20˚ 10˚ 1891 BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA PROTECTORATE 86 GERMAN Leased from Zanzibar 1888 Purchased 1890 L. Nyassa Livingstone III 1860 4 18 pe d I v e ns German-Port.Tr. 18 British Prot. 1890 GERMAN EAST AFRICA ing 4 85 A N G O L A 1 AFRICA An Tre glo G aty er. , 18 90 INDIAN OCEAN L. Bangweolu 189 1905 -85 84 18 Ca an 1 WEST Serpa-Pin to Cape Frio 1894 L. Mweru 189 elo ap Benguela Livingston e II 0˚ PEMBA PO Ivens an d 1 8 7 7 -8 0 10˚ 1894 PORTUGUESE 10˚ ZANZIBAR to n L. - S pe Tanganyika ke 1856 C (Br.) Protectorate 1888 Agre emen t 1894 a ty ur 1885 Luanda re B Boma Sta nle y II Stanley I 1871 - 72 Ujiji Port. Mossamedes nT ma 7 Leopoldville CABINDA OCEAN An glo -G e 18 r 86 1874-7 Under Sovereignty of Leopold II of Belgium after 1885 1885 Brazzaville ATLANTIC L. Victoria Nyanza 2 y II Later AngloItal. Frontier L. Albert Nyanza nle CONGO FREE S TAT E COLONY OF FRENCH CONGO SOUTH Sta L. Rudolf SOCOTRA Spe 90 . 18 Ag ree Ge r. An glo - 1830 R. Land er 1889 Cla pp er DAHOMEY TOGO 3 189 Sp. 1894 n Cape Guardafui l i a n Tr e a a ANNOBAN e. 1887 Con go l ia n F r o n t i e r d r a w n b y A n g lo -It 0˚ 1885 l o- Gulf CORISCO BAY Rio Muni, Sp. of Guinea o Agre Fr. and Ger. Agree de BR. SOMALILAND It a Italian Protectorate, 1889 Protectorate abandoned 1896 64 Sp. Fr.-Co ng -98 97 18 r 18 GERMAN KAMERUN d han Marc ake 1884 FERNANDO PO J.B. S. B and Germ ch LAGOS COLONY NIGER COAST (OIL RIVERS) PROT. U B A N G H I 4 89 t1 g r e e men GOLD COAST COL. ton 27 18 Addis Abeba A B Y S S I N I A Fashoda an A A FR. IVORY COAST COLONY 1890 OF RE LIB P. ER I Fre n of A Zeila Ang 1886 Gulf 1883 FRENCH SOM. DARFUR C O. Aden Obok 1882 rtia BORNU NIGER Tana KORDOFAN pa Kuka M 3 AF Rene Caillie 1827 Heinrich Barth L. Chad G. Nachtigal 1874 lo - Portugues e Frontier né g S ree.189 Sokoto al ROYAL Monrovia ea Anglo-French Ag SIERRA LEONE 20˚ ITAL. Khartoum ERITREA Omdurman rth er ig 10˚ Freetown A I Egyptian territory in revolt under the Mahdi, Conquered by Anglo-Egyptian forces, 1898 Ba S U D A N N B A R A Nile Tombouctu F R E N C H Cape Verde PORT GUINEA dS “Northern Limit of Arms and Spiritous Liquors Zone” Import of arms and spiritous liquors zone. As a result of the Brussels Anti-Slavery Conference of 1889-90, the import of arms was regulated and that of intoxicating drinks prohibited to the regions between 20 N. and 22 S. Latitude. FRENCH COLONY OF SENEGAL Gu lf Re ` ian 1869 Boundaries Modified in 1900 20˚ G. Nachtigal Spanish Protectorate RIO DE ORO Tributary of Ottoman Empire Occupied by Great Britain after 1882 FEZZAN W. Oudney, D. Denham and Clapperton 1822-23 Tuat 6 Port. it Tunis TUNIS Fez r MADEIRA IS. Capetown CONTROL OF TERRITORY Br. 1806 Great Britain 1885 Spain 1885 France 1898 Spain 1898 Turkey Portugal 1885 Congo Free State 1885 Portugal 1898 Congo Free State (Belgium) 1898 40˚ Germany 1898 France 1885 Cape of Good Hope Germany 1885 Great Britain 1898 in Liv to gs Italy 40˚ 0 0 200 200 400 400 600 600 Miles 800 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. . Lambert Azimuthal, Equal Area Projection 30˚ 20˚ 10˚ 0˚ 10˚ 20˚ 30˚ 40˚ 50˚ 60˚ A37 European Partition of Africa: 19th Century 30˚
    • 0° Easter rising, 1916 Britain Ireland AT L A N T I C OCEAN 20° 40° 60° GERMAN EMPIRE NETHERLANDS UNITED KINGDOM RUSSIAN EMPIRE BELGIUM LUX. AUSTRIAHUNGARY SWITZ. FRANCE Dagestani rebellion, 1877–78 ROMANIA ALBANIA SPAIN Sardinia Balearic Is. Madeira Islands Med TUNISIA MOROCCO Canary Islands GREECE Sicily Malta Jallaz incident, 1911 Nationalist revolt, 1915-16 OTTOMAN EMPIRE Dodecanese Is. Crete iterran Russo-Afghan conflict, 1885 e a n Se aCyprus AFGHANISTAN PERSIA Sanusi revolt, 1912-31 ALGERIA RIO DE ORO KUWAIT Urabi uprising, 1881-82 n EGYPT TRIPOLITANIA (LIBYA) Re NIGERIA Ashanti resistance, 1872–74,1900 FR EN CH RÍO MUNI Equator Sao ToméPríncipe AT L A N T I C OCEAN ILA ND Bunyoro resistance, 1890-98 UG Tutsi/Hutu resistance, 1911-17 BRITISH EAST AFRICA AN ITA LIA Nandi and Gusli revolt,1895-1908 BELGIAN CONGO GERMAN EAST AFRICA Arab revolt, 1891-94 CABINDA Maldives AL KAMERUN Somali resistance, 1891-1920 SO M GOLD COAST Socotra N TOGOLAND Fernando Poó Abushiri revolt, 1888-89 Hehe revolt, 1891-98 ANGOLA (PORTUGUESE WEST AFRICA) Nationalist uprisings, 1913 Belgian Maji-Maji revolt, 1905-09 Arab revolt, 1887-89 Comoros NYASALAND NORTHERN RHODESIA British Dutch French 20° German WALVIS BAY Italian GERMAN SOUTHWEST AFRICA Russian Revolt under Chilembwe, 1915 SOUTHERN RHODESIA BECHUANALAND Herrero Hottentot uprisings, 1904-06 Portuguese MOZAMBIQUE (PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA) Matabele and Mashona insurrections, 1896 MADAGASCAR Nationalist revolt, 1898-1904 Mauritius Réunion SWAZILAND Zulu resistance, 1879,1906 Spanish UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA United States Area of anti-colonial resistance BASUTOLAND N Spheres of Influence British 40° French German 0 Russian Japanese 0 20° A38 200 400 400 600 800 800 1200 1000 Miles 1600 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Times Projection 0° 20° GOA (ETHIOPIA) Anyang revolt, 1904 LIBERIA 0° ADEN SO BRIT MA ISH LILAN D ABYSSINIA DA SIERRA LEONE Ar abi an Se a ERITREA Abyssinia defeats Italians at Adowa, 1896 ANGLOEGYPTIAN SUDAN EQU ATO RIAL AFRICA PORTUGUESE GUINEA OMAN a GAMBIA Rabih revolt, 1897-1900 Sokoto uprising, 1906 lf TRUCIAL STATES Se Mahdist State, 1881-98 FRENCH WEST AFRICA QATAR Gu NEJD d 20° Mande revolt under Samori, 1884-98 Anglo-Afghan War, 1878-1880 Dinshaway incident, 1906 IFNI Cape Verde Islands Muslim revolt in Turkestan, 1916 Se a PORTUGAL Azores Black Sea BULGARIA Aral Sea ian sp Ca ITALY Corsica 40° BIA SER MONTENEGRO ia rs Pe Resistance to Colonialism 1870–1930 20° 40° 60°
    • 100° 120° 140° 160° Resistance to Colonialism 1870–1930 80° 180° Ale utia n I s la n ds ur il OUTER MONGOLIA flue nce Is la nd s Sakhalin Russians evicted from Chinese Turkestan, 1877–78 Boxer Rebellion, 1899-1900 Japanese sp here of in K KOREA WEIHAI J A P A N E S E E M P I R E CHINA BHUTAN Ry uk yu NEP AL I NDIA Nationalist underground in Bengal, 1905-09 Nationalist underground in Maharashtra, 1905-09 YANAM Viet revolts in Tonkin, 1883-1913 Anglo-Burmese War, 1886-91 MACAO KWANGCHOWAN 20° Hainan Viet revolts in Annam, 1906-08 SIAM PHILIPPINE ISLANDS Cambodian revolt, 1885-87 Nicobar Islands Guam (U.S) I s l ands Palau BRUNEI Muslim revolt in Atchin, 1881-1908 M a rshall Moro (Muslim) resistance, 1898-1913 Viet revolts in Cochin China, 1885-86 Ceylon Mariana Islands PhilippineAmerican War, 1898-1902 FRENCH INDOCHINA Andaman Islands Bonin Islands Formosa (Taiwan) HONG KONG BURMA Bay of Bengal PONDICHERRY PA C I F I C OCEAN Is. SIKKIM 40° MALAYA Singapore SARAWAK Su KAISERWILHELMSLAND tr ma Borneo Equator Bismarck Archipelago 0° a Celebes Moluccas DUTC Saminist peasant uprising, 1914-17 Bali Nationalist revolts, 1881-94 New Guinea H EAST I N DI ES Java INDIAN OCEAN Caroline Islands NORTH BORNEO Timor Solomon Islands PAPUA TIMOR (Port.) Lombok New Hebrides (Br.-Fr.) 20° New Caledonia AUSTRALI A NEW ZEALAND 40° 80° 100° 120° 140° 160° 180° A39
    • sla ian I nds Kayseri Rasht Aleppo CYPRUS LEBANON Beirut E up h Hims ¸ Suez Canal Giza Qom ¯ Hamadan ¯ ¯ Bakhtaran ad Baghd¯ Damascus Ar Rutbah , ISRAEL Tel Aviv-Yafo ‘Amman ¯ Port Gaza Jerusalem Dead Sea Said Alexandria r es Tubruq ¯ Arbı l Kirkuk Nicosia SEA Banghazi ¯ Mosul SYRIA at MED ITER RANEA N ¯ Tabrız ¯ ¯ Orumıyeh Gaziantep NORTH CYPRUS Crete Lake Urmia Lake Van Diyarbakır Adana Antalya 30˚ AZER. TURKEY Izmir IRAQ ¯ Karbala’ An Najaf az Ahv¯ JORDAN Basra Suez Cairo El Fayoum Baku Yerevan Erzurum is Tigr Middle East/Israel: Political Eskisehir ¸ AZERBAIJAN ARMENIA Ankara KUWAIT Al ‘Aqabah Kuwait Sinai Pen. lf Gu N il e El Minya Gulf of Aqaba fS o L I B YA N Bursa B 50˚ Samsun Istanbul Konya Gulf of Sidra RUSSIA GEORGIA Sea Athens Groznyy IA ki 40˚ SEA Tbilisi GREECE A e g e a n Ion Ionia n Sea Thessaloni BLACK SP LBANIA 40˚ 30˚ A Adria 20˚ ti Skopje Sofia Sea c BULGARIA Tiranë MACEDONIA IT A LY A C A EGYPT C Asyût ue z Suhag ¯m Ad Damma Buraydah Luxor ¯ Al Hufuf Tropic o f Cance r Medina Aswân D RE Lake Nasser SAUDI ARABIA Jiddah 20˚ A le Ni CHAD Mecca ¯ At Ta’if SE Port Sudan 20˚ Riyadh Khamis Mushayt SUDAN D ERITREA Omdurman Khartoum Kassala ¯ Sanaa Asmera Wad MadanÏ Al Fashir ¯ Al Ubayyid ite Nile 30˚ 2 A40 Lake Tana le W e Ni Blu 10˚ E Al Mukalla Ta'izz Nyala CENTR A F R IC AA L N R E P. Y E M E N ¸ Al Hudaydah Aden ETHIOPIA DJIBOUT I Gulf d of A en Djibouti h Malakal ¯ Addis Ababa 3 SO M AL IA 40˚ 4
    • 60˚ U ZB E K IS Middle East/Israel: Political KA ZA KHSTAN TA N A Am u Da ry N TURKM 40˚ a N ENISTA at SE Ashgab A Mashhad B ¯ Tehran I R A N AF GH AN. Bi¯rjand ¸ Esfah¯an Yazd hDaryache ye Hamun ¯ Kerman ¯n ¯ Zaheda z 30˚ ¯ Sh¯ıraz Bandar-e Bushehr P m Bandar-e ¯ 'Abbas er si an BAHRAIN G u l f o Strait fH muz or QATAR C OMAN Manama Gulf o f O m an Dubai Doha Abu Dhabi AB Tropic UN IT ED AR AT ES EM IR r of Cance Muscat ¯ Sur A 20˚ OMAN 60˚ AN ARABI SEA N D a Socotra (Yem.) OCEAN INDIAN 0 A 0 50˚ 100 200 300 400 200 Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Lambert Conformal Conic Projection 10˚ 400 Miles 600 Kilometers E 5 A41
    • 60° 50° 70° 90° 80° Ir t Ob' ys h Eastern Southern Asia A.D. 750 50° a Volg 40° 40° D ya ar a ary uD Am Bag r Sy Caspian Sea Ara Sea l SIL K R O A D hda kand Merv Tigris ABB 30° CAL ASI Pe IPH T Samar d Kashi (Kashgar ) SHA IEN T BAS ARIM IN TA K LIMA K A N DESERT Hera t D N Yutian Kabul (Khotan) AT E rsi an T I B E TA N Gu Multan lf HI GURJARAAS LA YA MO m Ya P R A T IH A R Lhasa MA un a Gan ges 20° Ara bian Ba y of Sea 10° U N TA I N S Be ng al Sri Lanka N 0° National Capital I N D I A N Major Cities 0 0 200 200 400 400 600 600 800 O C E A N 800 Miles 1000 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection A42 60° 70° 80° 90°
    • 110° 120° 50° 130° Eastern Southern Asia A.D. 750 140° 40° HA E 100° PAR -k SI D RT ESE g Dunhuan Hu a SILK RO AD E GR L WAL AT Na J ra A AP N 30° low Yel ea S Grand Cana ng ang y Luo l EMPIRE st Ea ou gzh Han (Xi' a Ch u zho g Yan g-an Chan a n ) ina Ch a angtze) (Y ng MP G ENA) N T'A (CHI Se IRE PA Ta i ut ra ap hm Bra ( yo ian He A I ) oto Ky LL GOB R E E MPIR (Y ell o w) U UIGH of ea an S p Ja wa O n Ph ng 20° th ilip Isl na Chi Sea pin e and s 10° A PA EN-LA N M CH Sou CH A CE (C HAO NAN-C o IC hou ngz Gua anton) Xi (West) Mek F CI 0° S R I V I J AY Su m at ra A Born eo Cele bes i aya Srivej bang) m (Pal 10° Java ° 100° 110° 120° A43
    • AR LG AN AR IA V TO OT IA M Co ns A Bl ta N nt ac in E M p P (Br rus .) IR ite r Se ran a e op o m EGYPT Ara l Sea Teh r d IT RS and Kab IA AFGHA A S IN TA R I M B ul KASHMIR NISTA N Gu PUNJAB IA lf H Q AT AR TRU N TAKLIMAKAN DESERT an N SHA N TIE Samark an rsi AB cca t hara da RAI Tashke n Buk PE BAH Lake Balkhash T U R K E S T A N Pe AR Red Sea 20° Omsk h gh WA N A I Irtys Ba Me S le E KU S ara Tigris Ca n Je al ru sa le U Sam a es at hr Eup ez ir Se an Su Ca k ga ol Caspian Sea Cy ed R per . R OM M CIAL O N MA UC HI A ST N SI s du In N Delhi RAJPU TA N A IM AL AY NE A M T S PA . L m Ya L BA un D ER OMA a Ganges N ITR B ENGA L EA 10° Ade B R I T I S H HA DR AM AU T y ABYS Ara IA LIA NS A OM AN HYDERABAD bian Hyderabad Goa Sea (Port.) MYSORE D MAD SIN B SOM RITIS ALI H LAN D LIL I OR Bomba SOM (Br. n ) . RAS FR. I TA Madras N 0° Ceylon Colombo I N D I A N British French Dutch Italian 10° Portuguese 0 0 200 200 400 400 600 600 800 800 Miles O C E A N 1000 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection United States A44 9 80° 70° w A- RB CE 60° Y BU EE 50° 60° co SE T. GR os 50° 60° 70° 80° S ON NG RI 40° 30° M 20° ST Dnie Asia 1900 M AU ' Ob HU SA
    • 90° 100° 110° 150° 140° 130° 120° na 60° 160° Sa k ha lin Asia 1900 Le 50° e Lak kal Bai M ta Chi AN kutsk C H R IA LI A IA ON GO KO T IN NE R Bei jing (R ku ( ai n ha S I R E E M P Ch an u zho ng Ha han Wu ze) gt hou g i( We st) ton Cangzhou) ng uan (G g Ko Hon (Br.) ao Mac .) on Luz gc Kwan (Fr.) N N Me A ng Bay of Bengal SIAM Bangkok M ko Rangoon PH ila Man h Sout IN CH FREN INA DOCH Saig Andaman Islands A CE N 20° (Ja n howa A IC an Taiw an) p t BURMA F CI O (Por Calcutta PA Fuz AM I N D I A hu us Ky QinGer.) (Ya n S AS iko o gda X BHUTAN 30° Sh gh Chong Brahmaputra l i iha qing TIBET ou yo E ES E AN IR AP MP J E WeBr.) ( in j Tian H ua ng ( C H I N E S E k To A Se s Lu us.) u sh n Ho f ao Se pan Ja apan) I ER DES M RE n hu Ye llow ) GOB GOL o iv ad Vl U MON ok st H Ir do ai k ok Amur Ryu ky u I slands (J M E R I ra Anga y se ni Ye P 40° E PP ILI A ISL INE ND (U a Chin S 10° ) .S. ao dan Min Sea on ISH B R I TR T H O EO N N BOR NEI BRU (Br.) 0° Mo A S pore Singa W AK as M A L AY A AR cc (Br.) lu Nicobar Islands o Borne bes Cele m Su at ra T EAS IES IND O R 10° TIM rt.) (Po CH DUT via Bata 90° Java 100° 110° 120° A45
    • ans rm k S WH T N E R A BA SE Mu nland IT La rm ic ct Ar k l’s e ng ha on de sk a ir C k tsk a Tul l’ e Lip w sco v sla ns bi Ry e s . R ts ve po No rth ern Dvin k Ar ke a g Mo r’ Tve ro Ya ere Ch d e O n zavo tro Pe ke La doga La ARU r ka yv v ro ’ an az Ry Pe Ob k ra Sa a ’ v to nz vs he Iz za Ka zh ne al Or a ar m Sa Volga ad gr go l Vo i S E A 40˚ ch So I h ys ’ an kh tra As y ny oz Gr k _u ta Aq k m arsk A B A N ku a SE IJ N BA IA ER SP A C AZ an GIA i OR lis ENIA erev M GE i Y Tb . AR R ˚ TU 40 k ts’ vol’ ne sto nu rop Do Ro -Do Stav na n as f ao Se zov ar A od Kr BLACK kuzn r Sy ar ya n a y ni od zh or Ni ovg n’ N Ki kt Sy inka ro Vo Yen i se y ˚ 40 AY Fi AND of S rg nt Sai tersbu Pe BEL Russia and the Former Soviet Union 30˚ l ard Svalb .) (Nor 20˚ W FINL f ul of Gulf a Rig IA LATV G nn Talli ESTONIA D ANIA ilnius LITHU sk V Min ¯ Rıga RUSSIA POLAN Warsaw Diks Am iv ark v Kh Kie ’k E AIN o vs U K R opetr pr Dni ˘ au A ¸ in D O V his esa MOL C Od ANIA Amu Darya an ¯hr Te 90˚ 40˚ 80˚ 70˚ l a NA CHI PA K IST AN 60˚ an AN IST AN bu Ka qi be Ürüm n N ha STA sh GH K A SE RA A ROM nd AN Du AF rgh a at d ha IKI TAJ ˚ yqo ab Alm K Na YRG Bish aty ma YZ kek An nga STA diz n N 30 Tald Bu hg as TA N R Berlin K IA S L O VA H U N G. 20˚ ˚ ˚ CZ EC H RE P. A U S. A46 GERMANY 10˚ ris Tig 50 S Ta hym Zham ke sh by Sa l k ke nt ma hara nt rk a IR Ba n L lkh ake ash As M Kyzyl eme Ösk ord zyl Qy KI ST AN IS AN BE RK M EN etsk sk ey Novo k Biys tsov Rub Sem ST y D ku Achins Kem irsk Ishi l rag Tom s osib sk Nov nau a) ha KH s UZ Nu TU ag y Bar Qa Om vsk vlo pa tro Pe na sta be tö S U arto Niz To b Noril’ sk ard lek Sa vsk ’ Ku hev k ol’s en rt ab nd td a ins rgan k Qo Aq ZA bi rg erov Kr o asnoy KA Ne ro v R in A Pa (A sta vlod ar qm na ol Ar Se al a ’ o rm ut bu Uf m ely rg Su N Ta izh gi niy l er Ty u Ch ra U Se Ye k at N Igark ov rez ta e No Ure vy ngo yy Be Pe ku cl Dud n Do a Vo r hora P ec emlya a Z ay ov SEA E Lan Franz Josef d 60 SEA IC nia Gulf of Both T L A B 80˚ 70˚ NO SWEDEN 60˚
    • 170˚ 180 ˚ Sain Lawrent ce Island N 0˚ 170˚ S E A ic Ci rcl e Ar ct Sr ed ne ko lym sk V R SE ING A BE s T and ny tel Ko land Is Ne I nd igi tsk ha mc t’Us M Len a k s Vilyuy insk Olëkm ha Ok 0˚ 16 A I a Angar ure o Bodayb Ust’-Kut Ni ur Am Tulun Cheremkhovo Irkutsk Lake Baikal nyy bod Svo Chita k ens h shc ove Blag - sk ol’ om ms mure Ko -A na vsk aro ab Kh Zeya han bidz Biro Ulan-Ude n ali kh Sa Am ur a kol Bratsk Angarsk -Am -na sk yev o- hn z Yu La sk lin ha k Sa ou Per s e S t r ai t ¯ ido kka Ho Ku ril Islan ds da A SE F SK O T O H K O Al S ˚ tsk u Yak guska n un 50 an ad ag P Ka etro m pa ch v at lov sk sk iy - nsk Zhiga Tura Lo wer T 17 Ka k ans hoy k Ver an ch m y Se 0˚ K o y ma l Ko Isl man an do ds rs k iye rka i Tiks Ka Pe mch ni ns atka ul a E PT LA A SE be Isl 180 ˚ w Si n ria N S ov Isl ibir aya an d ˚ 120 100˚ Ana dyr’ 0˚ 14 Severn ay Zemly a a Wra ng Islanell d SI BE SE RI AN A A RC TIC OCE U N I T E D S T A T E S 60˚ B e r i n g S tr ait 16 A 70˚ Russia and the Former Soviet Union 80˚ IC F N I C A 0˚ A E 4 AN P O C AP 0˚ J 15 National Capital Ulan Bator bin Har ok ost div Vla MONGOLIA City over 1,000,000 population a odk h Nak City of 250,000 to 1,000,000 population City under 250,000 population N 0 yang Shen 110˚ 120˚ A ORE ng TH K NOR ˘ ngya o 40˚ P'y 130˚ OF A N S EA P A J 0 100 200 200 300 400 400 600 500 Miles 800 Kilometers Copyright by Rand McNally & Co. . Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection 140˚ A47
    • Strategies for Taking Standardized Tests This section of the textbook helps you develop and practice the skills you need to study history and to take standardized tests. Part 1, Strategies for Studying History, takes you through the features of the textbook and offers suggestions on how to use these features to improve your reading and study skills. Part 2, Test-Taking Strategies and Practice, offers specific strategies for tackling many of the items you will find on a standardized test. It gives tips for answering multiple-choice, constructed-response, extended-response, and document-based questions. In addition, it offers guidelines for analyzing primary and secondary sources, maps, political cartoons, charts, graphs, and time lines. Each strategy is followed by a set of questions you can use for practice. CONTENTS Part 1: Strategies for Studying History Part 2: Test-Taking Strategies and Practice Multiple Choice Primary Sources Secondary Sources Political Cartoons Charts Line and Bar Graphs Pie Graphs Political Maps Thematic Maps Time Lines Constructed Response Extended Response Document-Based Questions S2 S6 S8 S10 S12 S14 S16 S18 S20 S22 S24 S26 S28 S30 S1
    • Part 1: Strategies for Studying History Reading is the central skill in the effective study of history or any other subject. You can improve your reading skills by using helpful techniques and by practicing. The better your reading skills, the more you will remember what you read. Below you will find several strategies that involve built-in features of World History: Patterns of Interaction. Careful use of these strategies will help you learn and understand history more effectively. Preview Chapters Before You Read Each chapter begins with a two-page chapter opener and a one-page Interact with History feature. Study these materials to help you get ready to read. Read the chapter title for clues to what will be covered in the chapter. Study the Previewing Main Ideas feature and the map. Gain more background information on chapter content by answering the questions in the feature. Preview the time line and note the years covered in the chapter. Consider the important events that took place during this time period. Read the Interact with History feature (see page S3). Study Examining the Issues to gain insight on a major theme addressed in the chapter. S2
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS Preview Sections Before You Read Each chapter consists of three, four, or five sections. These sections focus on shorter periods of time or on particular historical themes. Use the section openers to help you prepare to read. Study the information under the headings Main Idea and Why It Matters Now. These features tell you what is important in the material you are about to read. Preview the Terms & Names list. This will give you an idea of the issues and people you will read about in the section. Read the paragraph under the heading Setting the Stage. This links the content of the section to previous sections or chapters. Notice the structure of the section. Red heads label the major topics; black subheads signal smaller topics within major topics. Together, these heads provide you with a quick outline of the section. S3
    • Use Active Reading Strategies As You Read Now you are ready to read the chapter. Read one section at a time, from beginning to end. Ask and answer questions as you read. Look for the Main Idea questions in the margin. Answering these questions will show whether you understand what you have just read. Try to visualize the people, places, and events you read about. Studying the pictures, maps, and other illustrations will help you do this. Read to build your vocabulary. Use the marginal Vocabulary notes to find the meaning of unfamiliar words. Look for the story behind the events. Study the boxed features for additional information and interesting sidelights on the section content. S4
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS Review and Summarize What You Have Read When you finish reading a section, review and summarize what you have read. If necessary, go back and reread information that was not clear the first time through. Reread the red heads and black subheads for a quick summary of the major points covered in the section Study any charts, graphs, or maps in the section. These visual materials usually provide a condensed version of information in the section. Review the visuals—photographs, charts, graphs, maps, and time lines—and any illustrated boxed features and note how they relate to the section content. Complete all the questions in the Section Assessment. This will help you think critically about what you have just read. S5
    • S T R AT E G I E S Part 2: Test-Taking Strategies and Practice You can improve your test-taking skills by practicing the strategies discussed in this section. First, read the tips on the left-hand page. Then apply them to the practice items on the right-hand page. Multiple Choice stem Mostly is a key word The Sahara is mostly partly would alter the A. scattered with rocks and gravel. sentence and call for a different answer. here. Changing it to 1. A multiple-choice question consists of a stem and a set of alternatives. The stem usually is in the form of a question or an incomplete sentence. One alternatives of the alternatives correctly answers the question or completes the sentence. Read the stem carefully and try to answer the question or complete the sentence before looking at the alternatives. 2. C. located south of the equator. D. covered with tall grasses and bushes. Over hundreds of years, the Bantu people migrated from West Africa to B. East and South Africa. C. South and Southwest Asia. D. every continent except Antarctica. 3. Absolute words, such as all, never, always, every, and only, often signal an incorrect alternative. The traditional griots of West Africa passed on the histories of their people by A. writing books. Eliminate alternatives that you know are wrong. B. painting murals. Look for modifiers to help you rule out incorrect alternatives. D. all of the above Carefully consider questions that include all of the above as an alternative. Take great care with questions that are stated negatively. C. telling stories. 4. answers: 1 (A); 2 (B); 3 (C); 4 (D) If you select this answer, be sure that all of the alternatives are correct. Which of the following is not one of the trading kingdoms of West Africa? A. Mali B. Songhai C. Ghana D. Aksum S6 You can eliminate D if you remember that the Sahara is a desert. A. all of North Africa. Look for key words in the stem. They may direct you to the correct answer. Read each alternative with the stem. Don’t make your final decision on the correct answer until you have read all of the alternatives. B. made up of sand dunes. Eliminate incorrect alternatives by identifying those that are West African trading kingdoms.
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS PRACTICE For more test practice online . . . TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Read each question carefully and choose the best answer from the four alternatives. Directions: 1. Which of the following is not a reason why the Renaissance began in Italy? A. Italy had several thriving cities. B. The Black Death did not strike Italy. C. Italian merchants gained in wealth and power. D. Italy could draw on its classical Roman heritage. 2. Reformation teachings were adopted by A. the Catholic Church. B. all the countries in Europe. C. some countries in Europe. D. common people, but not rulers. 3. Akbar differed from Aurangzeb in that he A. extended the boundaries of the Mughal Empire. B. followed Western ways. C. defended religious freedom. D. all of the above 4. During the 1700s, the Atlantic slave trade was dominated by the A. Dutch. B. English. C. Portuguese. D. Spanish. S7
    • S T R AT E G I ES Primary Sources Primary sources are written or made by people who were at historical events, either as observers or participants. Primary sources include journals, diaries, letters, speeches, newspaper articles, autobiographies, wills, deeds, and financial records. Look at the source line to learn about the document and its author. Consider the reliability of the information in the document. Skim the document to get an idea of what it is about. (This source includes three paragraphs that are distinct but address a related theme—rulers and moral behavior.) Moral Rulers Book II, 3. The Master said, Govern the people by regulations, keep order among them by chastisements, and they will flee from you, and lose all self-respect. Govern them by moral force, keep order among them by ritual and they will keep their selfrespect and come to you of their own accord. . . . Book XI, 23. . . . The Master said, . . . What I call a great minister is one who will only serve his prince while he can do so without infringement of the Way, and as soon as this is impossible, resigns. . . . Book XIII, 6. The Master said, If the ruler himself is upright, all will go well even though he does not give orders. But if he himself is not upright, even though he gives orders, they will not be obeyed. This is a collection of writings on government, ethics, literature, and other subjects by the ancient Chinese scholar and teacher Confucius. 1. Use context clues to help you understand difficult or unfamiliar words. (From the context, you realize that chastisements means “punishments.”) Which sentence best expresses the main idea shared by these paragraphs? A. Rules and regulations are hard to live by. B. Leaders should act morally in ruling the people. C. A leader’s goodness is judged by the punishments he administers. Note any special punctuation. Ellipses, for example, indicate that words or sentences have been removed from the original. Use active reading strategies. For instance, ask and answer questions on the content as you read. D. Rulers should expect their people to obey them no matter what they say. 2. This advice from Confucius seems most appropriate for A. workers and farmers. B. merchants and town artisans. C. rulers and their advisers. D. soldiers and priests. Before rereading the document, skim the questions. This will help you focus your reading and more easily locate answers. answers: 1 (B); 2 (C) S8 —The Analects of Confucius Excerpt from The Analects of Confucius, translated by Simon Leys. Copyright © 1997 by Pierre Ryckmans. Used by persmission of W. W. Norton & Company.
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . PRACTICE TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Directions: Use this passage, written by the traveler Leo Africanus, and your knowledge of world history to answer questions 1 through 4. Crossing the Desert In the way which leads from Fez to Timbuktu are certain pits environed either with the hides or bones of camels. Neither do the merchants in summer time pass that way without great danger of their lives: for oftentimes it happens that when the south wind blows all those pits are stopped up with sand. And so the merchants, when they can find neither those pits, nor any sign thereof, must needs perish with extreme thirst; whose carcasses are afterwards found lying scattered here and there, and scorched with the heat of the sun. . . . For some time being sore athirst we could not find one drop of water, partly because our guide strayed out of the direct course, and partly because our enemies had cut off the springs and channels of the foresaid pits and wells. Insomuch that the small quantity of water which we found was sparingly to be kept: for that which would scarce suffice us for five days, we were constrained to keep for ten. —Leo Africanus, History and Description of Africa (1550) 1. This account most likely describes the dangers of working in the 3. A. African rain forest. Which of the following might cause merchant caravans to run short of water? B. Savannas of East Africa. A. enemies cutting off water supplies C. Sahara salt trade. B. camels straying off course D. Atlantic slave trade. C. merchants not paying guides D. summer monsoons coming late 2. What is most likely the purpose of the pits that Africanus describes in the first sentence? A. They probably hold water. B. They are used to store supplies. C. They contain valuable skins and hides. D. They can be used to hide from enemies. 4. Which statement best describes the believability of the passage? A. The statements are not credible because they are secondhand. B. The author is merely recounting rumors and cannot be believed. C. The statements are believable because the author experienced the events. D. The author’s believability cannot be evaluated without looking at other sources. S9
    • S T R AT E G I E S Secondary Sources Secondary sources are written or made by people who were not at the original events. They often combine information from several primary sources. The most common types of written secondary sources are biographies and history books. Read the title to preview the content of the passage. (The title here signals that the passage is about a person named Malinche who seems to be controversial.) Skim the passage to locate the main idea—the central point that is supported by other details. Malinche, Heroine or Traitor? The origins of the Native American woman Malinche are unknown. What is clear is that in 1519—when she was perhaps 15 years old— she was given with 19 other young women to Hernando Cortés, who had recently landed in Mexico. Malinche greatly aided Cortés’s conquest of the Aztecs. She spoke both Nahuatl—the language of the Aztecs—and Mayan. Over time, she also learned Spanish and became Cortés’s chief translator. She also advised Cortés on the tricky politics of Mexico’s Native American peoples. The Spanish conquistadors reportedly admired and honored Malinche, calling her Doña Marina. And for many centuries, she was seen as a praiseworthy figure. In the 1800s, though, people came to view her harshly. Writers and artists portrayed her as a traitor to her people. This criticism of Malinche began after Mexico won its independence from Spain, and reflected anti-Spanish feeling. Today, however, she is once again seen favorably. 1. Notice words and phrases that clarify the sequence of events. Read actively by asking and answering questions about what you read. (You might ask yourself: “Why did opinions of Malinche change over time?”) Before rereading the passage, review the questions to identify the information you need to find. Which of the following statements about Malinche is a fact? A. She spoke three languages. B. She was a traitor. C. She was a heroine. D. She hated the Spanish. 2. Based on this account, which person or group would be most likely to view Malinche as a traitor? Remember that a fact is a verifiable statement. An opinion is a statement of someone’s belief about something. These words signal that you have to make inferences from information in the passage. A. Cortés and the conquistadors B. a supporter of Mexican independence in the 1800s C. one of the 19 other women who were with her in 1519 D. a historian writing about her today answers: 1 (A); 2 (B) S10
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . PRACTICE TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Directions: Use the passage and your knowledge of world history to answer questions 1 through 4. Polynesian Canoes The Polynesian voyaging canoe, one of the great ocean-going craft of the ancient world, was the means by which generations of adventurous voyagers were able to extend the human frontier far out into the Pacific, discovering and colonizing a vast realm of Oceanic islands. By 1000 B.C., when Mediterranean sailors were sailing in their land-locked sea, the immediate ancestors of the Polynesians had reached the previously uninhabited archipelagoes of Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Their descendants went on from there to settle all the habitable islands in a large triangular section of the ocean bounded by the Hawaiian archipelago, tiny Easter Island, and the massive islands of New Zealand—an area equivalent to most of Europe and Asia combined. The canoes in which people spread into the Pacific were not only humankind’s first truly ocean-going craft, but also embodied a unique way of gaining the stability needed to carry sail in rough, open ocean waters. [This involved] adding outrigger floats to one or both sides of a single canoe hull, or by joining two hulls together by means of crossbeams and coconut-fiber lashings to make the so-called double canoe. —Ben Finney, “The Polynesian Voyaging Canoe,” in New World and Pacific Civilizations: Cultures of America, Asia, and the Pacific, edited by Goran Burenhult. 1. The Polynesians used voyaging canoes to colonize 3. A. a small area of the Pacific. The Polynesians gave their canoes the stability needed to handle the rough ocean waters by adding B. a large area of the Pacific. A. outrigger floats. C. most of Europe and Asia. B. more sails. D. Australia and New Guinea. C. ballasted hulls. D. wooden keels. 2. What evidence does the author provide to support his claim that the Polynesian voyaging canoe was “one of the great ocean-going craft of the ancient world”? 4. By 1000 B.C., the Pacific voyagers had reached A. the Hawaiian archipelago. A. statistics about its size B. the islands of New Zealand. B. comparisons to European craft C. Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa. C. statements about its use in exploring and colonizing the Pacific D. tiny Easter Island. D. statements about its use by civilizations beyond the Pacific Excerpt from “The Polynesian Voyaging Canoe,” from New World and Pacific Civilizations: The Illustrated History of Humankind Series, Volume 4, by Goran Burenhult, General Editor. Copyright © 1994 by Weldon Owen Pty. Ltd/Bra Brocker AB. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. S11
    • S T R AT E G I E S Political Cartoons “NEXT!” Political cartoons use a combination of words and images to express a point of view on political issues. They are useful primary sources, because they reflect the opinions of the time. The cartoonist uses the swastika, the symbol of the Nazi Party, to represent Germany. Identify the subject of the cartoon. Titles and captions often provide clues to the subject matter. The swastika looks like a huge, menacing machine, which can easily overrun the Polish landscape. Use labels to help identify the people, places, and events represented in the cartoon. Note where and when the cartoon was published for more information on people, places, and events. Identify any important symbols—ideas or images that stand for something else—in the cartoon. Analyze the point of view presented in the cartoon. The use of caricature—the exaggeration of physical features—often signals how the cartoonist feels. The label Poland indicates the location of the subject addressed in the cartoon. Daniel Fitzpatrick/St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 24, 1939. The date of the publication, 1939, suggests that the cartoon might concern the beginning of World War II. 1. The cartoonist suggests that Poland will be the German war machine’s next victim. The machine-like swastika in the cartoon represents A. Nazi Germany. Interpret the cartoonist’s message. B. the Soviet Union. C. Napoleon’s empire. D. the Polish military. 2. Which sentence best summarizes the cartoonist’s message? A. Germany must beware of Poland. B. Poland is in danger of civil war. C. Germany and Poland are military giants. D. Poland will be Germany’s next victim. answers: 1 (A); 2 (D) S12
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . PRACTICE TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Directions: Use the cartoon and your knowledge of world history to answer questions 1 through 3. © Copyright 2006 Riber Hansson - All rights Reserved 1. The main character in the cartoon is Kim Jong Il of North Korea. How has the cartoonist drawn this leader? A. as a soldier B. as a Roman charioteer C. as a starving peasant D. as a cruel slave driver 2. This cartoon deals with 3. The most appropriate title for this cartoon would be A. “Kim strives to bring prosperity to North Korea.” B. “Kim fights to resist foreign influences.” C. “Kim pushes to develop nuclear energy.” D. “Kim’s nuclear ambitions impoverish his people.” A. North Korea’s policy of isolationism B. North Korea’s conflicts with the American government C. North Korea’s effort to develop nuclear weapons D. North Korea’s conflicts with South Korea S13
    • S T R AT E G I E S Charts Notice that the years covered in the table are not the same for all countries. This chart is about the number of people who immigrated to different countries. Charts present information in a visual form. History textbooks use several types of charts, including tables, flow charts, Venn diagrams, and infographics. The chart most commonly found in standardized tests is the table. This organizes information in columns and rows for easy viewing. Immigration to Selected Countries Number of Immigrants Argentina 1856-1932 6,405,000 Australia 1861-1932 2,913,000 Brazil 1821-1932 4,431,000 British West Indies 1836-1932 1,587,000 Canada 1821-1932 5,206,000 Cuba 1901-1932 857,000 Mexico 1911-1931 226,000 New Zealand 1851-1932 594,000 South Africa 1881-1932 852,000 United States Read the title and identify the broad subject of the chart. Read the column and row headings and any other labels. These will provide more details about the subject of the chart. 1821-1932 34,244,000 1836-1932 713,000 Uruguay Source: Alfred W. Crosby, Jr., The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 This chart organizes the countries alphabetically. In some charts, information is organized according to years or the value of the numbers displayed. Note how the information in the chart is organized. Compare and contrast the information from column to column and row to row. Try to draw conclusions from the information in the chart. Period Country 1. Think about what the countries with the highest number of immigrants have in common. The country that received the vast majority of immigrants was A. Argentina. B. Brazil. Read the questions and then study the chart again. C. Canada. D. the United States. 2. The Latin American country that received the most immigrants was A. Argentina. B. Brazil. C. Cuba. D. Uruguay. answers: 1 (D); 2 (A) S14
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . PRACTICE TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Directions: Use the chart and your knowledge of world history to answer questions 1 through 4. Year Crude Steel Production for Selected Countries (in thousands of metric tons) Russia/ United United China Germany* Japan Korea USSR Kingdom States 1900 — 6,646 1 — 2,214 4,979 10,351 1910 — 13,699 250 — 3,444 6,476 26,512 1920 — 8,538 845 — 162 9,212 42,807 1930 — 11,511 2,289 — 5,761 7,443 41,351 1940 — 19,141 7,528 — 19,000 13,183 60,765 1950 61 12,121 4,839 — 27,300 16,553 87,848 1960 1,866 34,100 22,138 — 65,292 24,695 91,920 1970 1,779 45,041 93,322 — 115,886 28,314 119,310 1980 3,712 43,838 111,935 8,558 148,000 11,278 101,457 1990 6,535 44,022 110,339 23,125 154,414 17,896 89,276 2000 127,200 46,400 106,400 43,100 59,100 15,200 101,500 * Figures from 1950 through 1990 are West Germany only. 1. Which country produced the most crude steel in 1900? Source: International Iron and Steel Institute; Japan Iron and Steel Federation 3. A. Germany By 2000, the largest share of crude steel was being produced by countries in B. Russia/USSR A. Africa. C. United Kingdom B. Asia. D. United States C. Europe. D. North America. 2. Japanese crude steel production most likely dropped from 1940 to 1950 due to A. growing competition from Korea and the USSR. 4. What country rose from no crude steel production to be the world’s largest producer in 50 years? A. China B. rising production in China. B. Germany C. damage to the industry suffered in World War II. C. Korea D. United Kingdom D. mergers with American companies. S15
    • S T R AT E G I E S 1. 5,000 Note that both total exports and exports to the Atlantic economy increased over time. 4,000 Total Exports 3,000 Exports to Atlantic Economy (North America, West Indies, Spanish America, West Africa) Statistics found in scholarly journals tend to be reliable. 2,000 72 –1 77 4 17 52 –1 75 4 17 17 22 –1 72 4 1,000 Which statement best describes the change in proportion of Atlantic economy exports to total exports? B. It started large and remained large. C. It grew over time. D. It decreased over time. Nations with High Foreign Debt, 2000 250 Think about the economic features these countries have in common. 200 150 100 dia es In Ph Ve n pin ue la 0 Tu Ar rkey ge nt in M a ex ico Ru ss ia Br az il 50 ez Read the questions carefully and then study the graph again. 6,000 A. It started small and remained small. Total Debt (Billions of Dollars) Draw conclusions and make inferences based on information in the graph. 7,000 Source: R. Davis, “English Foreign Trade, 1700–1774,”Economic History Review (1962) Look at the source line and evaluate the reliability of the information in the graph. If the graph presents information over time, look for trends— generalizations you can make about changes over time. 8,000 ilip Study the labels on the vertical and horizontal axes to see the kinds of information presented in the graph. Note the intervals between amounts and between dates. This will help you read the graph more efficiently. One conclusion you might draw is that colonies in North America and the Caribbean were an important market for English goods. 9,000 99 –1 70 1 Read the title and identify the broad subject of the graph. Value (Thousands of Pounds Sterling) Graphs show statistics in a visual form. Line graphs are particularly useful for showing changes over time. Bar graphs make it easy to compare numbers or sets of numbers. Exports of English Manufactured Goods, 1699–1774 16 Line and Bar Graphs Source: The World Bank 2. Which nation has the largest foreign debt? Statistics from major organizations, such as the World Bank, tend to be reliable. A. Venezuela B. Brazil C. Mexico answers: 1 (C); 2 (B) S16 D. Russia Line graph adapted from “Exports of English Manufactured Goods, 1700–1774,” from A History of World Societies, Fifth Edition by John P. McKay, Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, and Patricia Buckley Ebrey. Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Used by permission.
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . PRACTICE TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Directions: Use the graphs and your knowledge of world history to answer questions 1 through 4. Japan: Gross Domestic Product, 1984–2000 Unemployment Rates for Selected Countries, 2002 5000 Percent of Work Force Unemployed 10 3000 2000 8 6 4 2 Source: Annual Report on National Accounts 2002, Cabinet Office of the Government of Japan 1. Which of the following periods saw a decline in the gross domestic product of Japan? es Un ite d St at do ng Ki d Un ite Year m n pa Ja Ita ly y an rm Ge Ca an da na 00 98 20 19 96 19 94 92 19 90 19 88 19 86 19 19 84 19 ce 0 1000 Fr Billions of Dollars 4000 Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 3. Which of these countries had the lowest unemployment rate in 2002? A. Italy A. 1984 to 1988 B. Japan B. 1988 to 1992 C. United Kingdom C. 1990 to 1994 D. United States D. 1994 to 1998 4. 2. From 1986 to 1994, Japan’s gross domestic product In 2002, France’s unemployment rate stood at A. about 9 percent. A. more than doubled. B. well over 9 percent. B. more than tripled. C. about 7 percent. C. grew by about five times. D. less than 7 percent. D. grew nearly ten times. S17
    • S T R AT E G I E S Pie Graphs A pie, or circle, graph shows relationships among the parts of a whole. These parts look like slices of a pie. The size of each slice is proportional to the percentage of the whole that it represents. World Population by Region, 2002 0.5% North America 5.1% 8.6% 11.7% 60.6% Look at the legend to see what each slice of the pie represents. Look at the source line and evaluate the reliability of the information in the graph. The Population Reference Bureau specializes in studies of United States and international population data. Compare the slices of the pie and try to make generalizations and draw conclusions from your comparisons. B. North America C. Latin America and the Caribbean D. Oceania 2. A greater share of the world’s population lives in Latin America and the Caribbean than lives in B. Europe. C. North America. D. Asia. S18 Source: Population Reference Bureau Which region accounts for the smallest share of the world population? A. Africa. answers: 1 (D); 2 (C) The graph shows that Asia has by far the largest population. A. Africa Read the questions carefully. Eliminate choices that you know are wrong and then select the best answer from the remaining choices. Asia Oceania 1. Note that each region is shown by a distinct color in the pie graph. Africa 13.5% Read the title and identify the broad subject of the pie graph. Latin America and Caribbean Europe For this question, find the “pie slices” for each of the regions listed in the alternatives. Compare each one to the “pie slice” for Latin America and the Caribbean.
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . P R AC TI C E TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Directions: Use the pie graph and your knowledge of world history to answer questions 1 through 4. World Energy Consumption by Region North America Central and South America 7% Western Europe 19.3% 29.8% Middle East 3.1% 5% Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union 5.2% 13.3% 17.3% Africa Developing Asia Japan, Australia, New Zealand Source: “Earth Pulse,” from National Geographic, March 2001. Copyright © 2001 National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Used by permission of National Geographic Society. 1. Energy consumption statistics for Russia are included in the region called 3. The word Developing in the legend refers to countries that are A. North America. A. growing in population. B. Western Europe. B. adopting new methods of agriculture. C. Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union. C. developing nuclear weapons. D. Developing Asia. 2. Which region uses the highest proportion of energy? A. North America D. moving toward industrial economies. 4. Japan, Australia, and New Zealand are grouped together because they are in the same part of the world and B. Western Europe A. have roughly equal populations. C. Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union B. have advanced industrial economies. D. Developing Asia D. rely on other countries for economic aid. C. rely on fishing for food. S19
    • S T R AT E G I E S Political Maps Canada in 1871 The labels identify Canada’s provinces and territories in 1871. QUEBEC A R CTIC O CE A N 1867 Date joined Dominion of Canada GREENLAND (Denmark) le 60°N Ar cti cC ir c NORTHWEST TERRITORIES 1870 Read the title of the map to identify the subject and purpose of the map. bia R. Vancouver Island N. Saskatchewan R. MANITOBA 1870 Co lu m PACIFIC OCEAN . ll R . C h u r c hi n R so Ne l Fraser R . BRITISH Peace R. COLUMBIA 1871 Review the labels on the map. They also will reveal information about the map’s subject and purpose. 40°N Hudson Bay The dates indicate the year each province or territory became part of Canada. NEWFOUNDLAND QUEBEC 1867 C A N A D A PRINCE EDWARD St. John ISLAND ONTARIO Québec 1873 40°N 1867 Montréal Halifax Ottawa NOVA SCOTIA Toronto L. Ontario 1867 L. Superior NEW Hamilton L. Michigan BRUNSWICK L. Erie 1867 L. Huron ATLANTIC N Study the legend to find the meaning of the symbols used on the map. OCEAN UN ITED STA TES 0 500 E 1,000 miles W 0 500 1,000 kilometers Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection Use the scale to estimate distances between places shown on the map. Use the compass rose to determine the direction on the map. Name of Province ALASKA (U.S.) nzie R. Macke Political maps show countries and the political divisions within them—states or provinces, for example. They also show the location of major cities. In addition, political maps often show some physical features, such as mountain ranges, oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers. 1. Read the questions and then carefully study the map to determine the answers. Maps typically show distances in both miles 80°W and kilometers. 100°W S 60°W All of the following provinces were part of Canada in 1867 except A. New Brunswick. B. Manitoba. C. Ontario. D. Quebec. 2. About how long is the United States-Canada border from western Lake Superior to the Pacific Ocean? A. 900 miles B. 1,200 miles C. 1,500 miles D. 1,800 miles answers: 1 (B); 2 (C) S20 Use the scale to answer questions like this.
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . PRACTICE TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Directions: Use the map and your knowledge of world history to answer questions 1 through 4. The Persian Empire Da nu be Syr D R. MT PERSIA P si an a ARABIA 40°E The oldest part of the Persian Empire is found IN DIA lf 0 50°E 3. A. east of the Zagros Mountains. . Cancer Arabian Sea Empire, c. 375 B.C. 1. Gu Tropic of Se Empire, c. 500 B.C. R Persepolis er d Empire, c. 559 B.C. Pasargadae S. ELAM 30°N (550 B.C.) Ind us IA NIC PHO Susa EGYPT Thebes ARIA S R. RO Nile G Teima Sea ’ BACTRIA MEDIA Ecbatana Re Royal Road SINAI A p Battle Babylon Jerusalem BABYLONIA Memphis 40°N a SOGDIANA PARTHIA Opis (539 B.C.) Z Eu City S. R. MT ARMENIA ES Asher OP OT Mediterranean SYRIA A h r M IA CYPRUS Sea a te Pelusium s R. (525 B.C.) LIBYA JUDAH Am uD R a ry US an S AS pi M UC as CILICIA E CA . ris R T ig W C N THRACE Blac k S e a MACEDONIA Pteria Marathon (547 B.C.) (490 B.C.) GREECE LYDIA Salamis Sardis (547–546 B.C.) (480 B.C.) Athens CAPPADOCIA a ry a . Aral Sea 300 600 miles 0 300 600 kilometers Lambert Conformal Conic Projection The battles of Marathon and Salamis were fought between the Persians and the B. in Arabia. A. Egyptians. C. along the Caspian Sea. B. Syrians. D. in the region called Bactria. C. Greeks. D. Phoenicians. 2. The Persian Empire reached its greatest extent, including Egypt and the Indus River valley, by A. 559 B.C. B. 500 B.C. C. 375 B.C. D. 475 B.C. 4. The Royal Road between Susa and Sardis was most likely used A. to bring food and supplies from Bactria to Persia. B. by Egyptian and Syrian peasants traveling west. C. to carry riches looted by Persian soldiers. D. by the Persian army and royal messengers. S21
    • S T R AT E G I E S Thematic Maps The Spread of Buddhism t 1s ntu ce MONGOLIA ry B .C. A.D. 372 A .D Taxila Dunhuang centuries . 3rd century B.C. 3rd c tu B. Ga Yungang C .C. c.250 B .D .4 00 . ng R ko CHAMPA A. D. South China Sea 4 INDIAN OCEAN Route of Spread c. A Buddhist site 0 Look at the colors and symbols on the map to try to identify patterns. 500 1,000 miles 0 500 1,000 kilometers Two–Point Equidistant Projection .D. 400 The labels identify the important Buddhist sites in South and East Asia. Borneo Sumatra Java Notice that Buddhism began in northern India and next spread to much of the rest of the Indian subcontinent. Read the questions, and then carefully study the map to determine the answers. 1. To which area did Buddhism spread after A.D. 550? A. Java B. China C. Japan D. Champa 2. The routes tracing the spread of Buddhism show the great cultural influence that China had on A. Mongolia and Vietnam. B. Korea and Japan. C. Vietnam and Korea. D. India and Japan. S22 S 00 Angkor c. E W Bay of Bengal Yamato Putuo Shan East China Sea N Pagan Me Anuradhapura Ceylon Study the legend to find the meaning of the symbols and colors used on the map. answers: 1 (C); 2 (B) 5 52 Nanhai c. A A . D. C HIN A .) g Jian (Ya n g tze R s R. nge g han JAPAN KOREA Kaesong Kyongiu Yellow Sea Sarnath Ajanta Examine the labels on the map to find more information on the map’s subject and purpose. Chang’an tr a NEPAL R. C. ellow R.) g uan Brahm apu ry INDIA Sanchi H TIBET Lumbini en Read the title to determine the subject and purpose of the map. . 1st–3rd He (Y Khotan Ind us R A thematic map, or specialpurpose map, focuses on a particular topic. The movements of peoples, a country’s natural resources, and major battles in a war are all topics you might see illustrated on a thematic map.
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . PRACTICE TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Directions: Use the map and your knowledge of world history to answer questions 1 through 4. The Christian Conquest of Muslim Spain B ay of B i scay FR ANC E Santiago N Pamplona Leon Eb Burgos E ro R. W Saragossa Douro R. SPA I N Tagus R. Minorca Toledo R Guadian a Battle R. Jucar Alarcos Las Navas . Badajoz Córdoba Seville City Mallorca Valencia Sagrajas Lisbon S Barcelona Conquered before 914 Conquered 915–1080 Murcia lquivir R. ada Gu Granada Me dite r rane an Se a Conquered 1081–1130 Conquered 1131–1210 Conquered 1211–1250 ATL A N T IC OCE A N Gibraltar 0 0 100 100 200 miles 200 kilometers Conquered 1251–1480 Conquered after 1481 Azimuthal Equidistant Projection 1. The Christian conquest of Muslim lands on the Iberian Peninsula began 3. In what time period was the Battle of Las Navas fought? A. in the west. B. in the north. B. between 1131 and 1210 C. along the Mediterranean coast. C. between 1211 and 1250 D. along the entire Atlantic coast. 2. A. between 914 and 1080 D. between 1251 and 1480 By about 1250, Christians held what portion of the Iberian Peninsula? 4. The last major city that the Christians captured was A. less than half A. Barcelona. B. about half B. Granada. C. slightly more than half C. Seville. D. almost the entire peninsula D. Valencia. S23
    • S T R AT E G I E S Time Lines A time line is a type of chart that lists events in the order in which they occurred. In other words, time lines are a visual method of showing what happened when. Read the title to discover the subject of the time line. The End of Colonialism in Africa On vertical time lines, the earliest date is shown at the top. On horizontal time lines, it is on the far left. 1955 1960 16 countries, including Nigeria and Congo, gain independence. Identify the time period covered by the time line by noting the earliest and latest dates shown. 1957 Ghana wins independence. 1961 Sierra Leone and Tanganyika (later Tanzania) gain independence. 1962 Algeria, Rwanda, Burundi, and Uganda become independent. Read the events and their dates in sequence. Notice the intervals between events. 1964 Malawi and Zambia win independence. Use your knowledge of history to develop a fuller picture of the events listed in the time line. For example, place the events in a broader context by considering what was happening elsewhere in the world. Use the information you have gathered from these strategies to answer the questions. 1956 Sudan, Tunisia, and Morocco gain independence. 1963 Kenya gains independence. Notice that many African countries won independence in the first half of the 1960s. 1966 Botswana and Lesotho become independent. Recall that this is the period after World War II, when European colonial powers were weakened. 1975 1. 1975 São Tomé and Príncipe, Angola, Mozambique, and Comoros gain independence. The first countries to win independence were all located in A. North Africa. B. West Africa. C. East Africa. D. Southern Africa. 2. Which of the following titles best describes events in the 1960s? A. The Rise of Communism B. The Rise of Colonialism C. The Decade of Independence D. The Decade of Suffering answers: 1 (A); 2 (C) S24
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . PRACTICE TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Directions: Use the time line and your knowledge of world history to answer questions 1 through 4. 1991 Boris Yeltsin elected president of Russia. The Breakup of the Soviet Union 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes leader of Soviet Union. 1989 Soviet elections result in defeat of many Communist candidates. Communist and army hardliners seize power; Yeltsin leads resistance that defeats them. Soviet Union ceases to exist. 1991 1985 1986 Gorbachev launches glasnost and perestroika reforms. 1. What event was a direct result of the new constitution that took effect in 1988? 1988 New Soviet constitution allows for open elections. 3. 1990 Lithuania declares independence; over the next several months 13 other republics follow suit. What was the result of the hardliners’ attempt to seize power in 1991? A. Gorbachev launched glasnost and perestroika reforms. A. They prevented the collapse of the Soviet Union. B. Many Communist candidates lost elections. B. Leaders in other Communist countries joined their cause. C. Communist hardliners seized power. C. Gorbachev defeated Yeltsin in a struggle for power. D. Several Soviet republics declared independence. 2. When did Lithuania declare its independence from the Soviet Union? A. 1988 B. 1989 C. 1990 D. 1991 D. They failed to gain control, and the country rapidly fell apart. 4. For much of the time it existed, the Soviet Union was engaged with the United States in a long conflict called A. World War I. B. World War II. C. the Gulf War. D. the Cold War. S25
    • S T R AT E G I E S Constructed Response Constructed-response questions focus on various kinds of documents. Each document usually is accompanied by a series of questions. These questions call for short answers that, for the most part, can be found directly in the document. Some answers, however, require knowledge of the subject or time period addressed in the document. Maya Pyramid in Palenque, Mexico Constructed-response questions use a wide range of documents including short passages, cartoons, charts, graphs, maps, time lines, posters, and other visual materials. This document is a photograph showing ruins in Palenque, Mexico. The flat-topped pyramid is typical of the early civilizations of Mesoamerica. Read the title of the document to discover the subject addressed in the questions. Study and analyze the document. Take notes on what you see. Read the questions carefully and then study the document again to locate the answers. Carefully write your answers. Unless the directions say otherwise, your answers need not be complete sentences. Copyright © Kevin Schafer/Corbis. 1. Palenque was one of the city-states of what Mesoamerican civilization? Maya 2. For what purpose do you think this pyramid was built? religious purposes 3. What reasons have been suggested for the decline of this civilization in the late A.D. 800s? Since the question uses the plural reasons, your answer must include more than one explanation. warfare among Maya city-states, which disrupted trade and caused economic hardship; over-farming and population growth, which caused ecological damage, resulting in food shortages, famine, and disease S26
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . PRACTICE TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Directions: Use the passage and your knowledge of world history to answer questions 1 through 3. Your answers need not be in complete sentences. A New South Africa . . . [W]e all carried [pain] in our hearts as we saw our country tear itself apart in terrible conflict, and as we saw it spurned, outlawed and isolated by the peoples of the world, precisely because it has become the universal base of the [destructive] ideology and practice of racism and racial oppression. . . . We have, at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender, and other discrimination. . . . We enter into a covenant that we shall build the society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts, assured of their inalienable right to human dignity—a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world. . . . Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world. —Nelson Mandela, Inaugural Address as President of South Africa (1994) 1. What was the name of the government policy that Nelson Mandela called the “[destructive] ideology and practice of racism and racial oppression”? 2. How did other nations outlaw and isolate South Africa? 3. Why was Mandela’s election as president significant? S27
    • S T R AT E G I E S Extended Response Extended-response questions, like constructed-response questions, usually focus on a document of some kind. However, they are more complex and require more time to complete than shortanswer constructed-response questions. Some extendedresponse questions ask you to present the information in the document in a different form. Others require you to complete a chart, graph, or diagram. Still others ask you to write an essay, a report, or some other extended piece of writing. In most standardized tests, documents only have one extended-response question. Inventions of the Industrial Revolution Invention Flying shuttle, spinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule, power loom Cotton gin Macadam road, steamboat, locomotive Mechanical reaper Like constructed-response questions, extended-response questions use a wide range of documents. This document is a chart of several inventions developed during the Industrial Revolution. Impact Made it possible to quickly spin thread and weave cloth; led to the spread of factories Made it faster to clean seeds from cotton; spurred increase in cotton production Made transportation by land and water faster; made transportation of larger loads possible; railroads boosted demand for coal and iron, spurring those industries Made harvesting easier; increased wheat production Carefully read the extended-response questions. (Question 1 asks you to complete a chart. Question 2 assumes that the chart is complete and asks you to write an essay based on information in the chart.) Study and analyze the document. Sometimes the question gives you a partial answer. Analyze that answer to determine what kind of information your answers should contain. If the question requires an extended piece of writing, jot down ideas in outline form. Use this outline to write your answer. S28 In the right-hand column of the chart, briefly describe the impact of the inventions listed in the left-hand column. The first entry has been completed for you. 2. Read the title of the document to get an idea of the subject. 1. The chart shows how certain inventions contributed to the development of the Industrial Revolution. Write a short essay describing the impact of the Industrial Revolution on society. Sample Response The best essays will point out that developments in agriculture reduced the need for labor on the land. Many farm workers left the country seeking work in factories in the cities. As a result, cities grew much larger. However, lack of sanitation and poor quality buildings made cities unhealthy, and sometimes dangerous, places to live. Life for factory workers was made worse because they worked long hours under dreadful conditions. Society split into clear social classes, with an upper class of landowners and aristocrats, a growing middle class of merchants and factory owners, and a large, generally poor lower class. Over the long term, though, working and living conditions improved for the working class, in part because factory-produced goods were cheaper.
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . PRACTICE TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Directions: Use the diagram and your knowledge of world history to answer question 1. Cutaway of the Great Pyramid at Giza a. Entrance b. Descending Corridor c. Underground Chamber d. Service Corridor e. Ascending Corridor f. Queen's Room g. Air Shafts h. Great Gallery i. Antechamber j. King's Chamber k. Weight Relief Chamber g. g. k. h. i. j. a. e. f. d. b. c. 1. How and for what purpose were the pyramids of ancient Egypt built? S29
    • S T R AT E G I E S Document-Based Questions A document-based question (DBQ) requires you to analyze and interpret a variety of documents. These documents often are accompanied by short-answer questions. You use these answers and information from the documents to write an essay on a specified subject. Introduction Historical Context: For hundreds of years, Mongol nomads lived in separate tribes, sometimes fighting among themselves. In the early 1200s, a new leader—Genghis Khan—united these tribes and turned the Mongols into a powerful fighting force. Task: Discuss how the Mongols achieved their conquest of Central and East Asia and what impact their rule had on Europeans. Part 1: Short Answer Read the “Historical Context” section to get a sense of the issue addressed in the question. Study each document carefully and answer the questions that follow. Document 1: Mongol Warrior Read the “Task” section and note the action words. This will help you understand exactly what the essay question requires. Study and analyze each document. Consider what connection the documents have to the essay question. Take notes on your ideas. Read and answer the document-specific questions. Think about how these questions connect to the essay topic. What were the characteristics of Mongol warriors? T Mongol soldiers were excellent horsemen who could travel great he distances without rest. T attacked swiftly and without mercy, they hey used clever psychological warfare to strike fear into their enemies, and they adopted new weapons and technology. S30 Painting: Victoria & Albert Museum, London/Art Resource, New York.
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Document 2: The Mongol Empire Vienna 0 Krakow 1,000 miles 0 500 1,000 kilometers Two-Point Equidistant Projection E W S E M P I R Karakorum Samarkand Tashkent Am Da rya HI M AL JAPAN Beijing Hu (Ye a Chengdu M ll an g ang Ji Ch eR (Yangt z East China Sea Chongqing CHINA Guangzhou ng TIBET AY A Lhasa MT S. SULTANATE OF DELHI Brahmaputra R. GOBI o ek BURMA R. Conquest by Genghis Khan Added by Successors Silk Road City Sea of Japan E AN TAKLIMAKAN DESERT u ABBASID S CALIPHATE ilk Road SH TIEN R. R .) Ca L Syr rya Da Baghdad G O .) Sea N s p i an M Se a EE RE Am ur O ow M He Bla ck ng BYZA N TI N RUSSIA Constantinople PI 500 N Moscow Kiev ANNAM SIAM South China Sea CHAMPA Carefully read the essay question. Then write an outline for your essay. Write your essay. Be sure that it has an introductory paragraph that introduces your argument, main body paragraphs that explain it, and a concluding paragraph that restates your position. In your essay, include quotations or details from specific documents to support your ideas. Add other supporting facts or details that you know from your study of world history. What route connected the Mongol Empire to Europe? What was the major purpose of this route? T Silk Road; it was the major trade route between Asia and Europe. he Document 3: The Great Khan’s Wealth Let me tell you further that several times a year a [command] goes forth through the towns that all those who have gems and pearls and gold and silver must bring them to the Great Khan’s mint. This they do, and in such abundance that it is past all reckoning; and they are all paid in paper money. By this means the Great Khan acquires all the gold and silver and pearls and precious stones of all his territories. —Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo (c. 1300) How did Marco Polo’s descriptions of his travels encourage European interest in East Asia? Europeans were attracted by his descriptions of the great wealth. Part 2: Essay Using information from the documents, your answers to the questions in Part 1, and your knowledge of world history, write an essay discussing how the Mongols conquered Central and East Asia and what effects their rule had on Europeans. Sample Response The best essays will link the Mongols’ tactics, fierce will, and strong military organization to their successful conquest of vast areas in Central and East Asia (Documents 1 and 2). They will also note that rule over these vast lands brought a period of peace and united regions that had before then been separate. Essays should point out that this peace revived trade along the Silk Road (Document 2) and brought new inventions and ideas to Europe. Further, accounts of the immense wealth in Mongol lands (Document 3) spurred Europeans’ interest in tapping into that wealth. S31
    • STRATEGIES FOR TAKING STANDARDIZED TESTS For more test practice online . . . TEST PRACTICE CL ASSZONE .COM Document 2: A Declaration of Rights 1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good. 2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural . . . rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. . . . 6. Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public positions and occupations, according to their abilities, and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents. —Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789) How do these statements reflect the ideals of the Enlightenment? Document 3: The French Revolution—Major Events July 1789 Crowd storms the Bastille. Aug. 1789 National Assembly abolishes feudalism, approves Aug. 1792 Paris mob captures King Louis XVI. Sep. 1792 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Crowds kill priests, nobles Nov. 1789 in September Massacres; National Assembly seizes lands of Catholic Church. monarchy abolished. July 1794 Robespierre executed, Terror ends. 1794 1789 July 1790 Church put under control of government; France made a constitutional monarchy. June 1791 Royal family arrested in escape attempt. Jan. 1793 King executed by guillotine. Spring 1793 Robespierre and allies gain control of government, begin to arrest rivals. 1793–1794 Reign of Terror: about 300,000 arrested and 17,000 executed. The French Revolution was moderate at first but quickly became radical. How does the information in the time line illustrate this? Part 2: Essay Using information from the documents, your answers to the questions in Part 1, and your knowledge of world history, write an essay discussing how social conflict and intellectual movements contributed to the French Revolution and why the Revolution turned radical. S33
    • Rising out of the sands of Egypt are enduring signs of an ancient civilization. Pictured here are the pyramids of Giza, which were built as tombs for Egyptian rulers. Ancient Civilizations In Unit 1, you will learn about several ancient civilizations such as in Egypt. At the end of the unit, you will have a chance to compare and contrast the civilizations you studied. (See pages 112–117.) 1
    • The Peopling of the World, Prehistory–2500 B.C. Previewing Main Ideas INTERACTION WITH ENVIRONMENT As early humans spread out over the world, they adapted to each environment they encountered. As time progressed, they learned to use natural resources. Geography Study the time line and the map. Where in Africa did human life begin? SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY The earliest peoples came up with new ideas and inventions in order to survive. As people began to live in settlements, they continued to develop new technology to control the environment. Geography Early humans began to migrate about 1.8 million years ago. What paths did these migrations take? ECONOMICS Early humans hunted animals and gathered wild plant foods for 3 to 4 million years. Then about 10,000 years ago, they learned to tame animals and to plant crops. Gradually, more complex economies developed. Geography Early settlement sites often were near rivers. Why might they have been located there? INTERNET RESOURCES • Interactive Maps • Interactive Visuals • Interactive Primary Sources 2 Go to classzone.com for: • Research Links • Maps • Internet Activities • Test Practice • Primary Sources • Current Events • Chapter Quiz
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    • How would these tools help early humans survive? You have joined a team of scientists on an expedition to an ancient site where early humans once lived. The scientists’ goal is to search for evidence that might unlock the mysteries of the past. You’re an eyewitness to their astounding discovery—human-made tools about 5,000 years old. They belonged to the so-called Ice Man, discovered in 1991. (See History in Depth, page 15.) The remnants of a backpack A birch-bark container An axe A dagger and its sheath EXAM I N I NG the ISSU ES • What did early humans need to do to survive? • What physical actions would these tools help humans do? As a class, discuss these questions. In your discussion, think about recent tools and inventions that have changed people’s lives. As you read about the ancestors of present-day humans, notice how early toolmakers applied their creativity and problem-solving skills. 4 Chapter 1
    • 1 Human Origins in Africa MAIN IDEA INTERACTION WITH ENVIRONMENT Fossil evidence shows that the earliest humans originated in Africa and spread across the globe. WHY IT MATTERS NOW The study of early human remains and artifacts helps in understanding our place in human history. TERMS & NAMES • • • • artifact culture hominid Paleolithic Age • Neolithic Age • technology • Homo sapiens SETTING THE STAGE What were the earliest humans like? Many people have asked this question. Because there are no written records of prehistoric peoples, scientists have to piece together information about the past. Teams of scientists use a variety of research methods to learn more about how, where, and when early humans developed. Interestingly, recent discoveries provide the most knowledge about human origins and the way prehistoric people lived. Yet, the picture of prehistory is still far from complete. Scientists Search for Human Origins TAKING NOTES Written documents provide a window to the distant past. For several thousand years, people have recorded information about their beliefs, activities, and important events. Prehistory, however, dates back to the time before the invention of writing—roughly 5,000 years ago. Without access to written records, scientists investigating the lives of prehistoric peoples face special challenges. Scientific Clues Archaeologists are specially trained scientists who work like detectives to uncover the story of prehistoric peoples. They learn about early people by excavating and studying the traces of early settlements. An excavated site, called an archaeological dig, provides one of the richest sources of clues to the prehistoric way of life. Archaeologists sift through the dirt in a small plot of land. They analyze all existing evidence, such as bones and artifacts. Bones might reveal what the people looked like, how tall they were, the types of food they ate, diseases they may have had, and how long they lived. Artifacts are human-made objects, such as tools and jewelry. These items might hint at how people dressed, what work they did, or how they worshiped. Scientists called anthropologists study culture, or a people’s unique way of life. Anthropologists examine the artifacts at archaeological digs. From these, they re-create a picture of early people’s cultural behavior. (See Analyzing Key Concepts on culture on the following page.) Other scientists, called paleontologists, study fossils—evidence of early life preserved in rocks. Human fossils often consist of small fragments of teeth, skulls, or other bones. Paleontologists use complex techniques to date ancient fossil remains and rocks. Archaeologists, anthropologists, paleontologists, and other scientists work as a team to make new discoveries about how prehistoric people lived. Categorizing Use a diagram to list advances of each hominid group. Hominid Group Cro-Magnons The Peopling of the World 5
    • Culture CULTURAL DATA In prehistoric times, bands of humans that lived near one another began to develop shared ways of doing things: common ways of dressing, similar hunting practices, favorite animals to eat. These shared traits were the first beginnings of what anthropologists and historians call culture. Culture is the way of life of a group of people. Culture includes common practices of a society, its shared understandings, and its social organization. By overcoming individual differences, culture helps to unify the group. Annual movie attendance, 1998–2000 (per person)* 5.0 2.9 0.3 * UNESCO, last update 3/03 Components of Culture Marriage rates, 1999 (per 1,000 population)* Common Practices Shared Understandings Social Organization • what people eat • clothing and • language • symbols • religious beliefs • values • the arts • political beliefs • family • class and caste structure • relationships between 8.6 • government • economic system • view of authority U.S. adornment • sports • tools and technology • social customs • work 6.0 5.1 individual and community Japan Finland * Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, United Nations, October 2001 Divorces, 1996 (as % of marriages)* How Culture Is Learned 65% People are not born knowing about culture. Instead, they must learn culture. Generally, individuals learn culture in two ways. First, they observe and imitate the behavior of people in their society. Second, people in their society directly teach the culture to them, usually through spoken or written language. Media Government 49% 6% Russia U.S. Turkey * Human Development Report, United Nations, 2000 Average family size, 1980–1990* 7.0 5.1 Religious Institutions Family 2.6 Algeria Peru U.S. * UNESCO, last update 8/17/01 School Friends Workplace 1. Forming and Supporting Opinions Observation and Imitation Direct Teaching In U.S. culture, which shared understanding do you think is the most powerful? Why? See Skillbuilder Handbook, page R20. 2. Making Inferences Judging from the RESEARCH LINKS For more on culture, go to classzone.com 6 Chapter 1 divorce rate in Turkey, what components of culture do you think are strong in that country? Why?
    • Early Footprints Found In the 1970s, archaeologist Mary Leakey led a scientific expedition to the region of Laetoli in Tanzania in East Africa. (See map on page 10.) There, she and her team looked for clues about human origins. In 1978, they found prehistoric footprints that resembled those of modern humans preserved in volcanic ash. These footprints were made by humanlike beings now called australopithecines (aw•STRAY•loh•PIHTH•ih•SYNZ). Humans and other creatures that walk upright, such as australopithecines, are called hominids. The Laetoli footprints provided striking evidence about human origins: PRIMARY SOURCE What do these footprints tell us? First, . . . that at least 3,600,000 years ago, what I believe to be man’s direct ancestor walked fully upright. . . . Second, that the form of the foot was exactly the same as ours. . . . [The footprints produced] a kind of poignant time wrench. At one point, . . . she [the female hominid] stops, pauses, turns to the left to glance at some possible threat or irregularity, and then continues to the north. This motion, so intensely human, transcends time. MARY LEAKEY, quoted in National Geographic The Discovery of “Lucy” While Mary Leakey was working Drawing Conclusions Why were the discoveries of hominid footprints and “Lucy” important? in East Africa, U.S. anthropologist Donald Johanson and his team were also searching for fossils. They were exploring sites in Ethiopia, about 1,000 miles to the north. In 1974, Johanson’s team made a remarkable find—an unusually complete skeleton of an adult female hominid. They nicknamed her “Lucy” after the song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds.” She had lived around 3.5 million years ago—the oldest hominid found to that date. The Leakey Family The Leakey family has had a tremendous impact on the study of human origins. British anthropologists Louis S. B. Leakey (1903–1972) and Mary Leakey (1913–1996) began searching for early human remains in East Africa in the 1930s. Their efforts turned what was a sideline of science into a major field of scientific inquiry. Mary became one of the world’s renowned hunters of human fossils. Their son Richard; Richard’s wife, Maeve; and Richard and Maeve’s daughter Louise have continued the family’s fossil-hunting in East Africa into the 21st century. RESEARCH LINKS For more on the Leakey family, go to classzone.com Hominids Walk Upright Lucy and the hominids who left their footprints in East Africa were species of australopithecines. Walking upright helped them travel distances more easily. They were also able to spot threatening animals and carry food and children. These early hominids had already developed the opposable thumb. This means that the tip of the thumb can cross the palm of the hand. The opposable thumb was crucial for tasks such as picking up small objects and making tools. (To see its importance, try picking up a coin with just the index and middle fingers. Imagine all of the other things that cannot be done without the opposable thumb.) The Old Stone Age Begins The invention of tools, mastery over fire, and the development of language are some of the most impressive achievements in human history. Scientists believe these occurred during the prehistoric period known as the Stone Age. It spanned a vast length of time. The earlier and longer part of the Stone Age, called the Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Age, lasted from about 2.5 million to 8000 B.C. The oldest stone chopping tools date back to this era. The New Stone Age, or Neolithic Age, began about 8000 B.C. and ended as early as 3000 B.C. in some areas. People who lived during this second phase of the Stone Age learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, and raise animals. The Peopling of the World 7
    • ilis Australopithecines • 2.5 million to 1.5 million B.C. • found in East Africa • brain size 700 cm3 • first to make stone tools • 4 million to 1 million B.C. • found in southern and Homo erectus eastern Africa • brain size 500 cm3 (cubic centimeters) • first humanlike creature to walk upright 3 million years ago 4 million years ago Homo habilis Australopithecines Much of the Paleolithic Age occurred during the period in the earth’s history known as the Ice Age. During this time, glaciers alternately advanced and retreated as many as 18 times. The last of these ice ages ended about 10,000 years ago. By the beginning of the Neolithic Age, glaciers had retreated to roughly the same area they now occupy. Homo habilis May Have Used Tools Before the australopithecines eventually vanished, new hominids appeared in East Africa around 2.5 million years ago. In 1960, archaeologists Louis and Mary Leakey discovered a hominid fossil at Olduvai (OHL•duh•vy) Gorge in northern Tanzania. The Leakeys named the fossil Homo habilis, which means “man of skill.” The Leakeys and other researchers found tools made of lava rock. They believed Homo habilis used these tools to cut meat and crack open bones. Tools made the task of survival easier. Homo erectus Develops Technology About 1.6 million years ago, before Homo habilis left the scene, another species of hominids appeared in East Africa. This species is now known as Homo erectus, or “upright man.” Some anthropologists believe Homo erectus was a more intelligent and adaptable species than Homo habilis. Homo erectus people used intelligence to develop technology—ways of applying knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet their needs. These hominids gradually became skillful hunters and invented more sophisticated tools for digging, scraping, and cutting. They also eventually became the first hominids to migrate, or move, from Africa. Fossils and stone tools show that bands of Homo erectus hunters settled in India, China, Southeast Asia, and Europe. According to anthropologists, Homo erectus was the first to use fire. Fire provided warmth in cold climates, cooked food, and frightened away attacking animals. The control of fire also probably helped Homo erectus settle new lands. Homo erectus may have developed the beginnings of spoken language. Language, like technology, probably gave Homo erectus greater control over the environment and boosted chances for survival. The teamwork needed to plan hunts and cooperate in other tasks probably relied on language. Homo erectus might have named objects, places, animals, and plants and exchanged ideas. The Dawn of Modern Humans Many scientists believe Homo erectus eventually developed into Homo sapiens— the species name for modern humans. Homo sapiens means “wise men.” While they physically resembled Homo erectus, Homo sapiens had much larger brains. 8 Chapter 1 Recognizing Effects How did Homo erectus use fire to adapt to the environment?
    • Homo erectus • 1.6 million to 30,000 B.C. • found in Africa, Asia, and Europe • brain size 1,000 cm 200,000 to 30,000 B.C. found in Europe and Southwest Asia brain size 1,450 cm3 • first to have ritual burials 40,000 to 8000 B.C. found in Europe brain size 1,400 cm3 fully modern humans created art Present 1 million years ago 2 million years ago Homo erectus Neanderthal Cro-Magnon Scientists have traditionally classified Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons as early groups of Homo sapiens. However, in 1997, DNA tests on a Neanderthal skeleton indicated that Neanderthals were not ancestors of modern humans. They were, however, affected by the arrival of Cro-Magnons, who may have competed with Neanderthals for land and food. Neanderthals’ Way of Life In 1856, as quarry workers were digging for limestone in the Neander Valley in Germany, they spotted fossilized bone fragments. These were the remains of Neanderthals, whose bones were discovered elsewhere in Europe and Southwest Asia. These people were powerfully built. They had heavy slanted brows, well-developed muscles, and thick bones. To many people, the name “Neanderthal” calls up the comic-strip image of a club-carrying caveman. However, archaeological discoveries reveal a more realistic picture of these early hominids, who lived between 200,000 and 30,000 years ago. Evidence suggests that Neanderthals tried to explain and control their world. They developed religious beliefs and performed rituals. About 60,000 years ago, Neanderthals held a funeral for a man in Shanidar Cave, located in northeastern Iraq. Some archaeologists theorize that during the funeral, the Neanderthal’s family covered his body with flowers. This funeral points to a belief in a world beyond the grave. Fossil hunter Richard Leakey, the son of Louis and Mary Leakey, wrote about the meaning of this Neanderthal burial: PRIMARY SOURCE The Shanidar events . . . speak clearly of a deep feeling for the spiritual quality of life. A concern for the fate of the human soul is universal in human societies today, and it was evidently a theme of Neanderthal society too. RICHARD E. LEAKEY, The Making of Mankind Neanderthals were also resourceful. They survived harsh Ice Age winters by living in caves or temporary shelters made Time Line of Planet Earth Imagine the 102 stories of the Empire State Building as a scale for a time line of the earth’s history. Each story represents about 40 million years. Modern human beings have existed for just a tiny percentage of the life of this planet. Present 1 billion years ago 40,000 years ago Cro-Magnons appear. 200,000 years ago Neanderthals appear. 4 million years ago Australopithecines appear. 2 billion years ago 3 billion years ago 65 million years ago Dinosaurs disappear; first mammals appear. 240 million years ago First dinosaurs appear. 3.5 billion years ago First single-cell life appears. 4 billion years ago 4.4 billion years ago Earth is formed. The Peopling of the World 9
    • of wood and animal skins. Animal bones found with Neanderthal fossils indicate the ability of Neanderthals to hunt in subarctic regions of Europe. To cut up and skin their prey, they fashioned stone blades, scrapers, and other tools. The Neanderthals survived for some 170,000 years and then mysteriously vanished about 30,000 years ago. Comparing How were Neanderthals similar to people today? Cro-Magnons Emerge About 40,000 years ago, a group of prehistoric humans called Cro-Magnons appeared. Their skeletal remains show that they are identical to modern humans. The remains also indicate that they were probably strong and generally about five-and-one-half feet tall. Cro-Magnons migrated from North Africa to Europe and Asia. Cro-Magnons made many new tools with specialized uses. Unlike Neanderthals, they planned their hunts. They studied animals’ habits and stalked their prey. Evidently, Cro-Magnons’ superior hunting strategies allowed them to survive more easily. This may have caused Cro-Magnon populations to grow at a slightly faster rate and eventually replace the Neanderthals. Cro-Magnons’ advanced skill in spoken language may also have helped them to plan more difficult projects. This cooperation perhaps gave them an edge over the Neanderthals. ARCTIC OCEAN Early Human Migration, 1,600,000–10,000 B.C. Arctic Circle Heidelberg, Germany 600,000 years ago Mladec, Czech Rep. 33,000 years ago EUROPE Ubeidiya, Israel 1 million years ago Tighenif, Algeria 700,0000 years ago Malta, Russia 15,000 years ago Diuktai Cave, Russia 14,000 years ago NORTH AMERICA ASIA Lantian, China 700,000 years ago Qafzeh, Israel 92,000 years ago Blackwater Draw, U.S. 11,000 years ago PAC I F I C O C E A N Liujiang, China 67,000 years ago Meadowcroft Rockshelter, U.S. 12,000 years ago Tropic of Cancer ATLANTIC OCEAN Homo erectus fossil site Tabon Cave, Philippines 30,000 years ago Lake Turkana, Kenya 1.6 million years ago Homo sapiens fossil site Trinil, Indonesia 700,000 years ago Homo sapiens migration route Extent of the last glacier, 18,000 B.C. 0 0 Famous Finds CHAD 80°E 2,000 Miles Pedra Furada, Brazil 12,000 – 30,000 years ago Extent of land areas 18,000 B.C. Tropic of Capricorn 160°E AUSTRALIA Lake Mungo, Australia 38,000 years ago 120°W I N D I A N O C EA N Klasies River Mouth, South Africa 100,000 years ago 0° Homo erectus migration route 160°W Area o fH uma n Or igin s AFRICA 0° 40°N SOUTH AMERICA Monte Verde, Chile 12,000–33,000 years ago 40°S 4,000 Kilometers 1960 At Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, Louis Leakey finds 2-million-year-old stone tools. 1974 In Ethiopia, Donald Johanson finds “Lucy,” a 3.5-million-year-old hominid skeleton. 1978 At Laetoli, Tanzania, Mary Leakey finds 3.6-million-year-old hominid footprints. ETHIOPIA 1994 In Ethiopia, an international team of scientists finds 2.33-million-year-old hominid jaw. 2002 In Chad, scientists announce discovery of a possible 6-million-year-old hominid skull. GEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDER: Interpreting Maps TANZANIA 10 Chapter 1 1. Movement To what continents did Homo erectus groups migrate after leaving Africa? 2. Human-Environment Interaction What do the migration routes of Homo sapiens reveal about their survival skills and ability to adapt?
    • New Findings Add to Knowledge Scientists are continuing to work at numerous sites in Africa. Their discoveries change our views of the still sketchy picture of human origins in Africa and of the migration of early humans out of Africa. Fossils, Tools, and Cave Paintings Newly discovered fossils in Chad and Kenya, dating between 6 and 7 million years old, have some apelike features but also some that resemble hominids. Study of these fossils continues, but evidence suggests that they may be the earliest hominids. A 2.33-millionyear-old jaw from Ethiopia is the oldest fossil belonging to the line leading to humans. Stone tools found at the same site suggest that toolmaking may have begun earlier than previously thought. New discoveries also add to what we already know about prehistoric peoples. For example, in 1996, a team of researchers from Canada and the United States, including a high school student from New York, discovered a Neanderthal bone flute 43,000 to 82,000 years old. This discovery hints at a previously unknown talent of the Neanderthals—the gift of musical expression. The finding on cave walls of drawings of animals and people dating back as early as 35,000 years ago gives information on the daily activities and perhaps even religious practices of these peoples. Early humans’ skills and tools for surviving and adapting to the environment became more sophisticated as time passed. As you will read in Section 2, these technological advances would help launch a revolution in the way people lived. SECTION 1 Chad Discovery In 2002, an international team of scientists announced the discovery of a 6to 7-million-yearold skull in northern Chad. The skull is similar in size to a modern chimpanzee, with a similar brain capacity. (See photograph.) The team reported that the skull, nicknamed Toumai, or “hope of life,” was the earliest human ancestor so far discovered. Its date is, in fact, millions of years older than the previous oldest-known hominin. The skull dates from the time that scientists believe the ancestors of humans split from the great apes. Whether the skull is actually human or ape will require further study. INTERNET ACTIVITY Create a TV news special on the Chad skull. Include conflicting theories on its origin. Go to classzone.com for your research. ASSESSMENT TERMS & NAMES 1. For each term or name, write a sentence explaining its significance. • artifact • culture • hominid • Paleolithic Age • Neolithic Age • technology • Homo sapiens USING YOUR NOTES MAIN IDEAS CRITICAL THINKING & WRITING 2. Which advance by a hominid 3. What clues do bones and 6. RECOGNIZING EFFECTS Why was the discovery of fire so group do you think was the most significant? Explain. artifacts give about early peoples? 7. MAKING INFERENCES Why will specific details about the 4. What were the major achievements in human history during the Old Stone Age? Hominid Group Cro-Magnons 5. How did Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons differ from earlier peoples? important? physical appearance and the customs of early peoples never be fully known? 8. SYNTHESIZING How do recent findings keep revising knowledge of the prehistoric past? 9. WRITING ACTIVITY INTERACTION WITH ENVIRONMENT Write a persuasive essay explaining which skill— toolmaking, the use of fire, or language—you think gave hominids the most control over their environment. CONNECT TO TODAY CREATING AN ILLUSTRATED NEWS ARTICLE Research a recent archaeological discovery. Write a two-paragraph news article about the find and include an illustration. The Peopling of the World 11
    • Cave Paintings Cave paintings created by primitive people are found on every continent. The oldest ones were made about 35,000 years ago. Cave paintings in Europe and Africa often show images of hunting and daily activities. In the Americas and Australia, on the other hand, the paintings tend to be more symbolic and less realistic. Scholars are not sure about the purpose of cave paintings. They may have been part of magical rites, hunting rituals, or an attempt to mark the events during various seasons. Another theory is that cave paintings (especially the more realistic ones) may simply be depictions of the surrounding world. RESEARCH LINKS For more on cave paintings, go to classzone.com ▼ Cave Paintings at Cuevas de las Manos in Argentina Cuevas de las Manos (Cave of the Hands) is located in the Rio Pinturas ravine, northeast of Santa Cruz, Argentina. Its rock walls display numerous hand paintings in vivid colors. The Tehuelches (tuh•WEHL•cheez) people created the paintings between 13,000 and 9,500 years ago. The cave is about 78 feet deep and, at the entrance, about 48 feet wide and 32 feet high. 12 ▼ Cave Paintings at Tassili n’Ajer, Algeria These paintings depict women, children, and cattle. Located in Algeria, the Tassili n’Ajer (tah•SEEL•ee nah• ZHEER) site contains more than 15,000 images. They depict shifts in climate, animal migrations, and changes in human life. The oldest paintings date back to about 6000 B.C. Images continued to be painted until around the second century A.D.
    • ▲ Replica of Lascaux Cave Painting, France Discovered in 1940 , the Lascaux (lah•SKOH) cave contains more than 600 painted animals and symbols. These works were probably created between 15,000 and 13,000 B.C. In 1963, the cave was closed to the public. The high volume of visitors and the use of artificial lighting were damaging the paintings. A partial replica of the cave was created and is visited by about 300,000 people a year. 1. Analyzing Motives Why do you ▲ Australian Aboriginal Cave Painting This Aboriginal cave painting is in Kakadu (KAH•kuh•doo) National Park, Australia. Aboriginal people have lived in this area for at least 25,000 years. The painting depicts a Barramundi (bahr•uh•MUHN•dee) fish and a Dreamtime spirit. In the Aboriginal culture, Dreamtime is a supernatural past in which ancestral beings shaped and humanized the natural world. think primitive peoples used the walls of caves for their paintings? See Skillbuilder Handbook, page R15. 2. Comparing and Contrasting How are these paintings similar to or different from public murals created today? 13
    • 2 Humans Try to Control Nature MAIN IDEA ECONOMICS The development of agriculture caused an increase in population and the growth of a settled way of life. WHY IT MATTERS NOW New methods for obtaining food and the development of technology laid the foundations for modern civilizations. TERMS & NAMES • nomad • huntergatherer • Neolithic Revolution • slash-andburn farming • domestication SETTING THE STAGE By about 40,000 years ago, human beings had become fully modern in their physical appearance. With a shave, a haircut, and a suit, a Cro-Magnon man would have looked like a modern business executive. However, over the following thousands of years, the way of life of early humans underwent incredible changes. People developed new technology, artistic skills, and most importantly, agriculture. TAKING NOTES Outlining Use an outline to organize main ideas and details. Humans Try to Control Nature I. Early Advances in Technology and Art A. B. II. The Beginnings of g Agriculture Early Advances in Technology and Art Early modern humans quickly distinguished themselves from their ancestors, who had spent most of their time just surviving. As inventors and artists, more advanced humans stepped up the pace of cultural changes. Tools Needed to Survive For tens of thousands of years, men and women of the Old Stone Age were nomads. Nomads were highly mobile people who moved from place to place foraging, or searching, for new sources of food. Nomadic groups whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods are called hunter-gatherers. Prehistoric hunter-gatherers, such as roving bands of Cro-Magnons, increased their food supply by inventing tools. For example, hunters crafted special spears that enabled them to kill game at greater distances. Digging sticks helped food gatherers pry plants loose at the roots. Early modern humans had launched a technological revolution. They used stone, bone, and wood to fashion more than 100 different tools. These expanded tool kits included knives to kill and butcher game, and fish hooks and harpoons to catch fish. A chisel-like cutter was designed to make other tools. CroMagnons used bone needles to sew clothing made of animal hides. Artistic Expression in the Paleolithic Age The tools of early modern humans explain how they met their survival needs. Yet their world best springs to life through their artistic creations. Necklaces of seashells, lion teeth, and bear claws adorned both men and women. People ground mammoth tusks into polished beads. They also carved small realistic sculptures of animals that inhabited their world. As you read in the Cave Paintings feature, Stone Age peoples on all continents created cave paintings. The best-known of these are the paintings on the walls and ceilings of European caves, mainly in France and Spain. Here early artists drew lifelike images of wild animals. Cave artists made colored paints from 14 Chapter 1
    • charcoal, mud, and animal blood. In Africa, early artists engraved pictures on rocks or painted scenes in caves or rock shelters. In Australia, they created paintings on large rocks. The Beginnings of Agriculture Vocabulary Edible means “safe to be eaten.” For thousands upon thousands of years, humans survived by hunting game and gathering edible plants. They lived in bands of 25 to 70 people. The men almost certainly did the hunting. The women gathered fruits, berries, roots, and grasses. Then about 10,000 years ago, some of the women may have scattered seeds near a regular campsite. When they returned the next season, they may have found new crops growing. This discovery would usher in the Neolithic Revolution, or the agricultural revolution—the far-reaching changes in human life resulting from the beginnings of farming. The shift from food-gathering to food-producing culture represents one of the great breakthroughs in history. Causes of the Agricultural Revolution Scientists do not know exactly why the agricultural revolution occurred during this period. Change in climate was probably a key reason. (See chart on page 17.) Rising temperatures worldwide provided longer growing seasons and drier land for cultivating wild grasses. A rich supply of grain helped support a small population boom. As populations slowly rose, hunter-gatherers felt pressure to find new food sources. Farming offered an attractive alternative. Unlike hunting, it provided a steady source of food. Early Farming Methods Some groups practiced slash-and-burn farming, in which they cut trees or grasses and burned them to clear a field. The ashes that remained fertilized the soil. Farmers planted crops for a year or two, then moved to another area of land. After several years, trees and grass grew back, and other farmers repeated the process of slashing and burning. The Neolithic Ice Man In 1991, two German hikers made an accidental discovery that gave archaeologists a firsthand look at the technology of early toolmakers. Near the border of Austria and Italy, they spotted the mummified body of a prehistoric traveler, preserved in ice for some 5,000 years (upper right). Nicknamed the “Ice Man,” this early human was not empty-handed. The tool kit found near him included a six-foot longbow and a deerskin case with 14 arrows. It also contained a stick with an antler tip for sharpening flint blades, a small flint dagger in a woven sheath, a copper ax, and a medicine bag. Scientific research on the body (lower right) concluded that the Ice Man was in his 40s when he died in the late spring or early summer from an arrow wound. Scientists also determined that in the hours before his death, he ate wild goat, red deer, and grains. The Ice Man is housed in a special museum in Bolzano, Italy. The Peopling of the World 15
    • Domestication of Animals Food gatherers’ understanding of plants probably spurred the development of farming. Meanwhile, hunters’ expert knowledge of wild animals likely played a key role in the domestication, or taming, of animals. They tamed horses, dogs, goats, and pigs. Like farming, domestication of animals came slowly. Stone Age hunters may have driven herds of animals into rocky ravines to be slaughtered. It was then a small step to drive herds into human-made enclosures. From there, farmers could keep the animals as a constant source of food and gradually tame them. Not only farmers domesticated animals. Pastoral nomads, or wandering herders, tended sheep, goats, camels, or other animals. These herders moved their animals to new pastures and watering places. Agriculture in Jarmo Today, the eroded and barren rolling foothills of the Zagros Mountains in northeastern Iraq seem an unlikely site for the birthplace of agriculture. According to archaeologist Robert Braidwood, thousands of years ago the environmental conditions of this region favored the development of agriculture. Wild wheat and barley, along with wild goats, pigs, sheep, and horses, had once thrived near the Zagros Mountains. In the 1950s, Braidwood led an archaeological dig at a site called Jarmo. He concluded that an agricultural settlement was built there about 9,000 years ago: PRIMARY SOURCE We found weights for digging sticks, hoe-like [tools], flint-sickle blades, and a wide variety of milling stones. . . . We also discovered several pits that were probably used for the storage of grain. Perhaps the most important evidence of all was animal bones and the impressions left in the mud by cereal grains. . . . The people of Jarmo were adjusting themselves to a completely new way of life, just as we are adjusting ourselves to the consequences of such things as the steam engine. What they learned about living in a revolution may be of more than academic interest to us in our troubled times. Analyzing Primary Sources Why do you think Braidwood believes that we can learn from early peoples? ROBERT BRAIDWOOD, quoted in Scientific American The Jarmo farmers, and others like them in places as far apart as Mexico and Thailand, pioneered a new way of life. Villages such as Jarmo marked the beginning of a new era and laid the foundation for modern life. Villages Grow and Prosper The changeover from hunting and gathering to farming and herding took place not once but many times. Neolithic people in many parts of the world independently developed agriculture, as the map at the right shows. Farming Develops in Many Places Within a few thousand years, people in many other regions, especially in fertile river valleys, turned to farming. • Africa The Nile River Valley developed into an important agricultural center for growing wheat, barley, and other crops. • China About 8,000 years ago, farmers along the middle stretches of the Huang He (Yellow River) cultivated a grain called millet. About 1,000 years later, farmers first domesticated wild rice in the Chang Jiang River delta. • Mexico and Central America Farmers cultivated corn, beans, and squash. • Peru Farmers in the Central Andes were the first to grow tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and white potatoes. From these early and varied centers of agriculture, farming then spread to surrounding regions. 16 Chapter 1 Making Inferences What advantages might farming and herding have over hunting and gathering?
    • A S I A 1,000 Miles 0 120°E 80°E Agriculture Emerges, 5000–500 B.C. E U R OPE 2,000 Kilometers AN MAK KL I TA ESER T D Eu Jarmo Tig r ate sR Jericho . R. ) p hr e H g an Hu e (Y w 40°N llo 0 80°W NORTH AMERICA us R. CHINA I nd . SONORAN DESERT E ABI SE A RT N D A F R I C A R A R . R is N ile SAHARA Pan-po INDIA INDIAN OCEAN ATLANTIC OCEAN Major crops Tropic of Cancer D MIB NA Tehuacan Valley Bananas 0° Equator Potato Cotton KALAHARI DESERT Olives Corn RT ESE P A C IF IC OCEAN Barley Wheat Sorghum Grapes Rice Soybeans Agriculture by 5,000 B.C. Agriculture by 3,000 B.C. Agriculture by 2,000 B.C. Agriculture by 500 B.C. ▲ A Neolithic grindstone and vessel used to grind grain Agricultural Revolution Temperature Population 60° 58° 56° 54° beginnings of agriculture 52° last ice age 50° 25 20 15 10 5 1 Years Ago (in thousands) Source: Ice Ages, Solving the Mystery World Population (in millions) 2,000 Kilometers Tropic of Capricorn Average Global Temperature (in Fahrenheit) 0 1,000 Miles A T A CA 0 MA DESERT SOUTH AMERICA 150 PostAgricultural Revolution 125 100 Agricultural Revolution 75 50 Huntinggathering stage 25 0 25 20 15 10 5 1 Years Ago (in thousands) Source: A Geography of Population: World Patterns SKILLBUILDER: Interpreting Maps and Charts 1. Map What geographic feature favored the development of agricultural areas before 5000 B.C.? 2. Chart What effect did the agricultural revolution have on population growth? Why? The Peopling of the World 17
    • Catal Huyuk In 1958, archaeologists discovered the agricultural village now ▼ A 9,000-year-old baked-clay figurine found in Catal Huyuk SECTION 2 known as Catal Huyuk (chuh•TUL hoo•YOOK), or the “forked mound.” It was located on a fertile plain in south-central Turkey (about 30 miles from modern-day Konya), near a twin-coned volcano. Catal Huyuk covered an area of about 32 acres. At its peak 8,000 years ago, the village was home to 5,000 to 6,000 people who lived in about 1,000 dwellings. These rectangular-shaped houses were made of brick and were arranged side-by-side like a honeycomb. Catal Huyuk showed the benefits of settled life. Its rich, well-watered soil produced large crops of wheat, barley, and peas. Villagers also raised sheep and cattle. Catal Huyuk’s agricultural surpluses supported a number of highly skilled workers, such as potters and weavers. But the village was best known at the time for its obsidian products. This dark volcanic rock, which looks like glass, was plentiful. It was used to make mirrors, jewelry, and knives for trade. Catal Huyuk’s prosperity also supported a varied cultural life. Archaeologists have uncovered colorful wall paintings depicting animals and hunting scenes. Many religious shrines were dedicated to a mother goddess. According to her worshipers, she controlled the supply of grain. The new settled way of life also had its drawbacks—some of the same that affected hunter-gatherer settlements. Floods, fire, drought, and other natural disasters could destroy a village. Diseases, such as malaria, spread easily among people living closely together. Jealous neighbors and roving nomadic bands might attack and loot a wealthy village like Catal Huyuk. Despite problems, these permanent settlements provided their residents with opportunities for fulfillment—in work, in art, and in leisure time. As you will learn in Section 3, some early villages expanded into cities. These urban centers would become the setting for more complex cultures in which new tools, art, and crafts were created. Vocabulary Shrines are places where sacred relics are kept. ASSESSMENT TERMS & NAMES 1. For each term or name, write a sentence explaining its significance. • nomad • hunter-gatherer • Neolithic Revolution • slash-and-burn farming • domestication USING YOUR NOTES MAIN IDEAS CRITICAL THINKING & WRITING 2. Which effect of the 3. How did Cro-Magnon’s new 6. MAKING INFERENCES What kinds of problems did Stone development of agriculture was the most significant? Humans Try to Control Nature I. Early Advances in Technology and Art A. B. II. The Beginnings of g Agriculture tools make survival easier? 4. What factors played a role in the origins of agriculture? Age peoples face? 7. SUMMARIZING In what ways did Neolithic peoples dramatically improve their lives? 5. What were the first crops 8. HYPOTHESIZING Why do you think the development of grown in the Americas? agriculture occurred around the same time in several different places? 9. WRITING ACTIVITY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Write a two- paragraph opinion paper on the most significant consequences of the Agricultural Revolution. CONNECT TO TODAY CREATING A CHART Use text information on Jarmo and Catal Huyuk to make a chart listing the tools, weapons, and other artifacts that archaeologists today might find at an ancient site of a farming settlement. 18 Chapter 1
    • 3 Civilization CASE STUDY: Ur in Sumer MAIN IDEA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Prosperous farming villages, food surpluses, and new technology led to the rise of civilizations. WHY IT MATTERS NOW Contemporary civilizations share the same characteristics typical of ancient civilizations. TERMS & NAMES • • • • • civilization specialization artisan institution scribe • • • • cuneiform Bronze Age barter ziggurat SETTING THE STAGE Agriculture marked a dramatic change in how people lived together. They began dwelling in larger, more organized communities, such as farming villages and towns. From some of these settlements, cities gradually emerged, forming the backdrop of a more complex way of life—civilization. Villages Grow into Cities Over the centuries, people settled in stable communities that were based on agriculture. Domesticated animals became more common. The invention of new tools—hoes, sickles, and plow sticks—made the task of farming easier. As people gradually developed the technology to control their natural environment, they reaped larger harvests. Settlements with a plentiful supply of food could support larger populations. As the population of some early farming villages increased, social relationships became more complicated. The change from a nomadic hunting-gathering way of life to settled village life took a long time. Likewise, the change from village life to city life was a gradual process that spanned several generations. TAKING NOTES Summarizing Use a chart to summarize characteristics of the civilization at Sumer. Characteristics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Economic Changes To cultivate more land and to produce extra crops, ancient people in larger villages built elaborate irrigation systems. The resulting food surpluses freed some villagers to pursue other jobs and to develop skills besides farming. Individuals who learned to become craftspeople created valuable new products, such as pottery, metal objects, and woven cloth. In turn, people who became traders profited from a broader range of goods to exchange—craftwork, grains, and many raw materials. Two important inventions—the wheel and the sail—also enabled traders to move more goods over longer distances. Social Changes A more complex and prosperous economy affected the social structure of village life. For example, building and operating large irrigation systems required the labor of many people. As other special groups of workers formed, social classes with varying wealth, power, and influence began to emerge. A system of social classes would become more clearly defined as cities grew. Religion also became more organized. During the Old Stone Age, prehistoric people’s religious beliefs centered around nature, animal spirits, and some idea of an afterlife. During the New Stone Age, farming peoples worshiped the many gods and goddesses who they believed had power over the rain, wind, and other forces of CASE STUDY 19
    • nature. Early city dwellers developed rituals founded on these earlier religious beliefs. As populations grew, common spiritual values became lasting religious traditions. How Civilization Develops Most historians believe that one of the first civilizations arose in Sumer. Sumer was located in Mesopotamia, a region that is part of modern Iraq. A civilization is often defined as a complex culture with five characteristics: (1) advanced cities, (2) specialized workers, (3) complex institutions, (4) record keeping, and (5) advanced technology. Just what set the Sumerians apart from their neighbors? Advanced Cities Cities were the birthplaces of the first civilizations. A city is more than a large group of people living together. The size of the population alone does not distinguish a village from a city. One of the key differences is that a city is a center of trade for a larger area. Like their modern-day counterparts, ancient city dwellers depended on trade. Farmers, merchants, and traders brought goods to market in the cities. The city dwellers themselves produced a variety of goods for exchange. Specialized Workers As cities grew, so did the need for more specialized work- ers, such as traders, government officials, and priests. Food surpluses provided the opportunity for specialization—the development of skills in a specific kind of work. An abundant food supply allowed some people to become expert at jobs besides farming. Some city dwellers became artisans—skilled workers who make goods by hand. Specialization helped artisans develop their skill at designing jewelry, fashioning metal tools and weapons, or making clothing and pottery. The wide range of crafts artisans produced helped cities become centers of trade. The Incan System of Record Keeping Early civilizations other than Sumer also developed record keeping. The empire of the ancient Incan civilization stretched along the western coast of South America. Though the Inca had no writing system, they kept records using a quipu, a set of colored strings tied with different-size knots at various intervals (see photograph). Each knot represented a certain amount or its multiple. The colors of each cord represented the item being counted: people, animals, land, and so on. The quipucamayoc, officials who knew how to use the quipu, kept records of births, deaths, marriages, crops, and historical events. 20 Chapter 1 Complex Institutions The soaring populations of early cities made government, or a system of ruling, necessary. In civilizations, leaders emerged to maintain order among people and to establish laws. Government is an example of an institution—a long-lasting pattern of organization in a community. Complex institutions, such as government, religion, and the economy, are another characteristic of civilization. With the growth of cities, religion became a formal institution. Most cities had great temples where dozens of priests took charge of religious duties. Sumerians believed that every city belonged to a god who governed the city’s activities. The temple was the hub of both government and religious affairs. It also served as the city’s economic center. There food and trade items were distributed. Record Keeping As government, religion, and the economy became more complex, people recognized the need to keep records. In early civilizations, government officials had to document tax collections, the passage of laws, and the storage of grain. Priests needed a way to keep track of the calendar and important rituals. Merchants had to record accounts of debts and payments. Most civilizations developed a system of writing, though some devised other methods of record keeping. Around 3000 B.C., Sumerian scribes—or professional record keepers—invented a system of writing called cuneiform (KYOO•nee•uh•FAWRM), meaning “wedge-shaped.” (Earlier Sumerian writing consisted of pictographs—symbols of the Drawing Conclusions Why were cities essential to the growth of civilizations?
    • objects or what they represented.) The scribe’s tool, called a stylus, was a sharpened reed with a wedge-shaped point. It was pressed into moist clay to create symbols. Scribes baked their clay tablets in the sun to preserve the writing. People soon began to use writing for other purposes besides record keeping. They also wrote about their cities’ dramatic events—wars, natural disasters, the reign of kings. Thus, the beginning of civilization in Sumer also signaled the beginning of written history. Improved Technology New tools and techniques are always needed to solve problems that emerge when large groups of people live together. In early civilizations, some farmers harnessed the powers of animals and nature. For example, they used ox-drawn plows to turn the soil. They also created irrigation systems to expand planting areas. Sumerian artisans relied on new technology to make their tasks easier. Around 3500 B.C., they first used the potter’s wheel to shape jugs, plates, and bowls. Sumerian metalworkers discovered that melting together certain amounts of copper and tin made bronze. After 2500 B.C., metalworkers in Sumer’s cities turned out bronze spearheads by the thousands. The period called the Bronze Age refers to the time when people began using bronze, rather than copper and stone, to fashion tools and weapons. The Bronze Age started in Sumer around 3000 B.C., but the date varied in other parts of Asia and in Europe. Specialized Workers Civilization As the history of Sumer demonstrates, civilization first developed in cities. In fact, the very word civilization comes from the Latin word for citizen. However, the development of cities is only one aspect of civilization. Many scholars define civilization as a complex culture with five characteristics. The graphic organizer to the right shows how Sumer displayed these five characteristics. SKILLBUILDER: Interpreting Graphics 1. Making Inferences Judging from the information on this graphic, what economic activities probably took place in Sumerian cities? 2. Drawing Conclusions What is the relationship between the development of specialized workers and the development of complex institutions? ▲ The wedgeshaped symbols of cuneiform are visible on this clay tablet. • merchants • soldiers • priests • potters • scribes • teachers • metalworkers • government officials • farmers • weavers Complex Institutions • Formal governments with officials and laws • Priests with both religious and political power • A rigorous education system for training of scribes Record Keeping CHARACTERISTICS OF CIVILIZATION in Sumer Advanced Cities • Uruk—population of about 50,000, which doubled in two centuries • Lagash—population of about 10,000 to 50,000 • Umma—population of about 10,000 to 50,000 • Cuneiform tablets— records of business transactions, historical events, customs, and traditions Advanced Technology By around 3000 B.C.: • The wheel, the plow, and the sailboat probably in daily use • Bronze weapons and body armor that gave Sumerians a military advantage over their enemies CASE STUDY 21
    • CASE STUDY: UR IN SUMER Civilization Emerges in Ur Ur, one of the earliest cities in Sumer, stood on the banks of the Euphrates River in what is now southern Iraq. Some 30,000 people once lived in this ancient city. Ur was the site of a highly sophisticated civilization. After excavating from 1922 to 1934, English archaeologist Leonard Woolley and his team unraveled the mystery of this long-lost civilization. From archaeological evidence, Woolley concluded that around 3000 B.C., Ur was a flourishing urban civilization. People in Ur lived in well-defined social classes. Rulers, as well as priests and priestesses, wielded great power. Wealthy merchants profited from foreign trade. Artists and artisans created lavish jewelry, musical instruments, and gold dagge